US 2266219 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 16, 1941. G LARRNA 2,266,219
AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPARATUS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 22, 1938 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec- 16, 1941..- (5. AQ LARRIVA AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPARATUS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 22, 1938 B I} 5? 17 20 16' w I 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 rial z QI'WQ/WM: 11 9 Genarp A.L,arr,|:'qa,
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G A LARRIVA AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPARATUS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 22, 1938 Dec. 16, 1941.
Dec. 16, 1941. s. A. LARRIVA 2,266,219
AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPARATUS THEREFOR Filed 001:. 22, 1938 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig. 6.
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hot and dry climates lished, whereby,
Patented Dec. 16, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM MD OFFICE mmros rimaaroa Gcnaro A. Lari-in, Tucson, Ariz. Application October 22, 1938, Serial No. 236,486
4 Claims. (CI. 62-139) The present invention relates to air-conditionmeans for eflecting that Two of the common methods for cooling air in are, first,
of the above assumed lower than either or both without the aid of any minimum temperatures external source of refrigeration.
In c out my invention, I take the raw (fresh) outdoor air from any point outside of the air-conditioned or a mixture of this outdoor air and conditioned air from and cause the same to enter an apparatus embodying the invention. when required, this incoming air may be first dehydrated in order to effect and maintain an established dew-point or a dew-point equivalent to the atmospheric dew-point desired within a secondary'stream. The p is caused to circulate into relation with the secondary about said primary stream of air and is. or may be divided into several supplemental streams in order that an eifective counterflow may be estabone portion or a supplemental stream of this secondary stream for further reducingthe dry-bulb temperature of the latter, with the result that the without adding moisture thereto. Therefore,
ducing air of any desired dry-bulb temperature with a certain wet-bulb temperature, or of a certain dew-point at a certain dry-bulb temperature, or 01 a certain relative humidity at a certain dry-bulb temperature, is accomplished withieaving air to its original wet-bulb temperature, or to an artificial wetbulb temperature brought about by cooling mediums or sources outside of the apparatus used method of cooling air with equally good results as that of certain expensive refrigeration systems, which may be carried out within one compact enclosure, the cost of construction of which conditioning air to the desired dry-bulb temperature without changing the moisture content'thereof and which dry-bulb temperature has its lower limits solely defined by the dew-point of the air within the unit.
A further important object of the present inventionis to provide a multi-stage heat transfer unit of an economical and commercially feasible construction having an extremely low cost of operation and which is composed of a companying drawings wherein like 2 a other for maintaining the unit in condition for maximum performance.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide an economical, convenient and compact multi-stage, self-regenerating, dehumidifying unit using suitable agents or chemicals for dehydrating artificially to any established or desired dew-point air to be subsequently used in conditioning a given area or enclosure, which will intermittently and automatically regenerate or re-activate the dehydrating agents, whereby the latter may be repeatedly and continuously used throughout their useful life.
The further manifold objects of the invention will be in part obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter.
In order that the invention and its mode of operation may be readily understood by persons skilled in the art, I have in the accompanying drawings and in the detailed following description based thereupon, set out an embodiment of the same.
In the drawings,
Fig; 1 is a vertical sectional view through the main casing or housing for the apparatusembodying the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a detailed transverse vertical section on a slightly reduced scale of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, on the line 2-2 in the direction of the arrow points.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view, partly in section, of the multi-stage heat exchange unit.
Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the heat exchange unit casing showing the latter positioned therein. The heat exchange unit is shown partly in end elevation and partly in section.
Fig. 5 is a detailed sectional perspective view of the heat exchange unit.
Fig. 6 is a detailed horizontal-section through the main casing showing the dehydrating casing mounted therein, which latter is shown in section and the dehydrating unit shown partly in section and partly in elevation.
' Fig. '7 is a vertical sectional 'iew similar to Fig. 1 of a slightly mo ified form of the apparatus embodying the present invention.
Fig. 8 is a similar view of a slightly modified form of the invention.
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view through an apparatus illustrating another modification of the present invention, and
Figs. 10 and 11 also illustrate additional modifications in apparatus for carrying out the present invention.
Referring now more particularly to the acand corresponding parts are designated by similar reference characters throughout the several views, I have herein illustrated part of a cubical casing I within which is situated the entire apparatus comprising the invention. This main or outer casing of the apparatus, as is better illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 of the drawings, comprise a bottom 2. side walls 3 and I, and end walls 5 and 6, all of which normally establish an open upper end. Secured within this main casing is a heat exchange unit housing or casing comprising the end Walls I and 8, each of which extend in a vertical direction from the bottom 2 and are arranged in spaced relation between the side walls 3 and l ofthe main casing, thereby forming a compartment in which the heat exchange unit may be arranged. Formed with or secured in any suitable manner to the walls 3, 4, I and 3 the moist air duct 25,
and spaced-from the bottom 2 is a horizontally arranged partition 3 forming within the heat exchange housing a sump Ill and a heating chamber The top l2 of the heat exchange and connected opposite edges secured to the of the main casing.
