|Publication number||US2266820 A|
|Publication date||Dec 23, 1941|
|Filing date||Jul 13, 1938|
|Priority date||Jul 13, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2266820 A, US 2266820A, US-A-2266820, US2266820 A, US2266820A|
|Inventors||Frank E Smith|
|Original Assignee||Frank E Smith|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (29), Classifications (21)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
F. E. SMITH Dec. 23, 1941.
ENG-INE Filed July 13, 1938A 8 Sheets-Sheet l llllll /LL'IH NNN NNN INVENTOQ Y l FRANK E..5M|TH R4 B TTonNEv.
Dec. 23, 1941.
8 sheets-sheet 2- ENGINE F. E sMlTH Filed July 15, 1938 INVEN-rote FRANKE-5M|TH fww ORNEY F. E. SMITH ENGINE Filed July 13, 1938 8l Sheets-Sheet 3 R W... mm m kml. hm w K m i F 5. SN Q D ,QN/Tv KM www W w @www m @MW W W @um mnmm @N 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 Dec. 23, 1941. F, E, SMITH ENGINE Filed'July l5, 1938 M. QMS/Wg N N Y .QNNM will! QN Q .;Efmmw .QQ x n@ www \\wm\\ lV/N & l m m l .I4 IHIIII mvamon AFIIQANK SMITH BY y ATTORNEY F. E. SMITH Dec. 23, 1941.
ENGINE` ve sheets-sheet 5 Filed July 15, 1958 INVENTOR FRANK ESMITH ATTomuv` Dec. 23, 1941.
F. E. SMITH 2,266,820
N GINE Filed July 13, 1938 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR FRANK vESMITH ,BY A TORNEY Y 23,1941. F, E, SMH 2,266,820
ENGINE Filed July 15, 1938 8 sheets-sheet 7 lNvr-:N'ron l FRANK E SMITH ATTORNEY Dec. 23, 1941;v
F.A E. ySMITH l 2,266,820
ENGINE FiledJuly 13, 193s 8 sheets-snaai@ Non.
' a total displacement of ,a continuous ow of Patented Dec. 23, 1941 l oler-"lcsv ENGINE I Frank E. Smith, Niagara Falls, N. Y. Application July 1,3, 1938, Serial No. 218,959
This invention relates to a mechanical motion, to a machine, to an engine, to a prime mover, to a compressor, to a method of transforming the energy of a compressed gas into mechanical motion, to a method of compressing a gas, to means and methods of making apparatuses which in themselves constitute a portion of this invention. This case is a continuation in part of my application Serial No. 150,893, led June 29, 1937, since abandoned.
A typical four-cycle gasoline internal combustion engine of the present high development has twelve cylinders, a `displacement of about 250 cubic inches, a normal operating speed of 2000 R. P. M., and when operating at thatspeed has 290 cubic feet per minute, only one quarter of which is power-delivering displacement, the remaining three quarters occurring as intake, compression, and exhaust. An engine which could deliver a continuous ow of power would occupy less space and would eliminate the coordinating mechanisms that make the internal combustion engine complicated and expensive. The mechanical eiciency of steam engines is fair but their Weight per horsepower is so high and their fuel efficiencies so poor that internal combustion engines of various types are rapidly supplanting them, It is, consequently, apparent that there is much room for development in the eld of prime movers.
The portable compressor unit that is used in street work is frequently a machine capable of compressing 200 cubic feet of free air per minute. An electrical compressor unit having a capacity of 2500 cubic feet of free air per minute is about 15 feet wide, 18 feet long, and 7 feet high, and sells for about $20,000.00. So enormous an outlay for so simple an operation, the compressing of a free gas, indicates that present compressor design canv be improved.
It is an object of the invention to make a prime mover, an engine which is capable of delivering power with great increase of emciency, when compared to the types of engine now in existence. Another object of the invention is to produce a compressor capable of compressing far larger quantities of free gas than can be compressed by existing compressors of equivalent dimensions. Another object of the invention is to compress pressor, and to pressures of great intensity. Another object of the invention 'is to use the lenergy of expansion of a compressed gas to great advantage. Another object of the invention is to impart energy to a gas by great intensity of compression.-
gases Within a com- Another object of the invention is to extract energy from a compressed gas with great efficiency. Another object of the invention is to make the apparatuses and machine which constitute a part of this inventlon by means which are practically and economically satisfactory. Another object of the invention is to eliminate all the losses found in reciprocating engines and compressors of the present day by means of rotary machines. Another object of the invention is to provide a rotary machine of the type described with a variable cut off.
