|Publication number||US2263070 A|
|Publication date||Nov 18, 1941|
|Filing date||Nov 21, 1938|
|Priority date||Nov 21, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2263070 A, US 2263070A, US-A-2263070, US2263070 A, US2263070A|
|Inventors||Cusick Edward F|
|Original Assignee||Cusick Edward F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (21), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
"k 106l COMPQSUONS, 'Y GROSS RIL'IZRLNUI; Examm COATING OR PLAST\C Nov. 1s, 1941. E. F. CUSICK 2,263,070
METHOD OF PEPARING WALLS OF HOUSES FOR HEAT INSULATION Filed Nov. 21, 1938 A 2 Sheets-Sheet l 7191/. E 'a al 2 .l :Nm '93 xn l 'l 'l I" y f? A Si:
f4 Si v ff l 14 Edafarb j? [,lgz'
CROSS REFERENCE Examiner Nov. 18, 1941.' E, F CU5|CK 2,263,070
METHOD oF PREPARING WALLS 0F HoUsEs Fon HEAT INSULATION Filed Nov. 2l, 1938 2 ySheeLs--Sheet 2 l106. coMPosnloNs,
COMING on PLAsTm 8 2 Patented Nov. 18, 1941 PATENT OFFICE METHOD lOF PREPABIN G WALLS OF HOUSES vFOB HEAT INSULATION Edward F. Cusick, Chicago, Ill. Application November 21, 1938, Serial No.' 241,502
The main object of the present invention is to provide a very simple and eflcient method of effecting heat insulation of the outer walls of buildings by the use of mineral wool, or the like, in such a manner as to overcome serious objections to the use of said insulating material.
The customary method of effecting such insulation has been to cut holes through the exterior portions of the walls at the upper ends of the spaces within the walls lying between the studs and bordered by the exterior portions and the inner lath-plaster walls, and then lling said spaces with the mineral wool, or other preferably non-inammable material, which, in some instances, is substantially baled to form somewhat compact blocks thereof of dimensions to t the said spaces. Said blocks or bales are dropped successively into said spaces until the latter are filled.
Loose material of this nature is blown into the hollows of the wall or is otherwise introduced.
'Ihe lath-plaster walls of these hollows are extremely porous, so that humid air passes there- .through easily from the interior of the house and on through the porous mass of insulatingr` material to the cold inner surface of the outer wall. The' moisture condenses on the last-men- .tioned surface and in freezing weather forms an ice or boar-frost coat thereon which grows in 'thickness during a prolonged cold spell.
In warm weather this ice-coat thaws and seriously affects the outer wall portions of the hollows. 'I'he said outer wall portions of buildings -are variously constructed. 1n the case of frame, brick-veneer or stucco walls, the innermost portions are of wood sheath on the outer face withy tarred paper over which clap-boards, shingles, .brick veneer or stucco are applied.
This innermost wood portion is most seriously Vaffected by the moisture which soaks into it and can evaporate only very slowly because of the .sluggish circulation of air through the insulating :ller on one side and due to the sealing effect of the tar paper sheathing and outer wall on the other side, the wood being thus rotted vin the course of a few years.
1f the moisture penetrates to the brick veneer .v or stucco. the effect is bad, though not as serious as with respect to wood sheathing and .the por- -tions of the studs or furring strips to which the sheathing is directly opposed and nailed. The rusting out of the nails -which secure the wood :sheathing in place also results from the moisture.
The foregoing results of penetration of moisture into mineral-wool nlled hollows are so se- (CL2 ,In
ri that architects generally refuse to specify or even permit the use of this type of insulating material, of which mineral wool is exemplary, to ll the wall-hollows aforesaid, and this has 5 been so detrimental to the mineral wool industry generally, including contractors who make it `their sole business to effect insulation of the walls of old houses, that the industry is threatened with collapse.
The danger resulting from a steady decrease in the business o f insulating the walls of buildings has been so alarming that many thousands of dollars have been expended by the manufacturers in seeking a satisfactory solution of their problem and that of the contractors aforesaid upon whom they are dependent for orders. No
solution heretofore proposed hasproven satisfactory or practical for various reasons. 1 Insulation of walls by lling the hollows of same with mineral wool or other material possessing similar characteristics, is very cheap in tcomparison with other insulating means, methods land materials, and to remedy the aforesaid ob- .jections at great cost will not solve the problems 5 'of the industry, nor will any means which mai1 vaffect the appearance of the exterior surfaces of the walls, such as so-called breathing holes in same, be tolerated. 'I'he dire necessity of nding a satisfactory low sncost solution of the problem presented has faced the industry for years and numerous solutions thereof have been proposed and discarded.
