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Publication numberUS2268279 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 30, 1941
Filing dateSep 12, 1939
Priority dateSep 12, 1939
Publication numberUS 2268279 A, US 2268279A, US-A-2268279, US2268279 A, US2268279A
InventorsWilliam S Debenham, William R Mclain
Original AssigneeWilliam S Debenham, William R Mclain
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Refractory nozzle
US 2268279 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Dec. 30, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REFRACTORY NOZZLE William S. Debenham and William R. McLain,

hicago, Ill.

ApplicationSeptember 12, 1939,' Serial No. 294.552

6` Claims.

an eective seal at the point where the head of Y the stopper rod contacts the nozzle so as to prevent leakage of the molten metal at this point, and the lowermost or outer portion of the nozzle should possess the inherent characteristic of remaining hard and not becoming soft when the hot molten metal is being poured therethrough so 'as to resist erosion of the passageway through the nozzle by the molten metal during teeming.

Such nozzles heretofore were usually of a unitary construction and it was practically impossible to provide a unitary nozzle having both of the above mentioned properties. That is, it would be impractical as well as diicult to provide such a nozzle having the topmost orinner portion of a low degree of refractoriness and the lowermost outer portion thereof of a high degree of refractoriness, and one of these character istics, of course, would have to be sacrifled at the expense of the other.

In the present invention, a two-piece refractory nozzle has been provided, thereby permitting the incorporation of both of these desirable features therein and eliminating the disadvantages and difficulties attendant to the production of such a nozzle in a single integral piece.

Accordingly, it is one of the objects of the present invention to provide an improved refractory nozzle having all the characteristics that such a nozzle should possess. 'v

It is another object of the invention to provide a refractory nozzle consisting of a plurality of parts which is simple and inexpensive in its construction and, yet, one which is strong -and rugged, andl most effective in its use.

Various other objects and advantages oflthis invention will become more apparent in the course of the following specification and will be particularly pointed out in the appended claims. In the accompanying drawing there is shown, for the purpose of-.illustration and description, one embodiment which our invention may assume' in practice.

. venient manner.

In the drawing:

Figure 1 is a vertical section through a ladle showing the improved refractory nozzle of our invention incorporated therein; and

Figure 2 is an venlarged longitudinal section through the nozzle.

Referring more particularly to the drawing, the improved refractory nozzle of the present invention, as shown in Figure 1, comprises an upper or inner part 2 and a lower or outer part 3.

These two partsare interengaged with each other Y preferably by means of an annular'ange 4 ar,- ranged yon the bottom side of the upper part 2 which is adapted to cooperate with a correspondingly shaped annular recess 5 arranged in the top of the lower part 3. It will be understood that any other means may be provided for interengaging these parts, such as a tongue and groove arrangement, or any other interlocking arrangement whereby the parts are held in engagement and alignment with each other. There is axially disposed through the two parts of the nozzle 2 and 3, a passageway 6 through which the molten metal is adapted to ow. There is arranged in the top side of the upper nozzle 2 preferably a conical or semi-spherical shaped recess 'l in which means for stopping the flow of a molten metal through the nozzle is adapted to seat. Such refractory nozzles are mostly used in connection with large ladles for delivering the molten metal therefrom, as shown in Figure 1 of the drawing. The portion of the ladle, as shown in Figure 1, consists of a steel shell 8 having an inner refractory lining 9. The refractory nozzle is suitably positioned in an opening l0 arranged in the bottomfof the ladle in any con- Usually such ladles employ a stopper rod i2 having a stopper head I3 arranged on the lower end thereof which is adapted to cooperate in one position with the upper end of the passageway through the nozzle to prevent the flow of the molten metal therethrough and adapted to -be moved to another position to permit the iiow of the metal therethrough.

According to the present invention. the upper part of section 2 of the nozzle has a low degree of refractoriness having 4 preferably a softening point or pyrometric cone equivalent between cone 12 and cone 27 and possibly for better results between cone 16 and cone 23. A refractory material of the following mixture has been found very practical for obtaining an upper nozzle part or -section having the proper softening characteristics. Such a mixture consists of approximately 27 per cent by weight of A1203, approximately 64 per cent by weight of Si01 and approximately a 9 per cent flux content consisting preferably of FeaOa, NazO, KzO, T102, CaO and MgO.

