US 2263992 A
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Nov. 25, 1941. T. N. JOYCE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AIRPLANES Filed March 16, 1939 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Z] ruin/Mom 7277/71? Jam? NOV. 25, 1941. N JOYCE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AIRPLANES Filed March 16, 1939 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Nov. 25, 1941. T. N. JOYCE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AIRPLANES 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 16,
Nov. 25, 1941. T. N. JOYCE 7 2,263,992
CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AIRPLANES Filed March is, 1939 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Nov. 25, 1941 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AIRPLANES Q Temple N. Joyce, Arnold, Md., assignor to Zap I Development Corporation, Baltimore, Md., a
corporation of Delaware Application March 16, 1939, Serial No. 262,264
(01. 244-90) The present invention relates to airplanes and 8 Claims.
more particularly to a control system for airplanes. This invention is generally similar to that disclosed in my co-pending application, Serial No. 220,359, flled July 20, 1938, but constitutes an improvement thereover.
It is of course well known that it is advisable to employ wings in which the ratio of maximum lift to minimum drag that can be obtained is relatively large. At the present time wing flaps are being used to increase that ratio of a wing by increasing the maximum lift obtainable without the necessity of increasingthe minimum drag any appreciable amount. Moreover, wings of variable camber and variable area are also resorted to in anvendeavor to securean increase in this ratio.
The constructions above set forth are not particularly desirable in view of the fact that they are' somewhat complex in structural detail and the cost of manufacture of such constructions is so high as to render their use prohibitive. In addition, another undesirable factor is that the flaps conflict with the ailerons and thereby hinder the emciency of either or both of these control surfaces.
An object of the present invention is to provide means to increase the emciency of the lifting and lateral control surfaces of an airplane.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an airplane with proper lateral control at both high and low speeds.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide-a flap and aileron combination which will permit the use of full-span 'fiaps.
And still a further object-of the present invention is to provide a wing having spoiler, flap the present invention there is provided an arand aileron surfaces in which the aileron cannot be operated so long as the flap is in its nested or inoperative position.
Yet a further object of the present invention is to provide an aileron which is under positive control at all times.
A still further object ofthe present invention is to provide a wing having an aileron that is adapted to be moved into the slip stream about the wing which is provided with means to prevent fluttering of the aileron during its movement into and out of the slip stream.
And yet a still further object of the present in vention is to provide a wing having an aileron that is adapted to be moved into the slip stream with means which will prevent the aileron from operative position except when the aileron is in its neutral position.
To accomplish the above and other. important objects, my invention in general embraces the idea of providing a wing with spoiler, flap and aileron surfaces that are suitably associated with each other. u
When the airplane is flying at high speeds the flap and aileron are in their nested or inoperative positions, and it is impossible to move the aileron to its operative position so long as the flap is in its inoperative position. However, at the same time the spoilers can be actuated by the pilot 'of the plane to give the necessary lateral control to the ship. This arrangement is high- 1y desirable since (will prevent the ailerons beingripped off or otherwisedamaged or adversely affected by ice. v
On the other hand, however, when the ship is flying at low speeds and the flap islowerd the aileron is moved into the slip stream and can 'eflective at low speeds due to thefact that it lies in a stimulated flow of air over .the top surface of the wing that is caused by the lowering of the flap. Therefore, any movement of the aileron surface has an increased effect on the lateral movement .of the wing. In addition, in
rangement whereby the aileron is undervpositive control at all times and'fiuttering of the aileronsis prevented during its extension into the slip stream or its retraction into its nest within the Wing- Moreover, the aileron cannot be retracted except when it is in its neutral position.
In order to make my invention more clearly understood there is depicted in the accompanying drawings means for carrying the same into practical eflect without limiting the improvements in their useful applications to the particular constructions which, for the purpose of explanation, have been made the subject of illustration. I In the drawingsfin which like numerals designate similar parts: .s
Figure 1 is a top plan view of an airplane embodying my invention. L
Figure 2 is a fragmental transverse sectional view of a wing showing the aileron and'flap in being moved from the slip streaminto its intheir extended or operative positions.
Figure 3 is a fragmental transverse sectional cation, Serial terminate 'in proximity view showing the aileron and flap in their retracted or nested positions.
Figure 4 is a fragmental plan view illustrating the control mechanism for the spoiler and aileron surfaces.
Figure 5 is a sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of Figure 4.-
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of Figure 5 looking in thedl-rection of the arrows showing the position of the parts when the aileron surfaces are in connection with the pilot's control column.
Figure '7 is a sectional view similar to Figu e 6 showing the position of the parts when the aileron control surfaces are disconnected from the pilots control column.