The objects of the invention constituting a prime mover are accomplished, generally speaking, by the use of a turbine having twin wheels, and intermeshing-helical lands and grooves with a one-turn pitch, and preferably with variable cut off. The objects of the invention are also accomplished by extracting the expansive energy from al compressed gas within the chamber expanding between an end wall and the receding point of intermesh of a rotary engine as herein described.
The objects of the invention constituting a compressor are accomplished by entrapping a quantity of compressible fluid between the advancing line of intermesh of intertting helical lands and grooves of an engine having integral grooved rollers of about one-turn pitch, and the end wall of the casing, discharge taking place after compression within the machine.
The objectsv of the invention are also accomplished by the means, methods, and details thereof which are more fully herein described.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein like numerals refer to like parts, Figure 1 is an elevation ofthe outside of an apparatus embodying features of my invention. Figure 2 is a partial section on the line 2-2 of Figure 1, looking in the direction of the arrows' and showing the turbine wheels or rollers in their intermeshed relation. Figure 3 iS a section on the line 3-3 of Figure 1, looking in the direction of the arrows. Figure 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Figure 3, showing the port. Figure 5 is a section on the line 5 5 of Figure 1. Figure 6 is a fragmentary plan view of la modied high pressure end of the machine. Figure 7 is a section on theline 1 1 o f Figure 6. Figures 8, 9, and 1,0ja'refA diagram-v matic views illustrating methodsp'flarranging the working chambers of theapparatus. l'Figure 11 is a longitudinal section through a 'modified form of apparatus. Figure 12 is a section on the line |2|2 of Figure 11. Figure 13 is a section 0I),y the line I3-I3 of Figure 11. Figure 27 is a section on line 21--21 of. Figure 13. Figure 14 is a plan view partly in section of a modification of the apparatus shown in Figure 2. Figure 15 is a section on the line |5|5 of Figure 14. Figure 16 is a detail view showing the lands and grooves of the apparatus of Figure 14 with compression rings in their seats. Figure 17 is a partial section of the apparatus of Figure 16. Figure 18 is a cross section through a land of the type shown in Figure 22, showing a compression ringin place. Figures 19 and 20 are diagrams showing spiral cut teeth with a spiral less than the lead and spiral cut teeth greater than the lead, respectively. Figure 21 is a view of a compression ring, showing in dotted lines the roller to which it is applied. Figure 22 is a perspective view of a removable land with teeth. Figure 23 is an enlarged end view of Figure 22, showing an overlap of the ends. Figure 24 is a cross section through a wheel showing some removable lands in place and a method of keying them. Figure 25 is anelevation of an internal combustion engine furnished with a motor and compressor of this design. Figure 26 illustrates a method of combining a series` of engines or compressors to secure high efliciency. Figure 2'7 is a detail. Figure 28 is a section on the line 28-28 of Figure 29. Figures 28 through 33 show a construction of adjustable inlet ports and movable sealing rings; Figure 29 is a section on the line 29-49 of Figure 28; Figure 30 is a' section on the line 30-30 of Figure 28; Figure 31 is a section on the line 3|3| of Figure 28; Figure 32 is a section on the line 32--32 of Figure 28; Figure 33 is a section on the line 33-33 of Fig- -ure 28. All the said sections are taken in the direction of the arrows.
In this specification those terms are selected and used which are well calculated to produce a clear comprehension of the invention; false analogies must not be drawn between the structure of this invention and other structures on the basis of mere similarity in terms.
Referring now to the numerals of the drawings, is a casing; |0'| are ribs on the casing which serve to give it strength and to dissipate heat; |02 are screw threaded portions in the ends of the casing; |03 is a head at the low pressure end of the casing; |04 are bolts adapted to hold the head in sealing contact with the casing by screw threaded contact with portions |02 of the casing; are bearing seats in the casing head;` |06 are thrust bearings seated in said bearing seats; |01 are screw threaded nuts which cooperate with screw threads in the casing head to hold the bearings in position; |08 are cylindrical extensions in the casing head; |09 are packing rings, or packing, in circular grooves in said extensions; ||0 is a hole through a said nut; is packing,v or are packing rings, lin internal circular grooves in said nut; ||2 is a cylinder head for the high pressure end of the apparatus drilled intwo places to receive bearings H3; ||4 are annular shoulders in said cylinder head; |5 is an inwardly directly, accurately machined face of saidv cylinder head, a `face which the wheels to be hereinatfer described abut; ||6 is a port in the cylinder head having a substantially circular out-er orifice which is developed to a substantially Y-shaped inner orifice ||1 and the outer end of the port is screw-threaded as is indicated in Figure 4; ||8 are nuts which seal the drillings in cylinder head ||2.