The lower part or section 3 of the nozzle has a high degree of refractoriness having preferably a softening point or pyrometric cone equivalent not less than cone 26 or,' possibly for better I results, not less than cone 30. A refractory material` of the following mixture ,has been found very practical to obtain the desired degree of refractoriness for this, section. Such refractory material consists of a mixture Vof approximately 40 per cent by weight of AlOs, approximately 53` per cent byweight of S102 and approximately a 7 per cent iiux content consisting preferably of FezOz, NazO, KzO, TiOz, CaO and MgO.

It will be understood that the refractory properties or characteristics of both parts or sections 2 land 3 can be varied as desired by varying the flux content or the alumina-silica ratio. For

example, in the upper part 2, the range of cone 12 to cone 27 can be obtained either by varying the fiux content between about yper cent for cone 27 to about 12 percent for cone 12, or by l varying the alumina-silica molecular ratio beazeazve ent characteristic of becoming relatively soft when molten metal comes in contact therewith so as to provide an effective seal at the point where the stopper rod of the ladle contacts the nozzle thereby preventing leakage of the molten metal at thispoint, and the outer part of said nozzle consisting of a iireclay comprising a mixture' of approximately one part by weight of alumina, approximately one and one-half parts by Wieght of silica, and approximately 5 to 7 per cent by weight kof a flux, so that said outer part has a pyrometer cone equivalent of not Natural clays possessing the desired refractoriness should be used if available in preference to attempting to mix or adulterate clays to obtain the desired refractoriness, because of the difficulties involved in obtainingl uniform mixtures.

While alumina-silica minerals have been indicated in the above examples and throughout the description, vit will be understood that other refractory materials, such as clay-graphite mixtures, chrome, magnesite, dolomite, forsterite or diaspore, or any other suitable minerals, may be used as long as the desired refractoriness is obtained in the respective parts or sections. However, re clays are most practical yfor use vbecause they are inexpensive, and a fire clay containing the desired properties can be found byy proper selection.

While we have shown and described one embodiment of our invention, it will be understood that this embodiment is merely for the purpose of illustration and description'and that various other forms may beI devised within the scope` ofI our invention; as defined in the appended claims. y

We claim: 1. A refractory pouring nozzle for use in ladles and the like comprising two interengaging parts, the inner part of said nozzle consisting of 'a fire clay comprising a mixture of approximately one' part by weight of alumina; approximately'from two to seven parts by weight 'of' silica, and approximately from 5 to 12 per cent by weight of a flux, so that said inn'er part -has a pyrometric cone lequivalent of approximately from cone 16 to 23 whereby the same has a relatively low degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherless than approximately cone 26 whereby the same has a relatively high degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of remaining hard whenjthe molten metal passes therethrough so as to prevent erosion of the passageway through the nozzle by the molten metal;

2. A refractory pouring nozzle for use in ladles and the like comprising two interengaging parts, the innerpart of said nozzle consisting of a nre'- clay comprising a mixture of approximately one part by weight of alumina, approximately from two to seven parts by weight of silica, and approximately from 5 to 12 per cent by weight of a flux, so that said inner part has a pyrometric cone equivalent of approximately from cone 12 to 27 whereby the same has a relatively low degree of refractoriness'and possesses the inherent characteristic of becoming relatively soft when molten metal comes in contact therewith so as to provide an effective seal at the point where the stopper rod of the ladle contacts the metric cone equivalent of not less than approxi-v mately cone 30 whereby the same has a relatively high degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent Acharacteristicof remaining hard when the molten metal passes therethrough so as to prevent erosion of the passageway through the nozzle by the molten metal.

3. A lrefractory pouring nozzle for use 'in ladlesand the like comprising two interengaging parts, the inner part of said nozzle consisting Yof a fireclay ,having a pyrometric cone equivalent of approximately from cone 16 to 23 whereby the same has a relatively low degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of becoming relatively f soft-when molten metal comes in contact there- `half parts by weight of silica, and approximately 5 to 'l' per cent by weight of a flux, so that said outer part has a pyrometric cone equivalent of not less than approximately cone 26 whereby the same has a relatively high degree of refractoriness'and'possesses the inherent characterf istic of remaining hard when -the molten metal passes therethrough so as to prevent erosion of the passageway through the nozzle by the moltenmetal.