The present invention affords the cheapest and most practical solution of said problem that has .yet been proposed so far as I am infomed, and iis hereinafter described in connection with the accompanying drawings. p Y .In said drawings: 1 is a fragmentary detail vertical sectional view of the outer wall of a dwelling, such as a frame house, showing a device employed which ,projects into the hollow space between the outer jwall or sheathing and the inner plastered wall.
2 is ajragmentary plan sectional view taken on-the line 2-2 of Fig. 1. y
.3 is a more or less diagrammatic perspec- A.tive view of a liquid spraying device constituting part ofthe means shown in Figs. -1 and 2. ,-5 Fig.4isaview similartoFig.'1 showing an- -other device projected into the hollow spaces of the wallf for cleansing the walls preparatory to Athe use of the device shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. Fig. 5 is a view in front elevation of a cleansing device constructed in accordance with the in- -t5vention for nr-st .effecting cleansing of the sur- In i Examne face opposed to the outer wall or sheathing of the hollow space.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of the said cleansing device, taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. '7.
Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view of the cleansing device taken on the line 1--1 of Fig. 5.
'I'he method of this invention is founded on the proposition that if the lath-plaster walls of 4-tomary to cut holes into the outer wall, as by removing a few bricks of the masonry, or removing a clapboard and sawing out a part of the sheathing at the upper end of the hollow 3 in order to give access to the 'hose commonly used for 'blow- 'ing loose material, such as mineral wool and the like, into the hollows to completely fill the latter.
After lling the hollow spaces, the aforesaid openings are closed, and as above set forth, in cold weather atmospheric moisture finds its way into these hollow spaces through the lath-plaster walls thereof and permeates the insulating material therein; this being particularly true in the `case of air-conditioned dwellings and other hollows is exceedingly sluggish and therefore condenses on the cold surfaces and is deposited thereon as hear-frost or ice in cold weather. This occurs mainly on the wood sheathing because the latter presents the first cold surface of contact wtth the humid air.
The present invention overcomes the diiculties presented, as above described, in a very simple and eflicient manner and consists mainly the hollows to be filled with the insulating ma.- 1 in rst rendering the lath and plaster surface of terial are sealed against the passage of humid the hollows to be lled with the insulating mateair therethrough, the problem presented is solved, rial, substantially moisture-proof by coating the provided that this can be accomplished at a same with a suitable moisture-proofing liquid sufficiently low cost. Obviously, to effect this by before introducing the insulating material. Howapplication of a suitable paint to the room surever, before the said moisture proofing liquid can faces of the walls would be very costly in most, be effectively applied to the surface last-menif not all, instances, and would meet with nutioned, the latter must be freed of dust which merous objections from the standpoint of interior accumulates upon the same in the course of time, decorations. especially in the case of frame houses.
To accomplish the purpose desired therefore 2o The invention, therefore, contemplates a requires resort to a seemingly diilicult expedient, method of effecting insulation of walls by first and that is to treat the surfaces of the latneffecting the removal of dust from surfaces to plaster walls opposed to the outer sheathing, be sprayed with a moisture-Proofing liquid and said surfaces being obviously quite inaccessible 'then applying Said moisture-proong liquid in for coating with a moisture-proof substance or Such a manner as to reduce to a minimum the compound. Because of this inaccessibility and Permeability of said lath-plaster Walls by atmosthe extreme roughness and irregularity of the pheI'iC airsurfaces to be coated, a much greater volume of In order to accomplish this result efciently, I coating compound is required than would be provide a device such as is shown more or less necessary to coat the room faces of said surfaces. dagrammaticelly in Figs- 5, 6 and 7, which 00m- 'Hence, the solution of the problem includes the IJIiSeS a hollow tubular member 5 which is necessity of providing a very efficient and also equipped with perforations 6 in the portion of very cheap moisture proofing compound and its its-wall which is to be opposed to the surface to projection upon the surfaces in a manner that be cleansed of accumulated dust. The said tuwill insure substantially uniform hermetic sealbillar member 5 preferably constitutes an inteing of said surfaces against the passage of air gral part of the nozzle portion 'l of a vacuum apthrough the plaster. paratus which is connected with a vacuum hose In the instance illustrated, the hollow space I 9 by means of a suitable coupling i0, the said shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 4, is exemplary of the hose 9 being connected at its other end with a hollow spaces found in the walls of frame houses lo 4Suitable Suction device, such as a fan or suction wherein the studs 2 are usually spaced apart Dump, (D015 ShOWn). Integral With the member fifteen inches from center to center, and consist 1 iSa duct H Connected at its upper end with a generally