The casing |00 is accurately drilled and machined to form twin cylinders opening into each other throughout their length. This structure we call for convenience cylinders conjoined in parallel. In the drawings ||9 is one cylinder and is the other cylinder; |2| is a depending fin wedge-shaped in cross section and extending the operable length of the casing; |22 is a substantially wedge-shaped lower iin extending the operable length of the casing. |23 is a channel formed by removing the peak of saidwedgeshaped lower iin and opening into the low pressure ifrt and preferably decreasing in size toward the high pressure end, its size at the high pressure port being either minute or non-existent.v The rollers may be considered to have positive and negative portions, the positive being that where work is being done by the expansion or compression of a gas, the negative being substantially idle. The channel is provided in the wedge-shaped fin of the negative portion. |24 is a portion of the casing forming the low pressure port; is the low pressure port; |26 is a pipe screw-threaded into orifice ||6 of the high pressure port, through which gas under pressure is delivered.
In the cylinders formed within the casing are mounted rollers, otherwise called wheels or rotors, which have projecting from their ends shafts for mounting in the bearings of their casing heads and whose operating surfaces are formed by alternating lands and grooves in the form of helices which have a pitch not substantially greater than one turn to the length of the roller. For convenience these are called rollers having helical lands and grooves of one-tum pitch. These helices intermesh along the line between the fins and seal the upper against the lower central portion of the cylinders along a line approximately formed by a plane passing through the axes of the rollers. The floors of the lands are machined on the arcs of circles of radius substantially identical with that of the cylinders, onlyv enough clearance being allowed in the form of the invention depicted in Figures 2 and 14 to permit the existence of an oil fllm between the land and the wall of the cylinder. A clearance of .005 inch is deemed satisfactory for this purpose. Where a compression ring is used, a much greater clearance is permissible.
The floors of the grooves are also accurately machined on the arc of a circle so thatthe iioor of a land of one wheel rolls upon the oor of the groove of the other wheel at the point of intermeshing, forming in the prefered form of the invention a substantially perfect seal from end to end of the rollers. The invention will be most readily comprehended by first considering the modification of the invention disclosed in 'Figure 14.
20D-20| are wheels machined to within .005 inch of the true radius of the `cylinders and contacting each other along a center line whereby to form a seal. In the surface of each cylinder are grooves 202-203 of uniform depth and width having accurately machinededges 20d-205. The edges, otherwise called faces or shoulders, of the grooves of one roller are designed to make sealing contact along the line of intermeshing by abutting the corresponding face of the corresponding land of the other roller. This structure formsa series of alternating` lands and grooves of equal width and depth which form. a tight seal along the line of intermeshing throughout the length by making sealing contact through the abutment of the iioor (upper surface) of the lands and the door of the corresponding groove, and the abutting of the corresponding sides or faces of the corresponding lands and grooves.
The drilling of the high pressure cylinder head for the reception of the bearings and the shafts f the wheels is of such size that the face I l5 of the cylinder head is of greater extent than the depth of the grooves throughout the entire circumferences of the cylinders except at the discharge port Ill. The ends of the wheels at the high pressure end are accurately machined so that they abut the face H of the cylinder head. This structure seals the ends of the grooves during the greater part of theircircular motion, they being free to discharge only when they communicate with the port Ill.
The pitch of the helices is about one turn to the length of the roller. The pitch can be less than one turn to the length, but should not be substantially greater than that, although an overlap of one or two lands is sometimes permissible. In the cases Where a pitch less than one turn is used, it is necessary to relocate the exit port. In the form of the for exemplification, the about one turn.
