US 2264495 A
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. 2,1941'. N. T. J. wlLNER IONIZATION 0F GAS 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 50; 1957 Dec, 2, 1941. N. T. J. wlLNER 2,264,495
IoN'IzATIoN oF GAS Filed June 3o, 1'93'7 5 spans-Sheet :s
/NVE/VTOR De@ 2, 1941 N. T. J. wlLNER 2,264,495
IoNIzATIoN 0F GAS Filed June 30, 1937 `5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Dec. z, 1941.
N. T. J. WILNER IoNIzA'rIoN OFEGAS Filed June 30, 1937 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 /IVVE/VTOR Patented Dec. 2, 1941 3 IONIZATION F GAS Nils Torsten Johan Wilner, Stockholm, Sweden,
assignmen assignor, by mesne t8, to Servei, Inc.,
New York, N. Y., a corporation o! Delaware Application June 30,1937, Serial No. 151,314 In Germany July 9, 1936 19 Claims. (Cl. 175-265) My invention relates to ionization of gas, especially air, by a suitable ion generator, and it is an object of the invention to control the generation and distribution of ions so that the ion content is automatically maintained substantially constant in a predetermined quantity and character.
It -has been found that the ion content of air has certain physiological effects on the human body involving blood pressure and diierent other living `functions. It has also been established that negative and positive ions have different effects and that there is a certain difference in the eii'ects of ions of larger and smaller masses. The actions of ionized air indicate a denite optimum at which the eectof the ions is most favorable and it is therefore desirable to maintain the ion Y concentration in the air at this value.
Ij'igs. 4 to 7 inclusive show details and modications of the control circuits.'
The device shown-in Fig. 1 consists of a box I0 where a blower or ventilator I I is installed which 'sucks in the outside air through holes I2 provided in the walls of the box.-v The air stream delivered by vthe ventilator II Vis conducted through a pipe I3 which terminates in a second pipe I4 having a larger diameter than the pipe I3.'A The pipe I4 terminates at the right side wall of the box I9 at an opening covered by a screen I5 having streamlined bars I6. The sgrid I5 is preferably made of metal and conductively connected to the ground so that it forms a voltage protection. The ventilator- Il is-driven by-an electric motor, not shown, the contacts I1, I9 of which are conductively connected to contacts I9,
sion temperature as well as to the ground conductor 32.
The incandescent body may preferably be made of magnesium oxide, steatite, porcelain, or any other fireproof insulating material and designed as shown in Fig. 2. The insulating body 50 of ,the incandescent body has the shape of a cylinder and is provided with teeth 52 between which the heating wire 5I is wound. The heating wire consists preferably of platinum, chromenickel, or some other material which in the incandescent state still is sufiiciently air resistant. The wire may, in order to generate ions at a comparatively low temperature, be coated with an oxide layer or some other material known to the science of incandescent cathodes. Itis particularly appropriate to make the support for the incandescent .wire of a material which itself emits ions as known to the art. This, for example, is
the case with magnesium oxide. The heating body 29 is only supported by the bolt 26 and centrally disposed in relation to'the pipes I3 and I4. A third pipe 39 is disposed between the cylindrical incandescent body 25 and the pipe I4 which serves as a radiation protection and which also is supported by the bolt 26. Centrally of the heating body 25 and the pipes I3, I4 and 39 there is provided` an electrode 29 which is carried by a support 29. The support 28 as well as the electrode 29 is made of metal and insulated from'the pipe I3 by a bushing 21 of insulating material.
The support 29 and the electrode 29 are connected by a wire 3l to one contact arm 42 of a two-pole switch, the other contact arm 4I being connected to one end of the secondary winding 4l of the transformer 22 by a wire 49. The con- 2l provided on the outside ofpthebox I4. The
primary winding 22 oi!- a transformer 22 is also connected to these contacts I9, 2II.` A third contact 2l, that preferably cannot be mistaken for the others, for example, by being given a different shape from the two contacts I9, 2l, should be conductively connected to the ground. The
transformer 22 has two secondary windings of 'which the winding 24 is connected toan incandescent body 25 that is to be maintained at emistact arm 42 of the switch is also through a condenser 41 partly connected td the ground line 32, and partly by a wire 49 to the other end of thevsecondary winding 40. The two switch arms are moved simultaneously between two positions. In the one position shown in the drawing, the arm 4I is connected to the contact 43 which in turn is connected to a second contact as well as also tovone pole of a rectifier 46. The arm 42 of the switch is connected to a third contact 44 which is connected tothe-second pole of the rectifier 46. The rectifier 49 may preferably be a so-called contact rectifier, for example, a selenium rectier, a cuprous oxide rectifier, or the like, but may also consist of an incandescent cathode rectiiier.
In the other switching position of the switch the Y contacts 4 I 42-are connected reversely to the polesl of the rectifier 49.
