US 2268870 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 6, 1942. w. B. GREENLEE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING SYSTEM 2v Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. l0, 1957 YACHT CLU? l INVENTOR. @95E/V255 ATTORNEY.
. W/LL/ BY@ vPatented, Jan. 6, 1942 UNITED STATESj PATENT oFFlcE ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING SYSTEM William B. Greenlee, Denver, Colo.
Application August 10, 1937, Serial No. 158,398
(ci. 24o-1o) 4 Claims.
This invention relates to ornamental and display lighting and more particularly relates to a lighting system adapted for use on Christmas trees and the like.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a lighting system in which various units to be illuminated may be located at selected positions to satisfy ornamental requirements and which will be effectively illuminated by the system regardless of location.i
Another object of the invention is to provide an ornamental lighting system which will permit the illumination of a relatively large number of lamps in the system at a relatively low operating cost.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a lighting system for Christmas trees I and the like in which the hazard of electric shock and fire hazard is reduced to a minimum and which may be readily installed and operated by persons inexperienced with electrical equipment.
Other objects reside in novel details of construction and novel arrangements of parts, all of which will appear more fully in the course of the following description.
To afford a better understanding of the invention, reference is made to the accompanying drawings in the several views of which like parts have been designated similarly and in which:
' Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of a circuit employed for establishing a high frequency field utilized in the present invention;
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic representation of the system of the present invention applied to Christmas tree lighting; I'
Figure 3 is a front elevation of a displaylighting arrangement embodying features of the present invention;
Figure 4 is a lsection taken along the line 4 4, Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a sectional view of an embodiment of the lamp construction used in the present invention; and
Figure 6 is a sectional view of another embodiment of the lamp construction used in the present invention. Y
In practicing the present invention., illumina-v tion is obtained by locating lamps of the wellknown gaseous glowv type in a high frequency eld in a manner similar to that disclosed in my copending application Ser. No. 741,818, filed August 28, 1934 for Sign. Features disclosed but not claimed herein have been described and claimed in the aforesaid application, of which the\` present application is a continuation in part.
Referring now to Figure 2 in which .a Christmas tree has been represented in dotted lines, the reference numeral l designates a switch controlling the energization oi a conductive element 8 which in practice preferably compri-ses -a flexible conductive wire of a length suiiicient to Dermit its being wound several times around the tree.
This wire is suitably connected with a source of high frequency current and is energized thereby to set up a high frequency field which envelops the tree or at Ileast a ysubstantial portion of the same.
Lamps 9 of the neon type are fastened on the tree in any suitable manner and disposed within the energy field, whereupon they become illuminated. In addition to lamps 9 of the usual tubular type, the lamps 9a of the present invention may be formed into simulations of natural or fanciful objects and characters, and a variety of gases are used in filling the lamps to provide color variations when the lamps yare energized, as well as using a variety of glass for the same.
As an example, a tubeillled with neon gas will give a red color, helium in a yellow tube will give a gold or golden yellow color, a mercury-argon mixture in a fluorescent vwhite tube will give a white light, the same mixture in a white tube or a shaded tube will give blue or purple, while in a yellow tube it lwill produce a green color. i Various other materials may be used for the same purpose and the `foregoing is ymerely illustrative and in no sense a limitation either of color ranges or meansfof obtaining the same.
In Figure 2 the reference numeral 9 designates the usual type of tubular lamp which may be constructed in the manner illustrated in Figures 4, 5 and 6, or in any other suitable manner. Preferably, the conductive element 8 isprovided at intervals with a series of conductive loops I0, while the tubes 9 and 9a are equipped lwith conductive hooks Il, or other suitable means, lfor attachment to the loops of the wire.
9b and these tubes will be effectively illuminated by reason of their being within the energy eld.
In Figures 3 and 4 a display lighting arrangement is illustrated which serves to point out the decorative advantages of the present invention. Two sets of tubes in different colors are illustrated in Figure 3, tubes Se being lined to indicate a blue color, while tubes 9g are lined to indicate a white or silver color. Intermediate the tubes 9e and 8g another tube 9h simulating a life preserver in appearance is suspended from a support I2 as are the tubes 9e and 9g.
A curtain I3 or other suitable decorative element is hung in front of the upper portion of the tube in this arrangement to conceal the suspension from observers, and any suitable background such as the wall I4 is provided which also functions as an anchor for the support I2.
An unusual feature of the present invention is that the lamps may be movably supported and, as illustrated in Figure 4, this movable arrangement consists in suspending the lamps for swinging movement from a loop Illa on the support I 2.
It will be apparent that when there is suiilcient movement of the air to impart movement to the lamps 9e, 9g and 9h in the arrangement illustrated in Figure 3, an unusual and effective lighting arrangement is obtained.
Due to the fact it is not essential to have the lamps of the present invention in direct connection with an electrical conductor, many unusual shapes and color arrangements can be obtained.
It will be understood that the embodiments of the invention illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 are merely illustrative of the applications of the invention and are in no sense intended as a limitation of the scope of the invention.
Referring further to Figure 4, the wiring arrangement is also illustrated in which a switch 1 controls the energization of a conductor 8 which has its terminus in a conductive plate 8a' placed in proximity to the several lamps 9e, 9g and 9h to establish an energy ileld effective for illumination of the aforesaid lamps.