206 is a shaft Which is mounted in the bearings of the cylinder heads, having circular shoulder 208 which conforms to annular shoulder i I4 or the wheel; 2|0 is a shoulder abutting the bearing |05 and forming a thrust bearing at the low pressure end. The bearing at the low pressure end has been shown to be a ball thrust bearing because in normal pitch of the helices is is extended through the cylinder head to form a means of transmitting power from or to the wheels of the engine. The other roller is similarly formed, except that in Figure 14 it is not shown extending through the casing. In the modification of the invention shown in Figures 14 and 15, the wheels and their shafts have been turned out of one piece of metal but, as hereinafter indicated, they can be otherwise formed. The power take-01T can be extended 'I'he low pressure port is presumed in this instance to be open to the air, although it could be open to the discharge of other compressors, and the air nds its way freely into the grooves of the wheels. These grooves form helical chambers from end to end of the roller. These chambers are sealed at their top by the contact of the adjoining lands with the cylinder, and at the high pressure end by the contact of the ends of the rollers with the abutting face H5 of the cylinder head. Assuming the shaft 206 to be turned inea clockwise direction (looking from the low pressure to the high pressure end), the groove A will be filled with air from the low pressure port substantially throughout; its length, but it will not be open to the gas from the pressure end because that end will be beneath the discharge port and sealed by the face H5. As rotation continues, an instant later the leading face of the land B will make contact with the leading face of the groove A, the leading point of the oor of land B will make rollingcon tact with the leading face of the oor of groove A, and the groove A will be progressively sealed by rolling contact with the land. As the low highf pressure air as far as the progressing line oi' compression. ever, a more advanced point on the said land and groove (for instance a point beneath the third rib I0!) will, by turning, have reached sealing position. Thus the chamber A ls progressively decreased in size and the gas entrapped is correspondingly decreased'in volume and increased in. pressure. Inasmuch as the high pressure end of the chamber A is sealed part of its rotation by the face H5, substantially invention herein chosen their point of use.
nishes a quick cut-off when discharge has been as an engine, gas under the whole compression takes place within the machine, and not against theport of the high pressure end for, as the chambers are sealed against the discharge port, so is the discharge port sealed against the chambers. As the rotation continues the size of the chamber A decreases, the gas is compressed, its pressure is increased until the leading edge of the chamber rotates'into contact with the upper arm of Y-shaped port Ill and, having been compressed to approximately the pressure ex-- isting in the high pressure port, it is forced out through the port by the advance of the line of interrnesh until the chamber is wholly exhausted, and the gases are transported by tube |26 to The shape of the port furaccomplished. In the meantime a substantially complete revolution has taken place, the chamber is again lled with free air and the cycle begins again. In the device illustrated each wheel is furnished with six helical chambers and lands so that a supply of corn- The number of chambers can be varied to suit the needs of the designer.
Assuming now that the device is to be used pressure will be furnished through the pipe l26and the port H6- ||1. The gas pries the lands and grooves apart, rotating the shaft 206 in a counterclockwise direction (looking from the 10W pressure to the high pressure end of the machine).
quantity of gas which continues tov turn the wheels by expanding. When a complete rotation has been completed the chamber has been revolved until it is unsealed at the low pressure end and the expanded y the low pressure port. 'I'hese expanded gases can be used in other apparatus of similar design as shown in Figure 26, or for other purposes.
The form of the device which has just been described and which is illustrated in Figure 14 has this disadvantage, that the sealing of the apparatus is imperfect, the rotation of the wheels requiring that the helical lands be provided Wth a. certain amount of clearance in order to mesh and unmesh without coniiict. This clearance, particularly at low speeds, permits pressure to escape from the high pressure side of the seal to the low apparatus.
I have overcome this deficiency in the preferred form of my inveniton, wherein the helices are formed with stepped faces. This form of the invention is illustrated in Figures 2, 8, 9, 19, and
At that time, howbeing furnished continuously.
abutting faces of the 20. In this, the preferred, form'of the invention sealing contact is not made between helical faces which require clearance for engagement and disengagement, but is made between the faces of the steps which are cut on planes perpendicular to the axes of the wheels. Sealing contact in this form of the invention is, consequently, made by the rolling of the oors of the grooves and by sealing contact between abutting side faces of the steps of the lands and grooves. The faces of the lands which are substantially parallel to the axes of the rollers still require some clearance, but this is of negligible importance since the effectiveness of the seal does not depend upon a close fit between those faces. In fact, when exterior gears are used to coordinate the rollers, the faces of' the lands parallel to the axis of the roller need not make contact.
In Figure 2, 22B-22| are rollers which may be assumed, in general, to be constructed similarly to the rollers of Figure 14 insofar as their mounting in the cylinders is concerned. 222- 223 are helical lands having about a one-turn pitch and 224-225 are corresponding helical grooves; 226-221 are faces of the lands and grooves substantially parallel to the axes of the wheels. As illustrated in Figures 19 and 20, these faces need not be parallel but can have a helical pitch, the pitch of Figure l9 being less than the lead and the pitch of Figure 20 being greater than the lead. The lead is defined as the pitch of the main helix. 228 are faces of the helix which are perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and which, by making contact with the corresponding-face 229 at the point of intermesh, perform a portion of the sealing operation. By this device the losses of pressure between the high pressure and low pressure sides of the seal is made insignificant compared to the losses -which are sustained in the device of Figure 14.
For simplicity of illustration the devices of Figuresr2 and 14 have been shown composed of wheels the iioors of whose lands make sealing contact with the interior of the cylinders. VThis form of the device is effective but requires extremely accurate machining both in the cylinders and the wheels.