The sidewall 3 of the main casing an opening forme ing for housing latter comprises a side wall l5, as is better shown in Figure 6 of the drawings, which normally closes the opening within the side wall 3 of the main casing and extends contiguous therewith. This dehydrating unit casing also comprises the vertical walls l6, l1 and I8, all having their inner vertical edges converging to a common center for forming a bearing 3'. The outer edge of the wall I3 is connected to ,the wall l5 by means of a vertical wall l9 and this latter lies within and closes an opening formed within the wall 5 of the main casing, whereas, one edge of the wall I! is connected by a wall 20 to the wall l5 and this wall 20 lies within and closes an opening formed within the wall II. The walls l5, l6, l1, l9 and 20 form a hot air chamber or duct 2|, the upper end of which converges into a smaller outlet or chimney 22, as is shown in Figure 1 of the drawings, whereas, the lower end of this duct 2| is closed by means of a bottom wall or partition having an opening therein which is in communication with the heating chamber II by means of the duct 23. When this dehydrating unit casing is placed within the main casing, the walls I5 and I3 thereof, together with the walls I and 5 ofthe main casing, form an air inlet duct 2|. The wall 4 of the main casing,'the wall|3 supported upon the heat exchange casing and the walls l1 and ll of the'dehydratingfunit casing establish a moist air outlet duct 25. The walls 11 and ll of the dehydrating unit casing have formed therewith a cowl 28 having fins 21 formedupon the outer surface thereof, all of which are suspended within the moist air duct 25. This moist air duct 25 has arranged therein for closing the upper end of the same, a horizontally extending partition 23 and this latter has seated therein a casing 29 containing a wet air blower. The lower end of this casing 29 communicates with whereas, the upper end is provided with an outlet 3|! whereby the moist air from the duct 25 may be discharged therefrom.
The walls 3, l and 6 of the gether with the wall 3 of the heat exchange unit casing and the wall l4 extending from the latter, form a conditioned air duct 3|. A partition 32 which extends between the walls 5 and 3 closes the lower end of this air duct 3|, whereas, another partition 33 closes the upper end of this air duct. Seated within the partition 33 is a casing 34 housing an air blower therein and the lower end of this casing 34 communicates with the air duct 3|, whereas, the upper end of this casing is provided with an outlet 35 for conducting the cooled air to the room or other area to be conditioned. The wall l3 of the dehydrating unit casing extends contiguous with the upper end of the wall 1 of the heat exchange unit casing whereby the walls 3, l and 5 of the main casing, together with the wall 1, establish a duct 33, the
may have a caswhich main casing toupper end of which is at all times in communication with the air inlet duct 24. The walls I and 5 of the heat exchange unit casing are provided with openings 31 and 38 respectively, whereby a passageway is established through this casing between the ducts 35 and 3|. The top l2 of the heat exchange casing is provided with an opening 39 which establishes a means of communication between the interior of the heat exchange unit casing and the moist air duct 25.
Arranged within the .upper end of, the heat exchange unit casing is a plurality of horizontally extending spaced water troughs 40 which are to be supplied with water from a perforated sprinkler pipe 4|. The water from these troughs 45 is allowed to normally flow directly though the heat exchange casing and drop by gravity into the sump ID. A float valve controlled inlet 42 permits a water'level 43 to be maintained in this sump l0, whereas, an outlet pipe 44 is arranged within the sump for permitting water to be drawn therefrom to a motor driven pump 45, which latter in turn supplies the water through the pipe 45 to the sprinkler pipe 4|.
The air blowers arranged within the casings 29 and 34 are driven by means of an electric motor "supportedby the main casing and jointly connected to the driven shafts of the blowers by means of the pulley 48, whereby when these blowers are set in motion, air will be drawn in through the duct 24 through the heat exchange casing into the ducts 25 and 3| and finally discharged through the outlet openings or passageways 30 and 25. These blowers may be so arranged as when they are at rest, the outlets to the ducts 35 and 30 may be closed fora purpose which will be later described.
Extending across the duct 35 and supported at its upper end by means of the wall 1 above the inlet opening 31 of the heat exchange unit casing and its lower end being supported by means of a bracket 49 is a mat 50 containing suitable air filtering material whereby the incoming air from the duct 24 will be filtered before entering the heat exchange unit casing.
The side walls 3 and 4 of the main casing have secured thereto tracks 52 which extend horizontally from the wall 8 of the heat exchange casing to the end wall 5 of the main casing and this wall 5 may have a closure controlled opening 53 I formed therein, whereby access may be gained from the exterior of the main casing of the apparatus into the interior of the heat exchange casing, whereby a heat exchange unit may be inserted into or removed from this heat exchange imit casing when it is required to clean the same or make repairs thereto.
The dehydrating unit consists of a rotatable carrier or drum 54 having its upper end opened and a perforated bottom 55, upon the latter of which is supported a plurality of containers 55 having arranged therein suitable dehydrating agents .or chemicals, such as silica gel, activated alumina and like hygroscopic compositions which readily absorb and retain water and are particularly adapted for reducing to a low dew-point, air that may pass therethrough or thereon. The upper marginal edge of this carrier is provided with gear teeth 51 which mesh with a; gear wheel 58 driven by an electric motor suspended from and carried by the dehydrating unit casing. Radially extending partitions (not shown) are arranged within the drum 54 for establishing therein three compartments indicated by the letters A, B and C and in each compartment there is arranged any desired number of the containers 55 having the dehydrating agents therein. This drum 54 is supported by a shaft extending through the bearrection, it will pass through openings formed within the walls l6, l1 and I8 of the dehydrating unit casing. The radially extending dividing partitions arranged .within the drum close the openings within the walls I8, I! and I8 when the drum is at rest in order to prevent the escape of air or other gases from the ducts 2| and 24. An intermittent rotary movement is given this drum 54 whereby the several compartments A, B and C may at times be brought within the respective ducts 2| and 24 and the cowl 25. The section A. which is shown in Figure 6 of the drawings as being positioned within the air inlet duct 24, will, during the first intermittent rotary movement of the drum, be caused to enter the duct 2| where it is subjected to heat for drying the hygroscopic materials arranged therein and during the next intermittent rotary movement, the section A will be moved so as to be positioned within the cowl where it may be subjected to a cooling treat- -ment. During these two intermittent rotary movements of the drum, the compartment C will be caused to first move within the air inlet duct 24 and subsequently moved within the hot air duct 2| and. likewise, the compartment B will be first moved within the cowl 25 and then moved within the air inlet duct 24.