In the position of the switch shown in Fig. 1
the electrode 29 in the pipe I3 is negatively charged in relation to the ground, as the current flows from the linel 48 through the ground line 32, incandescent wire I, air space, electrode 29, line 3l, switch arm 42, contact 44, rectier 46, contact 43, switch arm 4 I, and the line 49. When the switch is reversed, that is, when the arm 4I is connected to the contact 44 and the arm 42 to the contact 45, the current flows in the opposite direction, that is, the electrode 29 becomes positive in relation to the ground. The incandescent body 25 thus becomes anode or cathode 'depending on the position of the switch. The vpurpose of the condenser 41 is to equalize'the potential half-waves let through by the rectifier 46.
In other respects the device shown in Fig. 1 functions in the following manner: When the switch is in the position shown in the drawings,
the electrode 29, as already mentioned, is nega-- tive in relationy to the ground, that is, in relation to the incandescent body 25. 'I'he ventilator II forces an air stream through the pipe I3. that almost without any scattering continues its flow through the insulating pipe 39 of the incandescent body 25 toward the right and is led tothe outside through the openings in the screen I5. As the incandescent body 25 is held at its emission temperature, both positive and negative ions are'y formed, the proportion of the two kinds lof ions being dependent on the temperature of the incandescent body. When the electrode 29 is negatively charged in relation to the incandescent body 25; the positive ions are attracted and are thus imparted a velocity whose magnitude depends on the potential drop or the field intensity. On their way from the incandescent body 25 to the electrode 29lthe ions are caught by the air stream and removed with it from the device. However, the air stream is only able to pull along ions whose velocity'is not too great which particularly applies to ions having a great-- er mass). The ions having a smaller mass, for example, those that consist of a single molecule, can, if the eld intensity is sufficiently great, attain such great velocity in the direction toward the electrode 29 that they are drawn along by the air stream only slightly from their path. They are, therefore, picked up by the electrode 29.` Thus, the greater the field intensity, that is, the higher the potential maintained between the electrode 29 and the incandescent body 25,
the greater will the velocities be of the ions of different sizes in the direction of the ileld. 'I'he air stream is then able to take along onlythe greatest ion masses while, on the other hand, when the aforesaid potential is lowor the air velocity high, a larger number of ions having a smaller mass are carried away4 with the air. The air4 leaving through the screen I5, therefore, is charged with positiveions to'an extent dependent on the temperature of the incandescent body, the 'potential between the incandescent body and the electrode 29 as well as on the velocity of the air stream. The masses of the ions pulled along by the air stream are, as'mentioned, dependent on the potential between the electrode 29 and the incandescent body 25 as well as on the velocity of the air stream. Thus, there is on hand a control both for the total content of ions and also for their masses. These lquantities must be chosen with regard to the desired action of the air since, as already mentioned, both these quantities as well as also the electrical symbol for the ion charge have different physiological actions on the human body.
lattracted by the electrode 29 and, in the same manner as already described for the positive ions, caught by the air stream and removed from the plant.
Fig. 3 shows a device for improvement of air by regulation of its ion content to which along with an ion generator also is connected devices for regulating the air temperature comprising a unit aggregate. The designations correspond to those in Fig. 1. The box I0, which preferably consists of sheet metal, is designed'as a piece of furniture like a cabinet in the upper part of which the ion generator is disposed together with the appertaining air transporting device. The outlet opening I5 for the improved air isalso disposed in the upper part of the box I0. The box I0 itself is grounded by a line 2I. The contacts I9 and 20 are disposed in the lower part ofthe box and are connected to a'source of alternating current.
The contact I9 is connected to the primary winding of the transformer 22 through a line 60. The other end of the primary winding 23 is through a line 62 connected to a regulating device 64, shown schematically as a box, to be explained later. The contact 20 is through a line 6I also connected to 'the regulating device 64 which thus is connected between this contact 20 and the primary winding. 'I'he box 64 contains a transformer and rectifier, not shown, which on one side is connected to the ground and on the other through a line 63 to the electrode 29 of the ion generator.
The air to be improved is sucked in through an opening 61 disposed in the 'lower part of the box Ill and flows rst through a. cylindrical chambery 66 where there is disposed a sensing body 68'for the regulating device 64. The construction and operating method of this sensing body as well as the regulator 64 are explained moreclosely. below. The sucked-in air continues to flow upwardly and sweeps over a radiator 14 of a refrigerating or heating source through the action of which the air is brought to the desired, preferably adjustable temperature as known to the art. The flow of air is caused mainly by a ventilator 10 which is disposed in an opening 19in a partition 69 and driven by an electric motor 1I that is connected' to the contacts I9, 20 by wires 13, 12 and wires 18, 60 respectively. The heating or refrigerating'source 15 of the radiator 14 can be of any kind, for example, an electrical heating source or a compressor refrig- A erating apparatus or an absorption refrigerating apparatus as known to the art. It is recommended to construct' the plant 14, 15 in such -way that it can function alternately as heating and refrigerating source whereat the change from heat to cold and in the reverse order is effected by a single thermostatic arrangement. 'I'he sensing body of 'this thermostat is preferably disposed directly behind the inlet opening 61 so that the temperature of the inowing air from the room is decisive for the action ofl the refrigerating or heating plant 14, 15.