In Figures 16 and 1'7 is shown a structure which will very frequently be used and which permits a considerable clearance between floors of the lands and the cylinder wall. In this form of the invention 230 are helical grooves cut in the lands, preferably approximately midway thereof; 23| are spring-pressure helical sealing strips carried in the grooves by the -said wheels. In Figure 21 pressure strip 23| is shown in perspective. It is in helical form which substantially fits the groove but which, when slid into position, projects beyond the groove sufficiently to make sealing contact with the walls of the cylinder. These strips will be made of spring metal and designed by their own resilience to make firm contact with the cylinder walls. At the same time an amount of clearance, as illustrated diagrammatically at 232, is provided to permit the strip to be compressed substantially level with the floor of the land when making sealing contact with the corresponding roller. In the drawings, the lug 233 on the strip iits a socket 234 in the high pressure end of the cylinder, and being accurately machined to the face of the roller, prevents the strip from being dislodged by longitudinal motion. A plurality of floors of the lands upon the strips may be used where exteremely high pressures are to be attained. The strip is made to have sealing contact with the groove it fits by making it so close a t that the oil film used for lubrication will prevent escape of gas.
The use of strips to prevent the gases from` passing' between a revolving member and a cylinder involves many'unique features, exemplary of which are that a strip is constructed with substantially parallel sides, and a curved top finished to an arc having the approximate radius of the cylinder; and that a spiral'groove in the roller has substantially parallel sides finished to receive the strip; the spiral strip is made on a larger diameter than the casing to have a natural spring effect which holds it to the casing, and permits the rollers to be cut clear of the casing. With such a construction, enough clearance can' be provided in the casing to prevent the roller from touching the cylinder and imposing heavy friction loads on it. The compressibility of the 4strips is such that the reactive loa'd from the unbalanced pressures on the roller are carried directly to the bearings. A very important feature is that, in most heavy units, high temperatures are encountered, which cause the rollers to expand faster than the casing,
y which may be air or water-cooled. These strips permit the building of required clearances to handle these temperatures and still prevent binding and heavy friction resistance. The strip is also unique ,in its method of application and anchoring.
In Figure 8 the dotted line shows the line of sealing passing along the face of one roller. The roller is shown as composed of a series of rings which will be called W, X, Y, and Z for convenience. Sealing between' ring W of the roller and its corresponding segment of the cooperating roller is made by the i'loor of the land making contact with the floor of the groove shown in Figure 8. This sealing contact is continued into ring X at a more advanced point in the groove by thecontact of the floor of the land, and at a yet more advanced point it is carried into the ring Y so that between the edge 240 of ring W and the face 24| of ring Y sealing contact is made by the rolling of the floors of the helical land on the floors of the helical groove.I This point of sealing contact continues between rings Y and Z by the contact of face 24| with the corresponding face in the cooperating roller, which by abutting one another prevent the escape of gases. This line of contact then continues between the face of the land of ring Z and its abutting ring by contact with the oor of the corresponding groove in the other roller.
In Figures 9 and l0 is shown a means of obtaining a quick initial compression, wherein the initial compression stage is made longer than in the type shown in Figure 8. Thus in Figure 9 three rings are shown in one, the closing of which by rotation ofthe cylinders compresses in one unit of time is compressed by the device of Figure 8 or, where thev apparatus is used as an engine, three times the initial torque and a larger intake is provided. These initial advantages can be varied by the engineer to suit the necessities of particular use.
The necessity of Imachining the faces parallel 'to the axes to obtain a minimum of clearance and yet prevent locking is somewhat costly and in Figure 2 in dotted lines is indicated a method by which a vcoarser machining of these faces three times as much gas as dotted lines 306.
can be permitted. In this modification the shafts of rollers 220 and 22| are continued through the cylinder head and have mounted thereon intermeshing ne gears |30|3|. 'I'hese gearsare very accurately machined, are keyed to the shafts of the roller, prevent the interlocking of the intermeshing faces even when the machining has been comparatively coarse, and relieve the lands of the driving strain.
In Figures 14 and 15 are shown rollers which are unitary, the rollers, lands, and shafts being integral. In Figures 16 and 17 the rollers are unitary except made and inserted as previously described.