This rotary intermittent movement may be transmitted thereto as often as it may be required to regenerate or reactivate the dehydrating units employed.
The heat exchange or transfer unit, as is better illustrated in Figures 3 to 5 inclusive of the drawings, comprises a casing consisting of a pair of side walls 59 and 5|! which are connected along their opposite marginal edges by means of the end walls 5| and 52 and this casing is supported by means of casters or rollers HI, which latter are mounted for travel within the tracks 52 carried by the side walls 3 and 4 of the main casing, in order that this heat exchange unit may be inserted within or withdrawn from the housing or casing for the unit. The end walls and 52 are provided with a plurality of vertically extending and equally spaced slots 53. The respective slots within these end walls are in alignment and their upper ends are opened, whereby one or more tubes 54 may be inserted through the upper opened ends of the slots 53 and be totally supported by the end walls BI and "'52 of the unit casing.
These tubes 54 are preferably made from thin heat conducting metal and are of a rectangular configuration in cross section. The outer ends of each tube have secured thereto headers 55 which by means of bolts or similar fastening elements 55 are detachably connected to the outer faces of the end walls BI and 52 of the unit casing.
Arranged within each tube 54 are fins 55 of honeycomb construction for effecting a larger wiping surface'for the air as it passes through the interior of these tubes, whereas, a plurality of spaced fins or plates 51 are formed with the outer face of each tube, which latter provide additional vertical wiping surfaces for the air and moisture passing thereover and thereby making a better approach of the temperatures the supporting casing or a stack of two tubes may be employed, as is illustrated in Figures 1,
- 3, 4 and 5 of the drawings, but in any event, the
. drawings, or tubes of shorter length may be placed upon these longer tubes, as is illustrated in Figures 1, 3, 4 and 5 of the drawings, but in this latter case, a supplemental wall ll similar to the end wall 62 is secured to the side walls 59 and 50 of the supporting casing, whereby the supplemental wall II will act as'a support and holder for one end of each of the tubes which are of shorter length. In the form of heat exchange unit as shown in Figure 'l of the drawings, the tubes of greater length are supported upon the tubes of shorter length, but the tubes of shorter length have each only two sets of plates or dividers 51, whereas, the longer tubes are provided with five plates 51. From this arrangement, it will be obvious from Figures 1 and 3 of the draw ings that the ducts 69 are so divided by means of the plates 61 as to form six rows of vertically extending channelways and in these channelways is arranged suitable moisture holding material 12 such as excelsior or the like for retaining or retarding within the several channelways of the ducts 53, the flow of water from the troughs 40 as it flows through the several channelways of the ducts into the sump l0.
By mounting the heat exchange unit upon the rollers or casters 10, it may be readily and easily inserted through the opening 53 of the main casing into the heat casing or, when required, it may be removed therefrom, whereby, access may be gained for cleaning the ducts 59 between the tubes of the unit or replacing excelsior therein, as may be required. Each tub 54, being of the same construction and design. is interchangeable and, therefore, may be readily replaced or new tubes substituted therefor should they become worn or need repairs. The lower ends of the first row of fins or plates 61, that is, the row of plates 61 tliafiarepositioned adjacent the wall 6| of the casing therefor, may have projections extending therefrom or a plate 13 attached thereto, which latter projects within the sump l0 and its lower end is arranged below the water line 43 forming a sealed closure between the duct 35 and several of the channelways oi the ducts 59 within the heat exchange unit, whereby, the incoming air may pass from the duct 36 into the first channelways D between the tubes 64 and, finally, be drawn into the moist air duct 25. Other deflectors or bafiles 14 may be connected to the heat exchange unit for directing the flow of air to th several channelways of the ducts 59.
In this preferred form of the invention as shown in Figures 1 to 6 inclusive of the drawings, the raw (fresh) outer air or a mixture of this outer air and reconditioned air from the area being air-conditioned may enter the main casing I through the duct 24.
As the exhaust fans or blowers arranged within the casing 29 and 34 are set in motion, this outdoor air will be drawn through the duct 24 where it may pass over the dehydrating agents supported within section Act the drum 54 or when using the apparatus in climates where it is unnecessary to remove moisture from the incoming air, the containers 53 may be removed from the section A, whereby, the incoming air may freely pass through the perforated bottom 55 of the drum into the duct 33 where it is drawn through the filtering mat 53. Asthis incoming air leaves the mat 50, it is divided up into a primary stream and one or more secondary streams by means of the heat exchange unit. This primary stream of air having an established or desired dew-point is drawn through the opening 31 of the heat exchange unit casing into the lower and longer tubes 54 of the heat exchange unit and then exhaust from these tubes 54 through the opening 38 into the duct 3| in a substantially dry state, or at the same entering dew-point. This duct 3| may be of larger area than the combined area of the passageways within the tubes 34 whereby the air may be expanded. This air is then drawn through the blower casing 34 and finally discharged through the outlet 35 into the enclosure or area to be air-conditioned.