1 -A refractory pouring nozzle for use in ladles I and the like comprising two' interengaging parts, the inner part of said nozzle con-v 'sisting4 of a iireclay comprising a mixture of approximately 27 per cent by weight of alumina` approximately 64 per cent -by weight of silica, and approximately 9 per cent by weight of a flux, so that said inner part has a pyrometric cone equivalent of approximately from cone 16 to 23 whereby the same has a relatively low degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of becoming relatively soft when molten metal comes in contact therewith so as to provide an effective seal at the point where the stopper rod of the ladle contacts the nozzle thereby preventing leakage of the molten metal at this point, and the outer part of said nozzle consisting of a reclay having a pyrometric cone equivalent of not less than approximately cone 26 whereby the same has a relatively high degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of remaining hard when the molten metal passes therethrough so as to prevent erosion ofy the passageway through the nozzle by the molten metal. l

5. A refractory pouring nozzle for use in ladles and the like comprising two interengaging parts, the inner part of said nozzle consisting of a reclay comprising a mixture of approximately 27 per cent by weight of alumina, approximately 64 per cent by weight of silica, and approximately 9 per cent by weight of a `flux, so that said inner part has a pyrometric cone equivalent of approximately from cone 16 to 23 whereby the same has a relatively low degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of becoming relatively soft when molten metal comes in contact therewith so as to provide an effective seal at the point where the stopper rod of the ladle contacts the nozzle thereby preventing leakage of the molten metal at this point, and the outerl part of said nozzle consisting of a reclay comprising a mixture of approximately 40 per cent by weight of alumina, approximately 53per `cent by weight of silica, and approximately 7 percent by weight of a ux. so that said outer part has a pyrometric cone equivalent of not less than approximately cone 26 whereby the same has a relatively high degree of refractorness and possesses the inherent characteristic of remaining hard when the molten metal passes therethrough so as to prevent erosion of the passageway through the nozzle by the molten metal. r

6. A refractory pouring nomle for use in ladles and the like comprising two interengaging parts, the E'inner part of ysaid nozzle consisting of a reclay having a pyrometric cone equivalent of approximately from cone 12 to 27 whereby the same has a relatively low degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of becoming relatively soft when molten metal comes in' contact therewith so as to provide an eiective seal at the point where the stopper rod of the ladle contacts the nozzle thereby preventing leakage of the molten metal at the point, and the outer part of said nozzle consisting of a reclay comprising a mixture of approximately 40 per cent by weight of alumina', approximately 53 percent by weight of silica, and approximately 7 per cent by weight of a ux, so that said outer part has ra pyrometric cone equivalent of not less than approximately cone 30 whereby the same has a relatively high degree of refractoriness and possesses the inherent characteristic of remaining hard when the molten metal passes therethrough so as to prevent erosion of the passageway through the nozzle by the molten metal.

WILLIAM S. DEBENHAM. WILLIAM R. MCLAIN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2615216 *Jun 5, 1948Oct 28, 1952Slick Edwin ENozzle for metallurgical equipment
US2987874 *Mar 15, 1954Jun 13, 1961Carborundum CoCeramic lined, light weight rocket motor nozzles and like devices
US3192582 *Oct 3, 1962Jul 6, 1965Harbison Walker RefractoriesBottom pour ladle nozzle and stopper rod construction
US3264692 *Apr 29, 1964Aug 9, 1966Gen ElectricInlet orifice for continuous casting apparatus
US3379409 *Nov 4, 1964Apr 23, 1968Green RefractoriesComposite stopper rod sleeve with insulating inner portion
US3460759 *Mar 7, 1967Aug 12, 1969NasaCombustion chamber
US4951650 *Mar 10, 1989Aug 28, 1990Valor Heating LimitedGas fire appliance
US4951852 *Jun 23, 1988Aug 28, 1990Gilbert RancoulleHeat resistance, oxidation resistance
US5339753 *Sep 27, 1993Aug 23, 1994Martin Gmbh Fuer Umweltund EnergietechnikSecondary air nozzle for furnaces
Classifications
U.S. Classification222/597, 266/236, 222/3, 222/591, 239/DIG.190
International ClassificationB22D41/50
Cooperative ClassificationB22D41/50, Y10S239/19
European ClassificationB22D41/50