of what is known technically as two- 'hose I2, the latter being connected with a suitaby-fours" to whichV the outer sheathing of ble source of compressed air. The duct Il is also boards 3 and clapboards 4, or the like, are se- 45 integral with the tubular member 5 and supplies cured, there being usually a sheet of tar paper `compressed air to the latter. ldisposed between the sheathing 3 and the clap- The length of the tubular member 5 from end boards, or the like, constituting the outer flnish to end 'will be slightly less than the distance benr trim of the walls. In the case of brick walls, tween adjacent studs 2 or corresponding funlug the sheathing is disposed between the inner 'face 5o Strips and the greatest Width 0f the device of of the masonry and the opposed edges of the fur- Figs. 5 and '7 from front to rear will be such as ring-strips corresponding generally to the studs will enable it to be caused to travel within the 2, but which are ordinarily only two inches in Wall hollows aforesaid. The said device of Figs. width and space the inner plastered wa11 a cor- 5-'1 inclusive, is made preferably of a resilient 'responding distance from the outer masonry. In 55 rubber so that it may be introduced through a instances of stuccoed frame houses, or brick verelatively Vsmall opening in the outer wall of the neered buildings, the stucco 4or brick veneer hollow space to be filled. The perforations of takes the place of the clapboards or shingle trim. the member 5 are disposed singularly to the ver- In order to introduce the insulating -material tical plane of the surface to be cleansed to direct into the shallow spaces of the walls, it is cusjets of compressed air angularly, upwardly and downwardly, respectively, the upwardly directed jets being intended to penetrate the recesses under the key formations of the plaster.
' In operation, the said device of Figs. 5-7 in- 1 elusive, suspended from the lower end of the hoses 9 and I2, is dropped to the bottom of the hollow space and the meansfor supplying compressed air to the tubular member 5, and the fan or suction pump ico'nnected with the hose 9, are
then serl into operation, so that as the compressed air is projected against the lath and plaster surface to be cleansed, the dust-ladened air will be sucked into and through the nozzle 'I and hose 9 and thus removed from the hollow, buildings.` The air circulation within the *nlled `so that the dust may not be permitted to settle ga tions being by weight:
again upon the surfaces from which it has vbeen removed. Preferably the capacity of the suction hose 9 and the suction equipment connected therewith will be such as to remove dust-ladened lair more rapidly than it accumulates in said hollows. f
After so cleansing said surface, the said kdevice is withdrawn from the hollow and the nozzle I3 of a paint spraying device is dropped into the bottom of the hollow with the conventional discharge elements of the paint-spraying devices, (represented diagrammatically by the perforations I4 of the nozzle I3 opposed to the lath and plaster surface) and the spraying of liquid against the latter is then effected by gradually moving the nozzle I3 upwardly by pulling in the feed hose I5, thereby 4causing the entire lath and plaster surface aforesaid to be coated with a suitable moistureproofing liquid which may consist of paint, but which is preferably composed of a coagulable liquid wax compound or the like. The nozzles of the said spraying device are disposed similarly to the perforations of the member 5 to cause the liquid to be projected into recesses in the plaster keys.
An exemplary suitable compound which is very cheap and extremely eflicient comprises,
Wax emulsion 33 parts more or less by weight Sodilnn silicate solution--- 66 parts more or less by weight Aluminum powder 1 part more or less by weight Various waxes, rosins, resins or s may be used, because o their emilsibility, orm impermeable coatings on walls or surfaces subjected to water, vapor or moisture. The above materials may be used to form an emulsion, by combining with them the proper solvents and emulsifyg'ng agggts, under proper conditions of emperature and agitation. The consistency of the liquid is preferably similar to that of heavy paint, so that it will form seals along the mouths of the recesses underlying the plaster keys.
Sodium silicate, because of its properties as an adhesive, re and moisture resistant, is very desirable as a binder in the compound.
Metallic aluminum, because of its non-innammability, heat and moisture resistance, is used as a ller to prevent porosity. By filling the pores of materials such as found in a plastered wall, it prevents breathing or loss of warm air and impregnation by moisture.
The production -of a typical wax emulsion is accomplished substantially as follows, propor- Parts Waxes 6.8 Mineral spirits 30. Fatty acids 2.8 Saponifying agent 1. Water 59.4
To each pound, more or less, of the last-above compound, there is added substantially four pounds of sodium silicate solution and one per cent by weight, of aluminum powder or flake.
The introduction o e mineral wool or other insulating material into the hollows of the wall is effected, of course, in a customary manner after the aforesaid spraying operation has been completed.
It will be understood, of course,
vention, as embodied in the method above described is not limited to the use of any specic type of moisture-proofing solution, nor to the simultaneous use of the compressed air and vacuum to effect cleansing of the surfaces intended to be sprayed with the moisture proofing compound.