Part of the incoming air passes around the filter mat 50 and will be drawn by means of the blower mounted within the' casing through the vertical channelways D, where it will come in direct contact with the moisture holding or retaining material 12 where it is cooled by evaporation, and this evaporative cooling medium will effect anhydrously a primary cooling of the primary stream of air, and then this moist air from the channelways D will pass through the opening 39 into the moist air duct 25. Other secondary streams of air will, bymeans of the blower arranged within the casing 23, be drawn through the opening 31 into the upper tubes 54 or tubes of shorter length.-- This substantially dry stream of secondary air willthen discharge within the compartment 15 where it will meet with a water mist flowing from the troughs 43 and then enter the vertical channelways E between the tubes 64, where it passes through the moisture retaining material arranged therein for eilecting an evaporative cooling of this'stream 01' secondary air. From the lower ends of these channelways E, these secondary streams of air pass over the water contained in the sump l0 and enter the lower ends of the vertical channelways F arranged between the tubes 64. While passing through the moisture retaining material arranged within the channelways F, these secondary streams of air are subjected to a further evaporative cooling until they enter the moist air duct 25 through the opening 39 formed within the top of the heat exchange unit casing. As this cooled moist air passes through the duct 25, it will contact the outer surfaces of the cowl 25 for cooling the same and the dehydrating agents as they pass through this cowl. Finally, this moist air is drawn through the casing 29 and then discharged to the outside through the outlet 33.
From this arrangement, it will be apparent that these secondary streams of air as they pass through the upper tubes 54, are cooled anhydrously without increasing their moisture content and then are subjected to an adiabatic evaporative cooling. These secondary streams of air while passing through the channelways F will cause to efiect anhydrously the second stage of cooling to the primary stream of air as it passes through the longer tubes 64 and these secondary streams of air as they flow through the channelways E will effect anhydrously anassume the position hydrating agents while in the duct 24.
other and more intense cooling of theprima'ry streams before they leave the tubes 84.
By employing this multi-pass heat-transfer unit, air may be cooled ature of the secondary stream of air, without the aidof any supplemental cooling or refrigerating equipment. Furthermore, by arranging the shorter tubes upon the longer tubes and providing the channelways D, E and F between these tubes, an eil'ective counterfiow of the secondary streams of air about the primary streams is established without coming into direct contact with the latter. 'Ilhe streamsof wet secondary air passing through the chanelways D will naturally pick up more heat (because of the temperature dinerence) than each of the succeeding sections or channelways E and F, so that by the time the dry primary streams of air have reached the ends of the tubes 64, the wet passages on the outside of these tubes will have brought the temperature of the primary streams of air to a point or degree approaching the wet-bulb temperature of the wet streams of secondary air at that point.
When it becomes necessary to use the multistage, self-regeneratingv dehydrator, the entering air as it is drawn through the duct 24 passes downwardly through the section A of the drum 54 where it comes into contact with the hygroscopic compositions arranged therein and moisture taken from this air, and the amount of moisture so taken is controlled by giving an intermittent rotary motion to this drum whereby when the saturation point of the compositions has-been reached in section A, the latter may be moved and assume the position of section B within the hot air duct 2|, the section B will then assume the position of section C within the cooling chamber of the cowl 26 and the section C will of the section A within the duct 24, whereby a fresh or regenerated supply of the hygroscopic composition will be presented to the incoming air. This rotary intermittent movement is given the drum 54 as often as is required in order to maintain a desired or established dew-point before the incoming air enters stant. After a sufficient amount of moisture has been picked up by the compositions in this section A, this latter section is caused to be moved into the duct 2| over a gas burner I! arranged therein, where heat will be hydrating agents to force them to give up the absorbed moisture. This moisture will leave through the stack 22 together with the products of combustion. At the same time this drying up" of the dehydrating agents by heating is Y place, the section C that has moved into the duct 24 will be absorbing moisture from the incoming air stream. When the section C is ready to be moved into duct 2|, the section A will be dry and ready to move into the cooling chamber within the cowl 26 where the dehydrating agents carried thereby will be dry cooled. The wet air stream in duct 25, however, will be considerably cooler than the reheated section A entering the chamber of the cowl 26 and this latter will serve as a con ductor of heat for carrying the latter from the section A into this wet air stream for outside discharge. The action upon the section A while in the duct 24 is for the latent heat of condensation to be given out, this heat caused by the condensation of moisture absorbed by the dcto the wet-bulb 'temper-' as required. Also, any
The action in that section A while in the duct 2| is to put back into the moisture absorbed by the dehydrating agents, the latent heat of vaporization that was given off in duct 24 and thus cause the moisture in these dehydrating agents to evaporate, drying the dehydrating agents. Practically, however, it will have added a considerable amount of extra heat to cause it to give up its moisture. It is therefore desirable to cool this heated section in order to remove this excessive heat over and above the amount taken by the latent heat of vaporization in evaporating the moisture out of the dehydrating agents. .Obviously, these cooled, dried dehydrating agents can be used again and the process repeated as often section and would, therefore, ing load for the first stages unit to pick up.
make a larger coolof the heat-transfer However, any means for dewithin casing 29 remains stationary, whereby the upper end of the moist air duct 25 is dampered shut. The blower within the casing 34 is brought into use whereby a stream of air is drawn through the duct 24 into the duct 36,-where it is filtered applied to the deafter passing through the mat 50. This stream of air is then drawn through the longer tubes troughs 40 from where it may flow by gravity through the channelways D, E and F and settle again within this sump l0. Arranged within the compartment H is a gas burner 1! or similar heating unit which is within the sump l0 and the particles of combustion from this compartment H can pass through theduct 23 and escape through the chimney 22. This heated water as it passes through the heat exchange unit, will obviously raise the temperature of the air passing through the tubes 64, whereby the heated dry air may be used for heating the enclosure oonnected to the outlet 35. 7
From the above, it is apparent that I can produce a compact apparatus which will be comspective of the weather installed and one which cool conditioned air may be supplied to a home, room or other enclosure when required and, further, one whichmay be used for heating. a home, room or other enclosure. I
Figure I of the drawings presents a modification of the apparatus hereinbefore described. This modification consists of the same cubical casing and arrangement of walls as disclosed in the previous apparatus. In this present apparatus, the air is drawn into the air inlet duct 24 and through the dehydrating drum where the moisture is absorbed therefrom to give the air a definite dew-point. The air continues from the drum through the air filter 50 where it is divided up into a primary stream and secondary stream as it passes into the multi-pass heat exchange of the air, whichever is the lowest, while at the same time, the air by its absorption causes the water to be cooled by evaporation. This cooled water and air which is passed between the horizontal tubes cools, by conduction, the dry primary stream of air passing horizontally through the same. The secondary stream of air passing through the shorter tubes opens into a chamber 86 with substantially the same dew-point but with unit. The primary stream of air passes through the longer tubes of the heat exchange unit, into the duct 3| in a manner which is substantially similar to that of the principal apparatus. In this modification, the heat exchange unit has its shorter tubes at the bottom of the longer tubes which are in the top position, or in the inverse order of the similar heat exchange unit as previously described. Positioned beneath the vertical channelways G is a sump Ill containing water,,which sump is provided with a ball valve for controlling the level of the water therein from an outside source of water. A pipe system 18 is connected to said sump and runs upwardly and above wet channelways G to supply water to distribution trays mounted across the top thereof. A water pump 19 is mounted within pipe system II for giving the liquid therein Beneath wet channelways H is a second sump 80 separated from the first sump It by wall 8|.