In Figures 2, 5, and 11 is shown a structure wherein 220 is a shaft; 30| is-a key mounted in a. slot running lengthwise of the shaft, or alternatively, formed in* the shaft itself; 302-303 are portions of the shaft journalled in appropriate bearings in the cylinder h'eads. A304 are rings of identical shape, shown in diametrical section in Figure 11 and in cross section in Figure 5, which for the sealing strips which are differ from one another only in the location of a slot 305 which ts the key 30|.
a hole in the center which is than th'e normal diameter of the shaft. The hole has a slot for engagement with the key 30| but, as shown in the respective left-hand and right-hand rollers of Figure 5, the slots are aocurately placed about the circumference of the hole so that the teeth of succeeding rings will be given, with minute accuracy, a proper lead This is illustrated in Figure 5 where, through the grooves, are seen the leading edges of the teeth of successive rings. 'I'he rings are assembled by cooling the shaft with dry ice or in any other suitable way and heating 'the rings. The rings are then assembled with complete accuracy as to their placement on the length of the sh'aft and the assemblage is allowed to reach normal temperature, thus forming in effect a single unit. It will be observed in Figure 11 that the center portions of the rings are olf-set, the edges of this olf-set being indicated in Figure 5 by the These rings have bevelled to make easy the seating of the rings.
Another satisfactory method of making the wheels is shown in Figures 22, 23, and 24. In these figures, 3|0 is a shaft turned down to th'e oor diameter of the grooves. 3H are helical grooves in the shaft or roller 3|0 having about a one-turn pitch and extending the working length thereof. These grooves are undercut as is clearly shown in Figures 24 and 18. 3|2 is a metal land; 3l3 is an integral key on the inside of the. land 3|2 having undercut edges 3|4; 3|5 is the floor of the land, which is of a diameter slightly smaller The faces of the off-set are conforming to that of the cylinder; 3| 6 are stepped faces on the land. Figure 23 is an enlarged end view of the land shown in Figure 22, showing a slight overlap of the ends. The undercut key-3| 3 is just too large to nt the undercut groove 3| I. However, by shrinking the one and heating the other, as heretofore indicated in regard to th'e assembly -of the ring built roller, the undercut key may be readily slid into the undercut groove, accurately alined lengthwise of the roller, and held in position with a pin 3| 1.
The pin may be omitted in some circumstances because, upon return tc size, the helical lands become substantially integral with the rollers. In Figure 18 is shown the mounting of a pressure ring 23| in aland 3|2.
In Figures 23 and 24 the faces of the lands and grooves substantially parallel to the axis, indisure tube connecting are shown cut on a curve which' conforms to the most desirable operating conditions for thatface of the land.
In Figure 11 it will be observed .that only one cylinder head is made removable; the other is not removable but is made integral and is simply drilled to 220.v v
In Figures 6 and 7 is shown a modified high pressure cylinder head. In these gures, 400 is the head; 40| isa face machined for abutment against the face of casing |00.
In Figures 3 and 7 th'e rings ||4 are shown not integral with, but keyed to, the, shafts 220-22|. The shafts 220-22I are mounted in bearings in the head 400 as indicated in other figures. 402 are curved slots conforming in arc to the chambers of the wheels; 403 are curved gear-toothed segments slidably mounted in the slots in guides 402. The faces of the segments 403 conform accurately to the face 40| and furnish a seal against the escape fof gases within the chambers; 404 are gears mounted on shafts 405 which project through the head and bear at their outer extremities knurled knobs 406. By rotating the knobs 403 the pinions 404, which'areA in mesh with the gear teeth of the segment 403, the segments and open or close the port 401. By this construction there is made an adjustable port which permits the operator to select his instant of discharge (or when working as an engine, his instant of cutoff) at will within the degree of adjustability permitted by the length of the guides.
Means of. oiling the apparatus are shown in Figure 13 for the sake of illustration. 'lhe oiling means is of pressure type utilizing pressure from pipe 5|0 behind the oil to balance the pressure before it, so that it is carried into the engine by the incoming gases. Other units, pressure or otherwise, will admit lubricant at any other desired point of the casing. The details of pressure and non-pressure lubricating systems of one type are set forth 1n Catalogue #52, page 450 of the Crane Co., Chicago, Ill. Other types are well known to the art of lubricating devices.
In Figures 11, 13, and 27 is shown yet another high pressure head, a form designed to furnish an adjustable sealing means for the chambers. In these figures 500 is the head; 50| are bearings in the head; 302 are shafts'seated in the bearings, the bearings being mounted in recesses in the head; 502 are circular recesses in the head corresponding in diameter to the diameters of the cylinders and being in width greater than the depth of the chambers; 503 are integral rings procated by numbers SIB.'