`The regulating device 64 controls the ion generator, that is, its ventilator I I and heating body 25 in relation to the ion concentration of the air flowing through the plant. The control has for air to be improved constant. When its ion concentration falls below a certain value, the device 64 is brought to function by means of the sensing body 68, as will be described later, and
as the `ventilator and transformer 22 are connected, a new generation of ions is started. When the ion concentration of the air has reached a certain value, the current supply to the ventilator and transformer 22 is disconnected automatically so that further ion generation automatically ceases. By means of a switching device similar to the switch device 4|, 46 shown in Fig. 1 the device can be arranged for the generation of positive as well as negative ions.
Operation of the regulating device 64 can be induced by the variations in current between the sensing body 68 and thev jacket 66 which is produced by the presence of ions in the air streaming in through the opening 61. But as the magnitudevof the current even for a saturation current between the sensing body 68 and its surroundings, that is, in this case the jacket 66, is very small, an appreciable amplification of this current would, if so should be desired, be necessary by means of an electron tube, for example, an thyratron tube. Although it is possible in this way to obtain a safely operating and reliable regulating device, it is better in plants that arev to be operated by laymen to provide a simpler device for this purpose. Instead, one utilizes for this purpose the variations in the potential of a condenser charged to a predetermined initial potential which is affected by the ion flow. The devices shown in Figs. 4 and 5 for regulating the ion concentration of the air 'comprise as an essential part two condensers that are charged to a predetermined potential, one of the condensers being discharged by the ion current while the other is discharged by a constant grid leak. 'I'he variations in the potentials of the condensers can be transformed into current variations in an electromagnetic switching circuit by means of electronic relays.
The regulating device according to Fig. 4 contains a source for direct current |20, which in the embodiment consists of a storage battery. However, it may consist of any suitable direct current generator and is in practicepreferably replaced by an alternating current source, for example, a transformer winding with rectifier. The positive pole of the direct current source |20 is grounded. The negative pole is connected o to a-switching relay H5. After going through this relay the current flows to a switching relay, preferably polarized, which is provided with two excitation windings |2|, |22. The windings of the relay are each connected to one of the two electron tubes |06 and-|91, to be exact, each to one electrode and ||3. The second electrode |08, of the'electron tubes |06, |01 is grounded and thus connected to the positive pole of the direct current source. Thus there are two` parallel circuits each containing an electron tube as well as each one of the magnet windings |2I, |22 which are connected in series with the corresponding electron tube. The electron" tubes |06, |01 may be of a kind known to the art, that is, consist of partly evacuated glass tubes containing a suitable gas, for example, argon or neon. -Such so-called electronic relays are ignited byapplying a definite potential between the main electrodes ||0, |08 or IIS, ||I whereby'r a current flows through the gas space of the corresponding tube.
AThe potential that is characteristic for the have a denite minimum value in order to eect ignition and thereby a passage of current. Once the tube is lighted, the discharge can continue even when the potential is lowered. A temporarily acting increase in the potential is, therefore, sufllcient for the ignition as long as it corresponds to the ignition potential. However, it is knownv that this increase in potential can be replaced by an also temporarily acting auxiliary potential which is applied between one of the main electrodes and an ignition electrode provided between them. When the potential of the ignition electrode lies between the potentials of the main electrodes, as is the case in Fig. 4, ignition can, however, only take place when the potential of the ignition electrode lies in the neighborhood of the potential of one of the two main electrodes. This phenomenon is used in the plant according to Fig. 4 for the purpose of effecting the ignition of one or the other of the two lelectron tubes |06, |01 in relation to the potentials of two condensers |03 and |04. For this purpose the auxiliary electrode ||2 is grounded through the condenser |04 in parallel connection to a high ohmic resistance |05, so that the condenser |04 can be charged through a switch ||1 connected to a point of mean potential on the direct current source |20. The resistance may consist of a so-called radioactive leak. Such a leak contains as an essential part a gas discharge space which is under the influence of a radioactive material and thus always possessing a constant ionization of the gas. The charginglof the condenser |04 takes place intermittently, that is, after the condenser has been charged to the potential existing between the ground and the connecting point |3| on the direct current source |20. Its connection with the direct current source is broken by lifting the switch ||1.