Pipe 82, which is connected to an outside source for supplying liquid, passes through said first sump in such a manner as to be surrounded by the liquid therein and continues on into said second sump where a ball valve controls the flow of liquid from the pipe 82 to maintain a definite level within said second, sump. Water is drawn from said second sump by pump 90 connected thereto. Said pump 90 then forces the water upwardly through pipe 83 to the distribution troughs above the wet channelways H. Wet air exhaust duct has mounted therein a dividing wall 84, which dividing wall continues irom the exhaust fan casing the heat exchange unit casing to completely separate the flow of air and liquids of wet channel ways G from wet channelways H. The wall ll has an opening formed therein which is normally closed by means of a pivotally mounted door 85, which latter when opened to the dotted position shown closes that section of the moist air duct leading from the channelways H of the heat exchange unit and permits blower 3| to draw moist air through opening at ll when desired for adding moisture to conditioned area.
In the operation of the device, the incoming air in duct 24 has a portion thereof passing around the filter mat 50 and continuing downward to a point directly beneath wet channelways G and is caused to travel upwardly therethrough by means of the wet air exhaust fan. secondary stream of air which has not been dehydrated meets the flow of water coming downwardly from the water distribution trays above wet channelways G and it immediately absorbs considerable moisture, which absorption lowers the dry-bulb temperature thereof to the temperature of the water, or the origin l w tu 29 downwardly to the top of an upward lift.
a lower wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperature than it had upon its entrance to the tubes of the heat exchange unit. This air in chamber 86, which is a secondary stream of air, passes upwardly towards and through wet channelways H and in so doing, is met by water coming down from the water distribution trays thereabove. This secondary stream of air with its lowered wet-bulb temperature absorbs the moisture and is cooled thereby to its new wet-bulb temperature, while at the same time, the air cools the water by evaporation. This secondary stream of air passing upwardly through wet channelways H further, cools the primary stream of air passing through the longer tubes to the duct 3|. wet stream of air passing through channelways G passes on upwardly around the cowling for cooling the dehydrating drum and on out into the atmosphere outside of the enclosure being conditioned. The other moist stream of air passing upwardly through wet channelways H is of a lower temperature than said first wet stream and it is therefore desirable to separate it from said first stream by means of wall 84. If it is desirable to further humidity and slightly cool the air within duct ll, then door can be swun open to guide the second stream of air into said duct 3|, inasmuch as said door acts as a damper to stop the flow of "air thereby. the channelways can be considerably lowered and, therefore, the air therethrough can be correspondingly cooled to a lower point. By this arrangement, the efiect of counterfiow can be obtained as hereinbefore described.
when it is desired to use the apparatus for heating a room, the gas burner 11 below said first sump is placed in operation and thereby heats the liquid therein. By conduction, the liquid in said sump heats the liquid within pipe 82, whereby the liquid within said second sump is also caused to be heated upon receiving the heated liquid from said pipe 02. By opening door 85, without pump Ill being in operation, the air leaving shorter tubes 8 will be partially humidified by heated water in sump 80, and will pass upwardly through H, through opening at ll, into blower 34 for discharge into enclosure being airconditioned. If additional humidification is required, pump feeding pipes 83 from heated water in second sump ll can be operated intermittently and automatically to furnish any humidity required while door '5 is opened as described. It will be found, however, that this procedure will be very seldom required, and pump 90 will usually operate only during the cooling. season.
Another modification of the original apparatus is disclosed in Figure 8. This modification is quite similar to the original apparatus described. except that a heat transfer unit instead of having superimposed tubes of different lengths as is better illustrated in Figures 1 and 5 consists of tubes 64 which are all of the same length.
By separating. G from the channelways H, the temperature of the liquid within channelways H through which passes the primary stream of dry air, while the spaces between said horizontal tubes form vertical ducts which correspond tothe moist air ducts 69 as are better illustrated in Figure divided into as many channelways as may be required by means of the fins the same as those fins 61 as are better illustrated in Figures3 and 5 of the drawings carried by one side of each of said tubes and extending across the space between eachpair thereof. As in all of the heat exchange units comprising part of the present invention, excelsior or other moisture absorbing substances may be placed in the vertical or wet channelways of the heat exchange units.