8-8 of Figure 6 looking arrows.
Figure 9 is a 8,-8 of Figure 7.
Referring to the drawings and more particuin the direction of the Figure 8 is a sectional view taken along the line sectional view taken along the line larly to Figure 1, thereis illustrated an'airplane having a. fuselage l, power plant 2, empennage structure 8, and wings 4. I
A wing flap 6 of the. Zap type of suitable construction as described in'my co-pending appli-' No. 220,359, is connected to the lower surface of the wings 4 by a double link mechanism to provide a downward and rearward movement of the flap. The flap moving means comprisesforward links 6 pivotally attached at' their lower end to the flap as at I; and rigidly attached at their upper end to a torque tube 8 and adapted to be rotated by suitable mechanism plctedv at 81. The lower ends of the arms are also universally connected to a push rod 38 as shown at 88. The push rod 38 is suitably journaled in the internal structure of the wing and is adapted to move in roller bearings which I have designated 48. The bearings 48 are carried by support members 4| that can be attached in any desirable manner to the internal wing structure. Due to the angular relation of the links 35 umn l8, there is provided the following meshanism. A lever 58 pivoted at 5| to the fuselage structure comprises four right angularly disposed arms 62, 53', 54 and 55. The arm 52 has attached thereto cables 56 which are in turn connected to the control column l3. To each of the arms 53 and 54, the rearward ends of the push rods 22 are universally connected. The arm is bifurcated and adapted to actuate an aileron operating mechanism designated generally 51.
The mechanism 51 comprises a slide 58, to the opposite ends of which are pivotally attached theinner ends of the push rods 88. The slide 58 is carried in rectangularly broached aperture 59 formed in a sleeve 68 which'in turn is slidably under control of the pilot. Rear links 8 are pivotally secured tothe flap andmovably suspended at I l to a transverse torque tube l2 suitably journaled in the wing structure.
The wings 4 are provided with spoiler surfaces I5 that are adapted to be moved through lateral slots 16 provided in the upper leading surfaces of the/wing 4. As shown in Figure 2, each spoiler carried by a guide block 8|. The guide is rigidly attached to a suitable web-member 62 of the fuselage. Y
Slots 63 in the bifurcated end of the arm55 engage anti-friction trunnion pins 64 which are.
attached to the sleeve 68. The pins 64 are also adapted to ride in slots 65 in the upper and lower faces of the guide block 6|. As shown in Figure 4,,rotary movement of the lever 58 .will impart l8 comprises a segment II that is provided at its 7 lower end with arms l8. The arms l8 are at-' tached to a torque tube I! that is suitably supported within the inner structure of the wing. The upper end of a short arm 28 is affixed to each linear movement to the sleeve 68.
' A pin 66 mounted to move transversely in the slide 58 is provided to alternately engage the slide 68 with either the sleeve 68 or the guide block 6 I.
This is accomplished by the pin 66 either being torque tube l8 and the lower end is attached to a connection 2|. Each connection 2| is associated with a push rod 22 whichextends longitudinally of the fuselage and is of such length as to to. a control mechanism for operation ofthe spoilers and ailerons which may beoperated by-the control'column ll of the plane which is located within the pilot's compartment.
forced into an aperture 61 in the sleeve or' an aperture 68in the guide 6|. A helical spring 68 is provided to normally force the pin into the aperture 68. y
As depicted in,Figure 6, when the pin 66 locks the slide 58 to the sleeve 68, movement of the sleeve caused by rotation of the lever 50 will also As best'shown' in Figure 3. the upper trailing edge of ,each wing 4 is formed with a depressed area or nest 26 in which an aileron 26 is adapted to be positioned-when it is in its inoperative position. 'Aileron supporting arms 21 are pivoted at their upper ends to the aileron 26 at 28, and the lower ends of the arms are attached to a torque tube l2 supported within thewing. A crank 28 is afllxed to the torque tube and a piston'rod 88, that is moved bya cylinder II, is pivotally connected to the upper end of the crank; As will later be more fully discussed. the piston rod 88,
- crank 26, torque tube l2, and arm. 21 provide means-whereby the aileron nlay be moved from its nested to its operative position or retracted againtoitsnestedposition;
.Links 86 are universally connected to pins 86 carried by the leading edge of the aileron as decause movement of slide 68 and the push rods 28 to impart angular movement to the ailerons. At the same time, the spoilers l5 will also be operated through the rods 22. Referring to Figure 7, it will be seen that when the pin 66 locks the slide 58 to the guide 6|, movement will only be imparted to the sleeve 68, and this movement of the sleeve relative to the slide 58 and the pin 66 is effected by allowing the pin 66 to travel in a slot .in the rear face of the sleeve 68; thereby permitting only the spoilers to operate.