It is now assumed that when the condenser |04 is being charged, the electron ltube is not yet connected tothe negative pole of 'the direct current source |20. Even when the condenser is connected to the aforesaid potential source and the total potential of the direct current source |20 at the same time is applied between the two main electrodes ||3, of the electron tube |01, the tube |01 is still not lighted because the potential of the ignition electrode ||2 still lies between the potentials of the main electrodes. However, since the condenser |04, as mentioned, after being charged no longer is connected to the direct current source, its pot-ential gradually sinks as its electric charge gradually is led away through the resistance |05.
But the reduction in itsl charge also produces a decrease in the potential diiferential between the auxiliary electrode ||2 and the main electrode that is, the potential of the auxiliary electrode ||2 approaches that of the main electrode As soon as the potential differential has dropped' to a definite value, the electron tube is lighted and current flows therethrough as well as throughthe winding |2| and the relay ||5.
The second electronic relay |06 is in a similar manner connected to a condenser |03, preferably with a variable capacity. The auxiliary,-v electrode |09 is, further, connected electrically to the sensing body 68 as shown in Fig. 4. The
sensing body 68 and its surrounding jacket 66 point I3| on the direct current source |20 as the switch ||1. The charging of the condenser |03 takes place in similar manner to that already described for the condenser |04 and at the same time. The discharge of the condenser |03 takes place through the air, in the example, charged with positive ions, which, as described for Fig. 3, is sucked through the intermediate space between the sensing body 68 and the jacket 66. This ion current is, to be true, extremely weak but gradually effects a discharge of the condenser |03 so that the electronic relay |06 lights up. The potential between the sensing body 68 and the jacket 66 is preferably selected so high that there always exists a saturation current between thetwo electrodes at the prev veiling ion content of the air. At saturation current the magnitude of the current is practically proportional to the ion content of the air flowing through. When the electronic relay |06 is lighted, a current is produced through the winding |22 and through the relay ||5.
The electronic relay |01 as well as also the appertaining condenser |04 and the leak |05 representto a certain degree a comparison unit with which the processes in the true ion regulator |06, |03, 66, 69 are compared'. The two switches ||6, ||1 arel actuated by the relay ||5 so that the two condensers |03 and |04 through the impulses of the relay temporarily are connected to the point I3| onthe potential source |20 and thereby charged to the same potential. To make the drawing as clear as possible the connection between the relay ||5 and the two switches H6, ||1 is not shown. In practice, the re1ay||5,which may consist of an electromagnet with/ its appertaining armature, is mechanically connected to the switching organs of the two switches ||6, ||1. The armature of the relay |I5 may by its movements effect the closing and opening of the contacts on the two switches ||6, ||1. The electromagnet of the relay ||5 should be so connected to the direct current source |20 that current flows through it as soon as the two electron tubes light up.
The polarized relay |I4 contains',l as already v mentioned, two windings 2|, |22 which are connected in series with the electronic relays |01 and |06. An armature |25 is disposed between the two poles of the relay ||4 which is pivotal and can be attracted by the one or the other of the two poles. The armature |25 is connected to a circuit consisting of a. line |26, an electromagnet |29, a current source |28, and a line |21. When the armature |25 is in the position shown in the drawing, the aforesaid circuit is broken but when the armature isY attracted by the magnet pole |2I, the aforesaid circuit is closed. By this closing, the armature |30 is attracted, thus connecting the ion generator designated by ||9 to the two alternating current contact points I9, 20. The armature |30 is'held in its resting position by aspring |3| as soon as the winding of the electromagnet |29 does not carry any current. In the aforesaid position of the amature the energy supply to the ion generator ||9 is broken. The relay ||5 which is connected 'in the circuit for the two electron tubes |06, |01 contains further Ia device, not shown, for temporarily breaking the` connection between the electron tubes and the direct current source |20 to effect the extinguishing of the electron tubes. This device will be disregarded for the It will now be assumed that the two coiidensers |03, |04 have been charged to the same potential and that their connection to the point electrodes. When this condition is fuliilled there is no discharge between the main electrodes of either of the two tubes |06, |01.
The charge of the condenser |04 is dissipated in shorter or longer time through the resistance |05 depending on the size of this resistance. The potential difference between the auxiliary electrode ||2 and the main electrode |I| thus gradually is lowered and reaches in a denite time a value at which a discharge takes place in the electronic relay |01. Also, the condenser |03 is gradually discharged by the ions in the air flowing between the two electrodes 68, 66 'of the sensing body. As the initial potential of the condenserl |03 is the same as that of the condenser |04, any difference in the discharge times is dependent on the capacity of the variable condenser |03 and the ltrue resistance of the gas space betwen the electrodes 66 and 68. For the same capacity of the two condensers |03, |04 the two electronic relays |06, |01 would light up at the same time. As"\a general rule the same would happen if the relation between the capacity of the condenser |04 and the resistance |05 equalled the relation between the capacity of the condenser |03 and the resistance of the aforesaid gas space. This, however, happens almost never in practice. In practice there will rather always be a difference in the ignition times of the two relays |06, |01. Which one of the two relays will be ignited rst is dependent entirely on the magnitude of the resistance of the gas space 66, 63 when the capacities of` the` condensers |03, |04 and the resistance |05 are maintained constant.