In the present modification, the air entersthe air inlet duct 24, passes through the dehydrating drum 54 where its dew-point is set by the absorption'of the moisture therefrom and passes on into air filter 81. The air then passes from air filter 81 directly through the tubes of the heat transfer unit, where, upon leaving said heat transfer unit, it is met by a cooling and humidifying mat 89, which will be better described hereinafter. A second stream of air enters within casing I through slots 99 from the outside of easing I and is drawn upwardly and around the water sump I0, up into the vertical or wet channelways of the heat exchange unit where this incoming stream of air is met by a downcoming stream of liquids from the water distribution trays above the heat transfer unit. This upgoing air is cooled by absorbing moisture and at the same time, lowers the cooling point of said water by causing the evaporation thereof and also lowers the temperature of the air in the tubes 64. Both the air in the tubes 94 and in the'wet channelways have their dry-bulb temperatures lowered to the temperature of the cooled water or the wet-bulb temperature of the air in the wet section, that is, whichever is the lowest. The wet 4o stream of air passes upwardly through the duct 25 around the cowling 26 and thereby cools said dehydrating drum and passes on outwardly into the atmosphere through the outlet 30 beyond the enclosure being cooled. The up leaving the heat transfer unit and in passing through the cooling and humidifying mat 89 is both cooled and has moisture added thereto and passes on upwardly through duct 3| past the exhaust blower in casing 94 and through a further means 90 positioned within the duct 3| for further cooling and ,dehumidifying air as much as possible, from where the air passes out into the space 9| being cooled, where it causes a circulation of the air therein and finally passes outwardly through a return duct where it may, if desired, return to air inlet duct 24.
The wet, cool stream of air passing outwardly through the wet air exhaust duct 90 can pass by and through a condenser 92 of arefrigerating unit mounted across said duct 25 This condenser is thereby cooled by conduction as the cool air passes therearound. The refrigerating unit coupled to said condenser may be used to cool the air passing through the air distribution duct, as for example at 90.
In this modification, it is to be noted that both exhaust fans are operatively coupled to one motor 93 and in this manner, the cost of a second motor is eliminated, as well as having the operation cost of the twin blowers lowered.
In the winter operation of the present device as in other modifications, the gas burner 11 below the sump is operated to heat the liquid in the sump and thereby heats the water. This dry stream of air 5 and connected to the exhaust end of heated water passing downward from dlstributo troughs serves as the means whereby the air within the dry tubes 94 of the heat transfer unit is heated. The cooling and humldifying mat is supplied with liquid from a 'sump 94 directly therebeneath by means of a water circulation pump 95 and pipe 96. This second sump 94 receives its liquid from pipe 91 which has passed through said first sump I0 from a water supply system and the liquid within whose height is regulated by a ball valve upon the end of said pipe 91 is thereby heated. As the air from the dry tubes 64 of the heat'transfer unit passes through said mat 98, it has the heated moisture-addedthereto. This heated and through the blower humidified air passes out into the space to be heated. Of course, where it is necessary to addmoisture to the air within duct 3|, the dehumidii'ying drum 54 is not placed in operation and, conversely, where it is necessary to take away moisture from the air coming inwardly through the air inlet duct, said dehydrating drum is operated to absorb the moisture therefrom, whereas, no liquid is passed downwardly through said mat and, therefore,- the air within duct 3| will retain the same dewpoint as the air which entered the heat transfer unit or both the dehumidifying drum and the matused in such a manner that a low dew-point is first obtained for cooling purposes and then the air is humidified by the mat. Figure 9 is quite similar to Figure 8 but shows an apparatus which has eliminated the dehydrating apparatus and which receives its primary stream of air directly to within the casing through an air cleaner 98 and the secondary stream of air through openings 89. The operation of the apparatus of said Figure 9 is for the most part shown similar to that of the apparatus of Figure 8 but is somewhat more economical to build and is efiicient for dry atmosphere where, at times, it is only necessary to humidity and not dehumidify the. air being treated.
A further form of apparatus is shown in Figure 10 for carrying out the method of conditioning air asdescribed in the previous modifications.
As shown, a cubical casing having an opening formed in one side thereof for the entrance of air to points within the casing, supports therein the apparatus necessary forconditioning the air as desired. Directly within this casing endinterposed between said opening and an air blower is an air filter 99. Said air blower is operatively connected by belt I00 to a motor IOI for causing the rotation of the blades of said blower. In line said air blower is a heat exchange unit I02 for cooling or heating air as, desired. Positioned directly beneath said heat exchange unit is a water sump I03 which has a water inlet pipe controlled by 'a float valve I04 positioned therewith. Directly beneath said water sump in turn is positioned a gas burner I05 or other heating means. Pipe system I06, which has a water pump I 06' interposed therein, has one end thereof mounted within said water sump I03, while the opposite end is mounted above a series of water distribution trays I06" arranged within the wet air'exhaust duct I91 directly above wet channelways of the heat exchange unit I02. The water circulating pump I06 is rotated by means of 'a belt I 08 connected to the rotating axle of said air blower and is so operated thereby as to draw liquid from the sump I03 and lift it vertically trays through said pipe system.