'vided with packing to prevent the escape of gases passing into the recess 502; 504 is a high presthrough a drilling 505 to the recess 502 behind th'e rings. By applying pressure thus to the rings, the rings are continuously forced into sealing contact with the faces of the rollers. In order to prevent lthe building up of pressure in the recess 506 formed between the head and the olf-set in the outermost ring, a drilling 501 connects with anexhaust tube 508 and allows the escape of gases therein imprisoned. 5|0 is a high pressure port; 5|| is a Y-shaped port in the face of the rings in communication with the outlet port 5|0. When the chambers of lthe wheels are in communication with the port and the rings, the pressure gas is in communication both with' the chambers and with the port, cut-off occurring as soon as the chamber has proceeded past the port. 'I'his permit passage of the supporting shaft mits a sealing of the -Of' the other numerals,
vrings for the ends 'lire 28. Cut
^ BDI as a supercharger, the high shaft of the automobile;'601
modification, which is not bound up with the other structure shown in Figures 11 and 12, perchambers even should a wearing of the th'rust bearing eventually permit what would in other forms of the invention be a. slight disengagement between the head and the chambers, and takes care of the expansion of the rollers which, in lessl exible forms of the invention, might cause excessive friction:
33 the numerals which have already beendescribed refer to similar parts. 530 are movable sealing of the in this instance made integral, although could be separate and provided with machined faces at their point of contact. in the inner faces of the rings; ,529 are sliders provided with machined faces to accurately fit the grooves and to form a continuous face against the rollers. The inner face of the sliders projects within the cylinders as is shown in Figthrough the ring is a Y-shaped port, as is shown in full and dotted lines in VFigure 29 and in full lines in Figure 31. The sliders 529 are operated from outside the casing by knobs 525, shafts 526 and gears 521 which mesh with the gears 53| on the sliders. The depth of the recess 528 makes it possible for the rings and sliders to move axially of the rollers. The rin'gs are held against the face of the rollers by fluid pressure through pipe and drilling- 50G-505. This pressure passes through the Y-shaped orice into the grooves if the apparatus is used as an engine. If it is being used as a compressor, the discharge takes place through the Y-shaped oriiice. The degree of cut-ofi or moment of discharge, respectively, is determined by the position of the sliders 529; when in open position the sliders give a later cut-off or an earlier discharge than in closed position. Conversely, when the apparatus is used as a compressor, an open position of the sliders produces an earlier discharge and, consequently, a discharge ata lower compression. If it is desired, steel springs can be placed behind the rings 530 within the cylinder head 523 to insure the existence of greater pressure behind the rings than before them. The bolts 532 hold the head and the flange 522 together.
In Figure 25 is shown a method of applying this invention as a booster to a standard automobile. In this figure, 600 is a typical gasoline engine; is a compressor, of the type which has 4just been described, driven through a belt pressure air being forced through tube 602 to a carburetor 603 and then into the engine. 6M is an exhaust port pipe 605 to the high preslilll. v606 is the drive is a pinion thereon; 608 is a driving pinion on the shaft of the engine. The rotating air compressor or supercharger could force the air into the reciprocating engine at 2 atmospheres pressure instead of one, which would provide for twice the charge and for compression ratios of 14 instead of 7 in a given engine, making possible the burning of fuels that can not now be readily burned. In these cases the exhaust pressures, due to the greater charge, would be considerably higher than in an unsupercharged engine, but the enwhich is connected by sure end of another unit `ergy of thishigher pressure would be recovered in the rotating engine unit gearedto the shaft 606. Thus an automobile engine of a given type will be doubled in its own horsepower output,
528 are grooves cutv roller grooves, being Y rends of said grooves; a
which would be increased'3 or 4 times by the use of a booster engine of my design.
Figure 26 illustrates the staging of engine units. For example, it is assumed that the first unit receives gas at about 600 pounds sq. in. pressure, which is expandedthr'ough the unit, discharged at a pressure of 200 lbs., goes to the second stage, exhausts there at 65 lbs., goes to the third stageand exhausts at 15 lbs. The volume of the gas being approximately proportional to the pressure and temperature, the volume entering the rst unit is about 1/30 of the volume exhausting from the third unit, or, if running as a stage compressor unit, the volume would be rellltized to 1/30 at the exhaust of the high pressure In this invention I have achieved the principle of displacement and expansion found in the reciprocating engine and have achieved them with rotary motion, so that there is no reciprocating loss. In reciprocating motions, as the speed goes upthe losses mount to the point'where all of `the energy used is absorbed in the reciprocating work. With rotary motion no such losses exist and far higher speed can be achieved.