The two electron tube systems |06 and |01 including the appertaining capacities and resistances are, however, as will be described later,
l so tuned in relation to each other that the dispresent in order not to make the description of other complicated processes more dimcult.
charge time of the condenser |04 corresponds to the desired ion content of the air. Therefore, if the condenser |03 is discharged faster lthan the condenser |04, that is, the,relay |06 is lighted sooner than the relay |01, this indicates that the resistance of the gas space 66, 60 is too small, that is, that the ion content oi' the air has exceeded the desired value. But when `the relay |06 lights up sooner than the relay |01, the magnet pole |22 -of the switching device ||4 is excited Ilrst and attracts the armature |25 so that this moves into the position shown in Fig. 4. As already'mentioned, this has for etl'ect that the circuit |21, |23, |29, |26 is broken and thereby the ion generator ||9 shut oft.
When, on the other hand, the ion content of the air is too small, that is, the'resistance of the gas vspace 66. 68 is greater than normal, the potential of` the auxiliary electrode ||2 of the relay |01 drops faster than'that of the electrode |09 so that the relay |01 lights up first. Then.
the current flows through the winding 2| and the armature |26 is Vattracted by this magnet.
' Thus, -in the manner already described, the
ion generator -I I9 is started by changing the position oi the contact |25.
The device according to Fig. 4 is designed for the regulation of positive ions, but may also by changing the direction of the electric ileld between the electrode-50 and the jacket 00 and by certain changes in the individual parts of the apparatus be used for the regulation of negative ions.
For this purpose it isonly necessary to reverse the polarity of the direct current source |20. However, it has been found in practice that when the potential oi the auxiliary electrodes |09, I|2 is changed in a negative direction by the discharge of the two condensers |03, |04, a dis-l charge between the auxiliary electrode and the positive main electrode (I I0, H3) maystill take place. desired ignition of the complete relay, that is, it is not able to produce the discharge between the two main e1ectrdes. It is therefore recommended to change the spacial arrangement of the main electrode and the auxiliary electrode as well as to-provide a 4point on thenegative main electrode.
But this discharge does not effect the By the changed spacial arrangement of the electrodes as shown in Fig. 5, the auxiliary electrodes |09; ||2 are pointed and their points centrally disposed in a ring representing the negative main electrodes |00, |II. The two switches IIB, ||1 are connected to the point |3| on the direct vcurrent source to which the main elec.- trodes |00, also are connected. Thus, the last mentioned electrodes are not grounded as in Fig. 4 but are'maintained at a potential positive in relation to the ground.
The method of operation oi the device according to Fig. 5 dlil'ers from that of the device according to Fig. 4 only in regard to the ignition process. Both the main electrodes |00, as well as -the auxiliary electrodes |09, |I2 are charged to the potential oi the point |3I. During the discharge Process of the two condensers |03 and |00, the potential of the auxiliary electrodes |05, ||2 sinks inthe direction of the negative pole oi' the direct current source |20 while thepotential diierence between the auxiliary electrode and the pomtive electrode (I I0 or IIS) increases to the ignition potential of the corresponding relay.
for instance, by connecting the amature magnetically to a permanent magnet' whichcooperates with the two ordinary magnetic circuits of the relay, as is usually done on the socalled telegraph relay. ,Corresponding measures may for the same reason also be taken for the relay IIB.