said second sump to the water distribution zontal tubes. The wet Said heat exchange unit I02 has a lower opened end hood I09 which directs a primary stream of air to the tubes El thereof from said air blower and a secondary stream of air is directed by means of the deflectors or bailles H to the vertical channelways arranged between the tubes 64 of the heat exchange unit. The entrance to the tubes of the unit is entirely enclosed, whereby the primary stream of air is guided, with the aid of baiiles extending from the unit proper, to within these horizontal tubes. The horizontal tubes of the unit carry on one outer side thereof vertical fins, which fins are extended at their lower end outside of the exchange unit proper to form curved baiiies Ill! for guiding the secondary stream of air upwardly into the heat exchange unit into the sections formed by the fins and horizontal tubes. Directly above the wet channelways of the secondary stream of air is the wet air exhaust duct I01 for guiding the wet air to any point outside of the casing or enclosure being conditioned, preferably to the outdoors. The dry tubes 64 of said heat exchange unit has an air distribution duct Ill extending therefrom for directing the treated air to within the room being conditioned and mounted within said air distribution duct at a point close to said casing is a mat I I! for further cooling and humidifying the air when desired. As shown, means is provided by way of a pipe ill for distributing water to said mat from pipe I08. The flow of this water is suitably governed by a Solenoid valve H4 or like means, which may be set to permit water to spray down to within the mat which comprises excelsior or other moisture absorbing material situated within a casing having two faces thereof formed with a series of small openings for permitting air to go through the excelsior and thereby receive moisture for cooling and humidifying the said air. Positioned directly beneath said mat and connected thereto by an opening formed in said air distribution duct III is a suitable drain H5 for gathering the liquid dropping from said mat and conveying the same to said water sump. In the operation of the present device where it is desired to cool air, said motor is placed in. operation, whereby the blades in said air blower are caused to rotate and the said water pump is also rotated. In this manner, air is drawn through the air filter 99 where it is cleaned and drawn into the air blower where, in turn, it is discharged through the exhaust opening thereof. The upper portion of the air coming from the blower passes upwardly and is guided by the said baflies into the horizontal tubes of the heat exchange unit where it passes on through the mat into the air distribution duct. The secondary stream or lower stream of air from the blower is guided by the baflles H0 upwardly through the wet channelways of the heat exchange unit. This secondary stream of air is met by downwardly falling water coming from the water distribution trays and absorbs part of this moisture and has its dry-bulb temperature lowered to the temperature of the water or to the original wet-bulb temperature of the air, whichever of the two is the lowest. At the same time, this upwardly moving air cools the downwardly flowing water by causing the evaporation of a portion thereof. This cooled wet stream of air cools the primary stream of air by conduction through the passage of the secondary stream of stream of air direct contact has therefore If this air is drier than desired, the solenoid valve or like means will permit water to be distributed over said mat, whereby the air passing through the excelsior which has absorbed said water will be humidified to the point desired and will at the same time be cooled. The passage of the dry air around the moist excelsior causes evaporation of the water and this moistening of the dry air will lower its dry-bulb temperature and will also cool the water remaining in the mat. .By placing the water in an absorbing mass, such as excelsior,
'less water is required to effect the humidifying and cooling, inasmuch as thesame moves downwardly at a slower rate than a stream of sprayed water. This slow downward movement of the water permits it to be more readily cooled, inasmuch as more air can pass thereover than if the water were moving at a faster rate. Therefore, it is obvious that a mat of the type described is economical to operate with better results than by spraying or using other means for distributing the water throughout the passage of the air.
When it is desired to use a unit as just described for heating a room, the gas burner below the-sump is operated to heat the liquid within the sump and the wet air exhaust duct is suitably closed. The air forming the primary stream will be heated due to the passage around the horizontal'tubes and between the fins of the heated liquid from the water distribution trays. Further, the water supply for said humidifying mat will be a branch of pipe system I06, connecting the same through said branch pipe to said sump pipe system and thereby the water delivered to said mat will be heated. The amount of moisture here imparted to the air may be suitably controlled by means of humidostat in conditioned area controlling operation of solenoid valve H4.
The unit as just described is economical to operate due to the fact that only one motor is necessary and there are a smaller number of rotating members than in any of the previously described apparatuses. Apparatus of this type is extremely economical to construct and as is obvious, will have approximately the minimum in operation cost.
In Figure 11 of the drawings is disclosed a second unit wherein only one air blower is required. In this apparatus, a cubical casing having an opening formed in one side thereof has interposed between the inlet opening of the air blower and said opening of the wall, an air filter air and the water around the fins and the horistream of air continues unit H8. The upper portion H6 for cleaning the air. At the exhaust opening of the air blower is positioned and carried thereby suitable tubing for dividing the air emerging therefrom into a primary and secondary stream of air. As shown, a section Ill of said tubing extends downwardly to N9 of said tubing extends upwardly, then horizontally and then downwardly to a point directly over said heat exchange unit. A second piece of tubing I20 which is connected to a ,wet air exhaust duct I21 emerging from the top of said cubical casing, extends at right angles to said duct horizontally, then vertically downward and then horizontally. Said first tubing N9 of the secondary stream of air passes between and through and is thereby surrounded by said vertical section of the second piece I20 of tubing of the secondary stream.
a heat exchange beneath said sump is a heating means I23. As
water pump I24 is interposed' in Figure 10, a within a pipe system connected at one end to said sump and at the other end to water distributing means I28 and is driven by the rotating axle of said air blower. Connected to and extending from the exhaust end of said heat exchange unit is an air distribution duct I25 for distributing the air to within an area being conditioned. In said distribution duct is positioned a suitably arranged water sprayer I26 which has liquid sup plied thereto through a water pump I21. driven by a motor, which pump receives its liquid from within said first sump or from its own individual sump, not shown, whose level can be suitably controlled by a ball valve.