.I claim as my invention:
1. The hereindescribed method of moistureproofing a lath-plaster wall surface along the face thereof constituting a surface of a wall hollow, which consists in first cutting an opening into the hollow, then inserting into the said Ahollow through said opening a means for and therewith eiecting cleansing of the surface to be moisture-proofed and manipulating said means from the exterior of said hollow until said surface is cleansed, then removing said means and .thereafter inserting into said hollow a means for and therewith eectng the spraying of a moisture-proong substance upon said surface to be moisture-proofed and manipulating said last-named means from the exterior of the hollow until said surface is completely coated with the moisture-proofing material and then removing said last-named means, then filling said hollow with insulating material and then closing said opening.
2. The hereindescribed method in insulating the walls of a building which consists in first providing a temporary means of access to hollows in said walls, then introducing into said hollows through said means of access and operating from the exterior of said hollows means for removing dust and the like from wall surfaces of said hollows and simultaneously therewith effecting discharge of said dust and the like from said hollows, then similarly effecting the spraying of said cleansed surfaces with a moisture proong material, then filling the hollows with insulating material through said means of access, and then closing the latter.
3. The hereindescribed method of insulating the Vwalls of buildings which consists in rst preparing the hollows of said walls to receive insulating material, such as mineral wool, which consists in rst providing means of access to said hollows from the exterior of the building, then inserting through said means of access for manipulation within the hollows from the exterior thereof pneumatic means for and therewith freeing surfaces of the walls of the hollows of loose material and particles, such as dust, and pneumatically removing the latter from the hollows, thereafter and while said surfaces are free of said loose matter, withdrawing said pneumatic means from the hollow and inserting in place thereof a means manually manipulable and controllable from the exterior of the hollow for and therewith effecting the coating of said surfaces with a liquid coagulable coating for rendering said surfaces substantially impervious to the entrance of moisture into the hollows from the interior of the building, then withdrawing said last-named means from the hollows, then filling the latter with insulating material, such as mineral wool, and then closing said means of access to said hollows.
4. The hereindescribed method of insulating the walis of buildings which consists in first preparing the hollows of said walls to receive insulating material, such as mineral wool, which consists in rst providing means of access to said hollows from the exterior of the building, then that the in- 75 inserting through said means of access for manipulation within the hollows from the exterior thereof pneumatic means for freeing surfaces of the walls of the hollows of loose material and particles, such as dust, and therewith pneumatically removing the latter from the hollows, substantially simultaneously with the removal of said loose matter, thereafter and while said surfaces are free of said loose matter, withdrawing said pneumatic means from the hollow and inserting in place thereof a means manually manipulable and controllable from the exterior of the hollow for and therewith effecting the coating of said surfaces with a liquid coagulable coating for rendering said surfaces substantially impervious to the entrance of moisture into the hollows from the interior of the building, then withdrawing said last-named means from the hollows, then lling the latter with insulating material, such as mineral wool, and then closing said means of access to said hollows.
5. 'I'he hereindescribed method of insulating the walls of buildings, which includes a series of steps consisting in first providing means of access to hollows in said walls between studs thereof, thereafter inserting through said means of access for manipulation within said hollows from the exterior of said walls, equipment for and therewith by manipulation thereof, spraying selected surface portions of said hollows with a liquid coagulable moisture proong substance adapted to prevent intrusion of moisture into said hollows from the interior of the building, then removing said equipment from said hollows, then .lling the latter with insulating material, such as mineral wool, and then closing said means of access.
6. The hereindescribed method of insulating the walls of buildings, which includes a series of steps consisting in first providing openings for access to the upper ends of hollows in said walls `between studs thereof, providing iiexible hose connected at one end with sources of supply of liquid coagulable moisture proofing substance and a source of supply of compressed air, respectively, and at the other end with a conventional means utilizing said liquid and air for spraying y said liquid, thereafter inserting said means and part of the hose through said openings and manipulating the spraying means by means of said hose, from the exterior of the building to cause said spraying means to coat selected surfaces of the hollows to prevent intrusion of moisture into the same from the exterior of the building, then withdrawing the hose and spraying means from said hollows, then lling the latter with insulating material, such as mineral wool, and then closing said openings.
EDWARD F. CUSICK.
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|U.S. Classification||52/742.13, 106/623, 239/567, 52/515, 15/345, 239/548, 52/404.1, 106/622|
|International Classification||E04F21/02, E04F21/08, E04B1/76|
|Cooperative Classification||E04F21/085, E04B1/7604|
|European Classification||E04B1/76B, E04F21/08B|