As already mentioned, the relay ||5 has two objects. It should rst temporarily connect the condensers |02 and Ill to the point |2| on the direct current source |20 by actuating the two switches ||5, III. 'Ihis Vclmrging'should take place when the two electron tubes |00, |01 have been extinguished. The reason for this is that when' an electron tube of this kind once has been lighted, the potential of its grid |00 or ||2 has-` almon no eil'ect on the magnitude of the current flowing through the electron tube. Therefore, the second object of the relay ||5 is to extinguish. the electrontube. For this purpose,
the relay I|5 must be so designed that it breaks up thesupply of current from the direct current source |2IT to the electron tubes |05, |01 as soon as the processes intended by the ignition of the relay have been completed. For this purpose the amature of the relay I |5 has a resilient contact tongue, not shown, as known to the art, that can break the contact between the main electrodes |I0 and IIS and the direct current source |20. 'I'he contacts oi' the relay ||5 are so designed that the two switches IIB, |I'| remain in their closed positions until the connection of the two main electrodes II'0 or ||2 to the direct current source |20 has been closed after the extinguishing of the corresponding relay. Such a delay in the switching process of the two switches ||6, I I1 can be accomplished by different means known to relay art, the simplest being by resilient contacts. When one of the two tubes |05 or IIII-vis lighted (on'account of a discharge of the corresponding condenser |03 or |04), a current ilows through the appertaining magnet winding of the relay ||4 and through the winding of the relay II5. The action of this current on the relay III has already been described. Inrelay I I5 the following takes place:
The elec-tromagnet of the relay ||5 attracts its armature. By its movement in the direction toward the pole of the electromagnet the aforesaid contacts are displaced so that first the two switches ||6 and ||1 are closed so that the condensers |03 and |04 are charged to the starting potential, and then the connection of the electrodes III) and ||3 to the potential source |20 is broken. The electrode through which current has been flowing is hereby extinguished. The adjustment of the two relays III and ||5 in relation to each other must be selected in such a way that the reversal of the contact |25 has been finished before the armature of the relay ||5 moves to the point of breaking the aforesaid circuit. ,f
. According as one or the other oi the two electronic relays |00 or |01 is ignited, as mentioned before, the ion generator I5 should be started or shut off.v When the armature of the relay |`|5 has been pulled so tar in the aforesaid direction that the connection between the upper pole of the 'direct current source |20 and the electron tubes |06, |01 has been broken, the armature moves, for example, under the iniluence of gravity or a spring', back to its resting position and then shortly after the ensuing reclosing of the main circuit does it break the connection o! the two condensers |02, |04 with the point |3I. This order provides a'lsafety measure against premature ignition of the tubes when the main potential again is applied. The selection of the particular embodiment of the switching devices must be made Ato vsuit the conditions and the type of electron tube. i
Fig. 6 shows schematically some details ofthe senslngbody,50aswellasitsconnectionwith jacket 66 of the sensing body, this latter jacket being designed as a screen. The two metal jackets |33 and`|34 are connected electrically to the point |3| on the direct current source |20. These -measures prevent, in a manner well known, any unintentional escape of the charges through creepage on the surfaces of the different apparatus parts.
'I'he resistance |05 in Fi'gs. 4 and 5 serving as a leak may be classified as a standard dissipator with which the dissipation of the charges of the condenser 03 through the ionized air is compared. 'According as the last mentioned dissipation has a magnitude at which the drop in potential of the condenser |03 down to the point where ignition of the relay |06 takes place sooner or later than the corresponding discharge of the condenser 04, the ion generator H9, as previously mentioned, will be disconnected or connected. The standard dissipator as well as the appertaining condenser |04 should be so adjusted that the discharge of this condenser to the point of ignition of the relay |01 lasts just as long as the corresponding process in the relay |01 in the presence of an ion current4 between theelectrodes |66 and 68 of the sensing body corresponding to the normally desired ion content of the air. When an ion concentration different from this standard ion content is desired, it is only necessary to set the variable condenser |03 for another capacity. By an adjustment of this kindl the dissipation time of the condenser |03 is increased or decreased in comparison with the standard when the discharge time of the condenser |04 is maintained constant, depending on whether vthe capacity of the condenser |03 is increased or decreased. By an increase in the capacity, the start of the discharge is ,delayed so that the electron tube |01 is lighted first thus bringing the ion generator |09 into operation whereby the ion concentration of the air is increased. If the capacity of the condenser |03 is lessened, the discharge time of this condenser is shortened so that the ignition of the relay |06 takes place earlier than the relay |01 whereby the ion generation is shut voii.
of the relay |01. The contact point 23| for the switch ||1 is now located between the grounded vpoint and the negative pole 203 of the direct current source |20. The positive pole 202 of the direct current source is, as in Fig. 5, connected to the electrode ||0 of the relay |06. In order to make the drawing clear the switching relays ||5 and 2|5 of the corresponding circuits of the electron tubes |06 and |01 are only shown schematically. The two relays have the same object as the relay I5 in Figs. 4 and 5 and can without diiiiculty be combined into a single relay whose electromagnet preferably is provided with two windings one of which is connected in the circuitA ||0, |22, 202 and the other in the circuit ||3, |2|, 203 so that the common relay is caused to function as soon asone of the two circuits carries a current. The joint connection of the two relays ||5 and 2 |5 or the operation of the common relay with the two switches ||6, ||1 can be accomplished in the same manner as in Figs. 4 and 5. The same applies to the devices for extinguishing the electron tubes.