In the operation of the present apparatus, said motor causes the air blower to suck air in through the air filter and opening in said casing. Said blower then forces the air outwardly through its exhaust opening where it is met by the upper and lower system of tubing. The air passing into the lower system or primary stream passes through a heat exchange unit of a construction similar to the heat exchange unit of Figure 10. That is, this primary stream of air passesthrough horizontal tubes out into an exhaust duct I 25 where moisture may be added thereto by the operation of the water spray I26 or if the moisture content of the air is suflicient, then said water spray is not necessary. The secondary stream of air which passes up into the first portion 9 of the tubing for conveying the same is cooled as the said tubing passes between and through the horizontal and vertical sections of the second portion of the tubing. This cooled dry air having a low dry and wet-bulb temperature passes around the water sprays I 28 directly over the heat exchange unit where it absorbs moisture and is lowered to its new wet-bulb temperature where it continues into the second section of the tubing and passes therethrough on out into the wet air exhaust duct. The wet cooled air in the second section of the tubing cools the air in the first section by conduction. The secondary stream of air in passing around said water sprays I28 and in lowering itself to its new wet-bulb temperature also lowers the moisture to a temperature equivalent to the new wet-bulb temperature of the air. The portion of the moisture not absorbed by this secondary stream of air drops downwardly through the fins and around the horizontal tubes of the heat exchange unit and thereby cools the primary stream of air by conduction. By the continuous operation of the present device, the secondary stream of 'air by its movements and absorption of moisture con-- tinues to lower its dry-bulb temperature to a new wet-bulb temperature. By this procedure, the primary stream of air is cooled to a point wherein its new dry-bulb temperature is equivalent to its entering dew-point temperature. It is to be noted that the secondary stream of air passes in opposite directions and at right angles to itself and the hereinbefore described effective counterfiow means for cooling the air is obtained.
When it is desired to raise the temperature I instead of lowering the same, the heating means I23 below the sump may be placed in operation and thereby heated water caused to drop downwardly around the heat exchange unit for heating the primary stream of air. Similarly, the heated water may be passed to the spraying means in the water distribution duct or may be used for heating the pipe supplying the water to said spray, whereby air within said water distribution duct can be humidified, if desired, and heated to the actual temperature of the water within the sump.
The heat exchange units of the devices hereinbefore described may have the outlet ends of the dry passages restricted and the inlet ends of the wet passages similarly restricted. The restrictions may be by baiiles placed at these points or byforming these ends of the tubes, forming the passages, smaller thanthe remaining portions thereof. However. when the heat exchange unit passages are thus restricted, the air should be blown into the dry passages thereof and in view thereof, air blowers, as shown in Figs. 0 and 11, should'be mounted in passages 36 of the devices shown in Figs. 1 and 7. The blowers 34 will then be unnecessary and undesirable and should be eliminated. By'this arrangement, air will be pushed through the dry'pasages and due to the restriction at the outlet thereof, a partial compressing of the air will take place. Upon the air escaping from the dry passage into the conduits leading to the area to be air-conditioned, the air will be expanded. However, when the inlet openings of the wet passages are restricted,
drawing will create a pressure drop or partial vacuum within the vertical wet passages, causthe ing moisture to more readily evaporate in these wet passages and thereby afford a better cooling to the dry passages by this adiabatic expansion within said wet passages.
The essential principles upon which all of the foregoing apparatuses are operated are essentially the same with minor variations at diiferent points. It is to be understood that the applicant considers it well within his invention to change the positions of the dehydrating unit, the heat exchange unit, the air blowers or the cooling and humidifying mat to different positions within the apparatus, where the operation of the apparatus so arranged produces a conditioned air.
Manifestly, the construction herein shown is capable of considerable modification and such modifications as come within the scope of my 1cjlaims, I consider within the spirit of my inven- I claim:
1. The method for air-conditioning an enclosure consisting of dehydrating a body of air until a desired dew-point for the air is established, cooling a portion of said-air by evaporative cooling with a liquid, using said cooled portion of air to anhydrously cool the remaining portion of said air, then cooling 9. portion of said remaining portion of air by evaporative cooling with a liquid to its resultant lowered wet-bulb temperature, using said moist cooled portion of said remaining portion of theair to anhydrously cool the relatively dry remaining portion of air, continuing the foregoing steps until said relatively dry remaining portion of air has its drybulb temperature lowered to a desired degree, i-c-wermost point of which is solely defined by the degree at which the wet-bulb temperatures of those" portions ofthe air have been cooled by evaporation with a liquid and then distributing this cooled air whose dew-point has been kept constant into said enclosure for mixing .with
prises the steps of dehumidifying a stream of air, dividing said dehumidified stream oi air into a primary stream and a plurality of secondary streams, conducting said primary stream of air through a heat exchange unit and then to a point of utilization, separately reducing the temperatures of said secondary streams of air by evaporative cooling with liquids, causing one of said cool, moist bodies of secondary air to pass directly through said heat exchange unit for anhydrously cooling said primary stream oi air and causing the moist bodies of the remaining secondary streams of air to flow in counter directions through said heat exchange unit for further anhydrously cooling said primary stream of air.
3. An apparatus for conditioning air compris: ing a cubical casing having an air inlet opening,
partitions arranged within said casing for establishing a pair of spaced chambers communicating with said inlet opening, a filter mat arranged within' one of said chambers, a heat exchange unit arranged within said casing between said chambers, means for drawing a primary stream of air through said inlet opening, filter mat, heat exchange unit and chambers to a point 01' utilization, means for drawing a secondary stream or air through said inlet opening and said heat exchange unit, evaporative cooling means arranged within said casing including said secondary stream oiair and means for causing said secondary air stream to flow in counter directions through said heat exchange unit whereby said secondary air stream will be in heat exchange relation with said primary air stream at separate points while the latter passes through said heat exchange unit.
'4. An apparatus for conditioning air compris inga cubical casing having an air inlet opening, a dehumidifying unit supported within said casing and adapted at times to project within the air inlet opening thereof, partitions arranged within said casing to form a pair of spaced chambers, a heat exchange unit arranged between the chambers formed within said casing, means for drawing a stream of air through said inlet opening, dehumidifying unit, heat exchange unit and said chambers, means for dividing said stream of air after it passes said dehumidiiying unit into a primary stream and a plurality of secondary streams,
.within said casing including said secondary streams of air whereby said secondary streams of air while passing through said heat exchange unit will be brought into heat exchange relation with said primary stream and means for causing each individual stream or secondary air to be separately directed through and exhausted from said heat exchange unit.
anmao A. LARRNA.
evaporative cooling means arranged a