It has been the practice, generally, to drive machines in shops or industrial plants with electric motors because of the great problem involved with belts and because of the large engines required if reciprocating engines are used. A unit of my invention operated by steam and mounted on a lathe occupies lessspace than a correspond.- ing electric motor. Steam at about pounds per square inch is brought to the unit in one and one-half inch pipes and the exhaust'is taken away in pipes at 20 to 30 pounds pressure and usedfor other is at the command of the operator.
Any gas can be compressed by this apparatus, and any compressed gas can be used to drive it as an engine. Among such gases are steam, air, products of hydrocarbon combustion, products of explosion, and the like.
As many apparently Widely .different embodiments of this invention may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the specific embodiments thereofexcept as defined in the appended claims.
l. In a machine a casing comprising cylinders and cylinder heads; rollers journalled in said casing having sealing contact with said cylinders,
and having intermeshing helical lands -and grooves of one turn pitch; a port in the casingin operative connection with the low pressure ends of the grooves; integral movablepressure rings having a Y-shaped port abutting the pressure atively connected to. the said Y-shaped port; means to vary the extent of the said-Y-shaped port comprising arcuate guides in the rings, sliders in the guides abutting the port and the groove ends, and means operable from outside the casing to move the sliders; helical ,sealing strips of greater free diameter than said rollers mounted in said lands; means to press the said rings against the ends of the grooves; means to relieve the roller ends of gas pressure; means to bleed gas from the negative part of the rollers; and means to oil the rollers.
2. .In a machine a casing comprising cylinders and cylinder heads; rollers therein with intermeshing helical lands and grooves of one-turn pitch having sealing contact with said cylinders purposes. The speed of the device port in the casing operand with one of said cylinder heads; a port having operative connection with the low pressure ends of the grooves; a Y-shaped port in the said sealing cylinder head connecting with the high pressure ends of said grooves close to the line oi intermesh; and means to vary the cut-oil of the said port comprising movable arcuate slides abutting the ends of the grooves.
3. -In a machine a casing comprising cylinders I and cylinder heads; rollers therein with intermeshing helical lands and grooves of one-turn pitch having sealing contact with said cylinders and with one of said cylinder heads: a port having operative connection with the low pressure ends of the grooves; and a port in said sealing cut-oir of said port.
4. In a machine a casing comprising cylinders and cylinder heads; rollers therein having sealing `contact with said cylinders and having intermeshing helical lands and grooves of one-turn pitch; a port having operative connection with the low pressure ends of the grooves; a port abutting the high pressure end of said grooves; means to seal the high pressure end of the grooves except at said port; and means to relieve pressure accumulating at the high pressure ends of the rollers.
5. In a machine a casing comprising cylinders and cylinder heads; rollers therein having sealing contact with said cylinders and having intermeshing helical lands and grooves of one-turn pitch; a port having operative connection with the low pressure ends of the grooves; a port abutting the pressure end of said grooves; means sealing the pressure end of the grooves except at said port; said intermeshing rollers comprising rollers with helical grooves anirmachined helical lands mounted therein, said lands having helical grooves and helical sealing strips of greater free `diameter mounted therein.
6. A machine comprising parallel, conjoined cylinders; revoluble rollers therein; motion transmitting means attached to a said roller; said rollers having intermeshing helical' lands and grooves with about a one-turn pitch; and a port at each end of said cylinders; said conjoined cylinders p comprising a removable head having bearings for the rollers; movable pressure means in said head to seal the high pressure ends of the grooves of the rollers during a portion of each revolution, and .connecting with the ends of the grooves.
7. An engine having rotatable complementary means comprising a series of helical grooves and a series of helical lands in intertting relation, an end of said lands and grooves abutting a sealing'element having a port, means to vary the cut-off of the port, and means to vfill said grooves in succession through said port with gas under pressure whereby to force said lands progressively and in succession out of said grooves, said sealing element acting to conne the gas within the grooves and against the lands through substantially one complete revolution.
8. Inan apparatus of the type described having intermeshing helical rollers, means at the ends of the rollers for charging and discharging, and means to vary the time during which gas is admitted to the chambers of the apparatus.
9. In a compressor comprising a casing and intermeshing helical chambers, means to charge the chambers with a gas, means to compress the gas Within the chambers, and means to vary the time of discharge.
FRANK E. SMITH.
a port through the said headV I
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|U.S. Classification||418/100, 60/598, 418/201.1, 123/559.1|
|International Classification||F04C18/16, F01C20/14, F02B53/00, F02B75/02, F04C2/16, F04C28/12, F01C1/08, F04C27/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F01C1/084, F02B53/00, F02B2730/05, Y02T10/17, F02B2075/027, F01C20/14|
|European Classification||F02B53/00, F01C1/08B2, F01C20/14|