.-In order to -manipulate the locking pin 66,
there is provided a pivoted lever 18 located at a position convenient to the pilot. This lever is formed with a notched segment II and detent "and has attached to one end thereof a flexible cable 18. The opposite end of the cable I8 is 'fixed to a rod 14 slidably carried in a valve casing 15, whichcasing is attached to the guide 88 as at 16 (see Figure 8). A helical spring 18 surrounds the rod 14 and is adapted to force imparted to the right and left force the pin 66 into the aperture 88.
- In order that the slide 58 may be engaged with or disengaged from the sleeve 50 only when the aileron is in proper position for extension or retraction. there is provided a plate 80 attached at 8| to the slide 58. This plate travels in a groove 82 formed in the guide 6| adjacent the valve casing '75. An elongated aperture 83 is formed in the plate 80 which is enlarged at 84. The enlarged portion 84 is so located that when the slide 58 is centrally positioned in the,
sleeve 55, it will be concentric-with the end of the rod 76. The rod 74 is provided with an enlarged collar 85 that will only pass through the portion 89 of the slot 82, thus the rod only moves the locking pin 89 when the slidev 58 is centrally located in thersleeve 80 or, in other words, when the aileron is in proper position for retraction (zero angle position).
To manipulate the lever 70, regardless of the position of the lever 58, which controls the spoilers and the ailerons, a spring loaded lost motion. connector 88 is disposed in the flexible cable 73. The spring 89 of the connector overrides the spring 78 while the spring 78 overbalances the spring 69.
To move the aileron 25 to its operative and inoperative positions, fluid under pressure is admitted to the cylinder 3| through a line 99 connectedt'o the valve casing 15. The casing 75 is provided with a transverse passage 98 adapted to register with a bore 92 in the rod 75. A line 93 connects with the inlet passage 99 of a piston valve'95. Th'e piston valve 95 is in communication with the lines 96 and 97, which lines respectively connect with opposite 'ends of the cylinder 3!. The piston 98 of the valve 95 is provided with a head 99 between which head and the valve casing is disposed a spring Hill to hold normally the valve in the position shown in Figure 6. The. valve is adapted to be moved into the position shown in Figure '7 by the leading trol. The lever III is then moved to the position shown in Figure 6 allowing the spring 18 to force the-rod 74 into engagement with the pin "66 to lock the slide 58 to the sleeve 60; As above set forth, when the slide 58 and the sleeve 68 are connected, movement of the'lever 50 by means of the control column l3 will impart difierential angular movement to the aileron. Obviously, when the airplane is under lateral control by means of the ailerons, it is not necessary to disconnect the operating means to the spoiler surfaces by reason of the fact that on the wing where he aileron is at a position angle of attack, the spoiler on thiswing is moved out of the airstream over the wing. On the opposite wing, where the aileron is at a negativeangle of attack, the spoileris extended into the airstream, but as the airstream over this wing is already spoiled by the negative angle of the aileron, the spoiler will serve to produce additional beneficial yaw to this wing.
When the pilot retracts the flaps to increase speed, the flap 5 again engages the head 99 of the valve 95 to move the same to its retracting position as shown in Figure '7. The pilot then moves the lever '70 to withdraw the rod M and open the valve 75 for passage of fluid to the retracting cylinder. If the slide 58 is centrally located in the sleeve 60, and the ailerons are in the zero angle position, the enlarged collar 85 on the rod 74 will pass through the portion 88 of the slot 83 in the plate 89 and allow the parts to assume the position shown in Figure '7. However, should the ailerons be in other than zero angle position, the lever it may be moved to' place tension inthe connector 88. and when the ailerons are moved to their zero angle position, the position of the parts shown in Figure '7 may be automatically assumed.
By the above construction, the ailerons may only be nested when they are in their zero angle position thereby permitting proper retraction and preventing damage to the ailerons. This construction also assures that the ailerons will be edge ll of the flap 5 when the flap is in its retracted position as illustrated in Figure 3.
The exhaust ports I02 of the valve 95 are I connected with a lin 103 which returns the fluid to the source of supply.
In operation, consider the airplane flying at high speed under lateral control by the spoilers l5. When under control of the spoilers. the operating unit 51 and its associated parts will be in the position shown in-Figure '7, where the slide 58 is in locked engagement withguide Si by meansof the pin 56. The valve 75 will be held inopen position by the lever '70 and the flexible cable 73, and the 'valve 95 will be held by the flap 5 in position to admit fluid to the aileron retracting end of the cylinder 3|.