The electromagnet |29 whose actuation is regulated in relation to the switch |25 in the already described manner has, according to Fig. 7, for object to effect a change in the direction of the current of the ion generator ||9 and is, therefore, brought into operating connection with the switching device of the rectifier 46 (see also Fig. 1) by means of an armature |30. When the electromagnet |29 is excited by the operation of the switch |25, the armature |30 is attracted which in turn moves the two arms of the switch, that are pivotal around the points 24|, 242, into a position at which the electrode 29 of the ion generator ||9 is positively charged (in relation 'I'he regulating device according to Figs. 4 and 5 has, asmentioned before, for object to regulate the concentration of positive or negative ions or to maintain a constant concentration. Fig. '1
shows schematically a regulating device which regulates the ratio between the concentrations of positive and negative ions'.
cording to Figs. 4 and 5 on the one hand, and that of Fig. 7 on the other, lies in the fact that according to Fig, 1 the standard dissipator |05 of Figs. 4 and 5 has been replaced by a second sensing body whose electrodesA are designated by reference numerals 266 and 268. The second sensing body should be sensitive to positive ions v outside poles of the direct current source |20 is grounded. On the other hand the direct current source |20 has its middle point grounded. The
The designations 4correspond to those in the preceding figures. The essential difference between the devices acminus pole 203 is connected to the electrodel I3 75 'to the ground) whereby negative ions are discharged from the ion generator. When, on the other hand, the armature of the relay |25 has assumed the position shown in Fig. 7, that is, the electromagnet |29 is not excited, the position of the switch of the rectifier 46 is such that the electrode 29 of the ion generator 9 is negatively charged', thus causing the emission of positive ions.
Whether or not the relay |25 is ,closed or in open position is determined by the momentary content o f positive or negative ions in the air.
In order to make the explanation clearer, the assumption is first made (which does not usually happen) that the content of negative and positive ions is the same. It is further assumed that the two condensers |03 and |04 have the same capacities. Then, when the concentration of negative ions becomes greater than that of the positive "ions, the discharge of the condenser |03 to a point of ignition of the relay |06 takes place quicker than the corresponding process in the relay |01. This has 'for result that the relay |25 remains in a position for which the circuit |26, |29, |28, |21 remains broken. Due to this. the switch of the rectifler 46 remains in that position where the electrode 29 of the ion generator ||9 receives' a potential relative to the ground for'which positive ions are emitted. For this reason the original ratio between the concentrations of the two kinds of ions is gradually reestablished.
A corresponding procedure now takes place when the concentration of positive ions becomes too great in relation to that of negative ions. Then the relay |01 is ignited earlier than the relay |06; The armature of the relay |25 is then thrown over closing the circuit |26, |29, |28, |21
which in turn produces a change in the position of the switch of the rectifier 46 in such way that the electrode 29 of the ion generator IIS receives a positive potential relative to the ground thus causing the emission of negative ions.
A surplus of oneof the two kinds of .ions is usually desired in practice. The maintenance of a surplus of ions of a certain kind is accomplished by setting the capacity of the variable condenser |03 a certain amount higher or lower in comparison to the capacity of the condenser |04 depending on whether a surplus of negative or positive ions is desired which, by way of example, may be diierent for hospitals, mass meetings, and the like.
The regulation of the device according to Fig. 7 of a relative amount cf the ior concentration can' be supplemented by a regulation of the absolute concentration.
The invention is not restricted to the shown embodiments. The ion generation can amongst other things be effected by any method of heating bodies of diii'erent compositions. The absolute amount of positive ions may be limited by an arrangement according to Fig. 4 and the amount of negative ions by `an arrangement according to Fig. 5. The advantage of this arrangement is its automatic characteristics although the relation between the ampunts of positive and negative ions must be predetermined.
Or, for example, the absolute amounts of posi-V tive (or negative) ions can be determined by an arrangement according to Fig. 4 (Fig. 5) and the mutual relation of positive and negative ion oontent insured by /an arrangement according to Fig. 7 in which case the throw-over switch 24|, 242 in Fig. '7 is designed as a single switch which in one switching position allows the ion generator4 to produce only negative (positive) ions and in the other position breaks the circuit of the ion y generator. Regulation of the absolute quantities of the ions 'to be generated within certain limits may further be attained especially in connection with Fig. 7 by regulating the heating source required for attaining the emission temperature or also by regulating the velocity of the air stream..
Other changes and modiiications may be made within the scope of the invention which is not limited as shown in the drawings or described in the foregoing part of this specification but only as indicated in the following claims.
What is claimed is.:
l. Apparatus for affecting the ion content of gas which includes an ion generator, electrostatic means for causing movement of ions from said generator into a stream of gas to be affected, means for controlling operation of said generator responsive to ion content of air to be affected, and means for controlling said electrostatic means to selectively cause movement of positive and negative ions from said generator into the gas stream. I
2. Apparatus for aecting ion content of gas i including an ion generator, a iirst path of iiow for electricity, a second path of flow for electricity including gas to be affected, and means for controlling operation of said ion generator responsive to rate of iiow of electricity Ythrough said second path relative to rate of iiow of-electricity through said rst path.
3. Apparatus for affecting ion content of gas including an ion generator, means for controllingoperation of said generator, means for causing ow of gas to be aiected to said generator,
and means for operating said control means re-' sponsive to the electrical conductivity of gas ilowing to said generator.