Several different forms of tube construction have been shown, all of which may be effectively employed in the present invention. In the simplest form a tube such as the tube 9g, illustrated in section in Figure 4` and similar to the tubes designated 9 in Figure 2, is provided at one end with a cap I which fits over an end of the same and carries a hook II for its attachment to a support in the manner illustrated herein. The cap may be held on the tube in any suitable manner as by cementing or merely employing a tight fit.
The form of tube 9d illustrated in Figure 5 may be termed the electrode type in which the hook II is a conductive element which extends through the glass body of the tube into the gaseous matter with which the tube is lled.
The form of tube 9c shown in Figure 6 involves a grooved surface I6 on the tubular body, and the cap I5 is provided with a detent I1 which nts into the groove to prevent accidentalseparation of the tube from the cap. While the groove in this form has been illustrated as of annular form, it will be apparent that any groove and detent arrangement other than that illustrated, which will be effective for the intended purpose. is within the contemplation of the invention. Likewise, other structural modifications may be employed and the forms illustrated are described merely to point out satisfactory means for performing the present invention.
While my co-pending application, Serial No.
aaaasro trated as an effective means of maintaining a high frequency field in which a relatively large number of lamps may be energized under nominal operating expense. f*
The frequency of the circuit is very closely determined by the constants of the inductance and capacitance circuit, which are combined into one l unit, the tank coil I8. 'I'his arrangement is possible since .the frequency is not critical and sufficient capacity can be derived from the tank coil windings I8a and other parts of the circuit to eliminate the necessity of introducing additionall capacity in parallel with the tank coil as is usually done in a circuit of this character.
The pulsations of high frequency current are produced in the following manner: An impulse of current enters the circuit from the plate circuit IS, where a transformer 20 is tapped in two places on the secondary as indicated at I9 and I9a to provide a low filament voltage (6.5 v. for example) and a high plate voltage (350 v. for example) and this impulse builds up an inductive field in the tank coil I8.
As soon as this reaches its peak value, the field collapses and produces a surge of current which is built up into a capacity effect in the capacity of the circuit. When this reaches a peak it collapses in like manner and produces a surge of current in the opposite direction. Continuation of this action results in an oscillating current.
The pulsation of current through the grid portiony ZI of tank coil I8 varies the grid potential and thereby causes similar pulsations of current to flow to the plate 22 of the tube and into the tank circuit to replace the energy drawn oi through the conduction element 8.
The plate blocking condenser 23 is used to provide a low impedance path for radio frequency currents while preventing the plate voltage, which is self-rectified through the action of tube 2l, from being short circuited to the filament 25.
The grid condenser 26 insulates the grid 2| from filament 25 to permit the bias voltage to develop in the grid lead 28a. Radio frequency chokes 21 are used to provide a low impedance path for the plate voltage, while preventing the high frequency current of the circuit from leaking back into the line.
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that current entering the circuit through transformer 20 from a suitable source is converted into high frequency current in the circuit which becomes the energy source for illumination of the lamps, as hereinbefore described.
In this connection, it will be understood that either a single pole or a two pole conductive system may be employed in the creation of the energy field. The single pole system is similar to that illustrated in my co-pending application, Serial No. r141,818, and is indicated in solid lines by the reference numeral 8 in Figure l. The two pole system conforms to standard practice and has been indicated by the dotted line 8 in Figure l.
In the various applications of the invention, such as are illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, either form may be employed, but since there is no iire hazard, or danger from shock, a single exposed Wire is usually preferred for this purpose.
The provision o f lamps which are not fixed, but I adapted for movement independently of their supporting media is considered novel in the art, and by 'utilizing the feature of the present invention which permits .energization of lamps not in direct contact with the conductive element, many unusual and decorative lighting effects may be obtained.
In this connection, a current of air has been described as a means of imparting movement to the lamps, but it will be understood that any mechanism suitable for this purpose may be utilized in connection with .the illuminating media.
Changes and modifications may be availed of within the spirit and scope of the invention as dened in-the hereunto appended claims.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. An ornam-ental lighting system, comprising a rsource of high frequency electrical energy, a flexible conductor connected therewith and adapted to bewound in selective positions about a medium to be illuminated, means at intervals `along the conductor for interchangeable connection with gaseous-glow type lamps of different designs, a plurality of gaseous-'glow type lampsof different design selectively located along the conductor, and means on each 'of said lampscooperative with saidlrst-mentioned means for suspending the lamps therefrom.
2. An ornamental lighting system, comprising a source of ,high frequencyelectrical energy. a
flexible conductor connected therewith andvadapted to be wound in selective positions about l a medium to be illuminated, means at intervals detent tted in said indentation and providedv with lamp-supporting means.
4. In a lighting system of the character described, a source ofhigh frequency electricalenergy, a flexible conductor connected therewithand adapted to be wound in selective positions about a medium-.to be illuminated to create an energy eld thereabout, means at intervals along the conductor for connection with gaseous-glow type lamps, gaseous-glow type lamps of different designs interchangeably mounted on said means in the energy field, and means on each of said lamps cooperative with said first-mentioned means for suspendingthe lamps therefrom in swinging relation thereto.
WILLIAM B. CTREENLEE.