Should the pilotdesire to reduce the speed of the airplane so that the spoilers will no longer b efl'ective forlateral control, he lowers the flap. As the leading edge of the flap moves away from the valve head 99;, the position of the valve piston 98 will change to admit fluid through the line 9i'to the aileron extending end of the cylinder,
3i, thus moving the aileron 26 to its'operative said spoiler and aileron surfaces relative to said position, as the airplane is still under spoiler coiilocked in their zero angle position when bein extended and retracted.-
While I have shown and described the preferred embodiment of my invention, I wish it to be understood that I do not confine myself to the precise details of'construction herein set forth by way of illustration, as it is apparent that .many changes and variations may be made therein, by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention. or exceeding the scope of the appended claims.
1. In an airplane assembly, a wing, spoiler,
flap and aileron surfaces for the wing adapted to be variably positioned with respect thereto.
a single control operable for variably positioning wing and each other, said aileron normally restingin a recess in the wing and being adapted to be bodily extended to an operative position above the upper surface of the wing and tiltable rela-' tive tothe latter by said single control, the flap andaileron being so connected that the aileron cannot be extended unless the flap is lowered,
and means associated with the spoiler and ailer-' on control positively retaining the aileron against tilting in response to operation of said control while the aileron is being moved to its location above the wing.
2. In an airplane assembly, a wing,-spoiler,
flap andaileron surfaces for'the wing, a single the spoiler and aileron surfaces, said I aileron normally resting in a recess formed in the upper trailing edge of the wing and being adapted to be bodily moved to a position above the trailing edgeof the wing to afiord lateral control, and means to so move the aileron surfaces, said flap and aileron being so connected that the aileron cannot be extended unless the flap is lowered, and'means associated with the spoiler and aileron control to retain the aileron against pivotal movement in response to operation of said control member while the latter is being moved to its location above the wins.
3. In an airplane construction including a wing structure, pivotally movable ailerons for said structure adapted to be bodily projected thereabove to an operating position, and means for so projecting said ailerons, a control operably connectible with said ailerons and operable to eiIect pivotal movement thereof, and means re-.
taining said control against operable connection with said ailerons during projection of the latter to said operating position.
4. In an airplane construction including a wing structure, pivotally movable ailerons for said structureadapted to be bodily projected thereabove to an operating position, and means for so projecting saidailerons, means operable to efiect pivotal movement of said ailerons, and means rendering said means inoperative to efiect said pivotal movement during projection of said ailerons to said operating position.
5. In an airplane construction, a wing structure, ailerons for said structure bodily movable to and from projected and retracted positions .respectively relative to said wing structure,
means for so moving said ailerons, means operable to control said movement'oi said ailerons, said ailerons having a normal position with respect to said wing structure when in said projected position and being tiltable therefrom, means operably connectible with said ailerons for eflecting tilting of the latter, and means operable in response to operation of said control means for effecting said operating connection when said ailerons are in said normal position only.
r control member operable tor pivotally moving 6. In an airplane construction, a wing structure, ailerons for said structure bodily movable from a nested position to an operating position with respect thereto, means for so moving said ailerons, said ailerons having a normal position with respect to said wing structure and being tiltable therefrom, relatively movable parts adapted to be operably connected for effecting said' tilting of said ailerons, and means accommodating establishment of said operable connection of said parts when said ailerons are in said normal position only.
'7. In an airplane construction, a wing structure, ailerons for said structure adapted to be bodily projected thereabove, means operable to effect said projection, said ailerons having a normal position with respect to said wing structure when projected and being tiltable from said position to vary the angular relationship with respect thereto, deflector means at the leading edge of said wing structure adjustable with respect thereto, common means operable to simultaneously effect adjustment of said deflector means and tilting of said ailerons from said normal position, and means operable to render said common operating means inoperative to efiect tilting of said ailerons when said ailerons are being projected.
8. In an airplane construction, a wing structure, ailerons for said structure adapted to be bodily projected thereabove, means operable to eflect said projection, said ailerons having a normal position with respect to said wing structure when projected and being tiltable from said position to vary the angular relationship with respect thereto, means movable to eflect tilting of said ailerons, deflector elements carried at the leading edge of said wing structure and adjustable with respect thereto, means operable to effect adjustment of said deflector elements, and means operable to connect said last mentioned means with said movable means when said ailerons are in said normal position only whereby said deflector elements and said ailerons are simultaneously operated.
- TEMPLE N. JOYCE.