4. Apparatus for aiecting ion content of gas including an ion generator, two condensers, a fixed leak across one of said condensers, a leak across the other of said condensers comprising the gas to be aiected, andmeans for controlling operation of said generator responsive to the dii'- ferential in rates of discharge of said condensers through said leaks.
5. Apparatus for affecting ion content of gas including an ion generator, a xed condenser, a variable condenser, a high resistance leak around said fixed condenser, a leak around said variable condenser including gas to be aii'ected, and means for controlling operation of said ion generator` responsive to the rate of discharge of said variable condenser with respect to rate of discharge of said fixed condenser..
6. Apparatus for aiecting ion content of gas including an ion generator, an electromagnetic switch for controlling operation of said generator, two glow tube discharge relays for operating said switch, a starting circuit for one relay including a condenser and high resistance leak in parallel, a starting circuit for the other relay including a condenser in parallel with a leak including gas to be affected, and means for intermittently charging said condensers, said relay starting circuits being arranged so that the relay tube associated with the fastest leak lights first, and said relays being connected to said electromagnetic switch so that said ion generator is operated only when the relay tube associated with said high resistance leak lights first.
7. Apparatus for affecting ion content of gas including an ion generator, means for selectively causing movement of positive and negative ions from said generator, and means for controlling said first means responsive to the ratio of concentrations of positive and negative ions in gas to be affected.
8. Apparatus for afiectingion content of gas including an ion generator, means for selectively causing dispersion of positive and negative ions from said generator, two condensers, means for intermittently charging said condensers to the same potential and opposite polarity, a leak for each condenser including gas to be affected, and means for controlling said iirst means responsive to the diierential in rates of leakage around said condensers.
9. Apparatus for affecting ion content of. gas including an ion generator, means for selectively causing dispersion of positive and negative ions from said generator, two condensers of relatively variable capacities, means for intermittently charging said condensers to-opposite potentials, a leak around each of said condensers including gas to be aiected, and means for controlling said rst means responsive to diierential in rates of leakage around said condensers.
10. Apparatus for aiecting ion content of gas including an ion generator, means for selectively causing dispersion of positive and negative ions from said generator, an electromagnetic switch for controlling said means, two electricaldischarge tubes for controlling operation of said switch, a starting circuit for each tube including a condenser-and a leak around the condenser consisting of, gas to be aiected, and means for intermittently charging said condensers.
11. A methodv of maintaining constant the ion content of gas which includes sensing the ion content of gas to be affected, generating ions, and
introducing the generated ions into gas to be affected responsive to variation of ion content determined by said sensing with respect to a desired content.
12. A method of affecting ion content of gas which includes measuring the relative positive and negative ion content of gas to be affected, generating ions, and selectively introducing positive and negative ions into gas to be affected according tothe variation in ratio of positive to negative ion content of air to be affected as determined by said measurement with respect to a desired ratio.
13. In the art of affecting ion content of gas, that improvement which consists in creating two electrostatic fields, reducing-one of said fields at a given rate, reducing the other of said elds at a rate dependent upon the ion content of gas to be affected, and generating ions and introducing the generated ions into air to be affected responsive to variation in the relation between said rates of electrostatic field reductions.
14. In the art of affecting ion content of gas, that improvement which consists in creating two electrostatic iields by opposite potentials, causing decrease in said fields by leakage through a path including gasto be aifected, and generating ions and selectively dispersing positive and negative ions in gas to be affected responsive to variation in ratio of the rates of said electrostatic field reductions.
15. A method of affecting ion content of gas which includes generating ions, creating an electrostatic iield to cause movement of ions away from the place of generation, picking up the ions so moved in a stream of gas to be affected, Ineas-` uring the ratio .of positive and negative ions in the gas to be affected, and changing the direction of'said electrostatic iield responsive to variation in said ratio to add positive or negative ions to the gas to maintain a desired ratio.
16. A method of maintaining constant the ion content of gas which includes comparing ilow of electrical current through gas to be affected with flow of current through a determinate path and introducing ions into gas to be affected responsive to change in said comparison.
17. A method of conditioning air which includes measuring the ion content of air t0 be affected and selectively introducing positive and negative ions into the air in accordance with the ratio of positive to negative ion content as determined by said measurement to effect a del sired ratio.
18. In a method of conditioning air with respect to its ion content, that improvement which consists in measuring the ion content of air to be affected, generating ions, creating an electro-4 static field to cause movement of vions away from the place of generation, creating a stream of air to be aifected through said electrostatic field to pick up ions, reversing said field to selectively move positive and negative ions into said air stream, vand controlling said generation of ions responsive to said measurement of ion content of air to be aifected.
19. A method of conditioning air with respect to ion content which includes sensing the ion content of air to be affected, generating ions, producing an electrostatic iield to cause movement of ions away fromthe place of generation,
producing a stream of airthrough said eld to V NILS TORSTEN JOHAN WILNER.