US 2270911 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 27, 1942. w, TlNKER 2,270,911
KINETIC PUMP Filed Feb. 19, 1940 swam bow W H- Tinker Patented Jan. 27, 1942 KINETIC PUIWP Walter H. Tinker, Boston,
to Charles W. Linton and ten to Dr. William R. Cox, both of one-hundredths one-hundredths Akron, Ohio Mass, assignor of ten Application February 19, 1940, Serial No. 319,770
This invention relates to a kinetic pump of the type which employs the kinetic energy of expanding steam for at the same time pumping and heating a liquid, generally water.
One of the objects of the inventionis the provision of a pump of the type described which transforms a greater proportion of the available kinetic energy of expanding steam into heat and work, than has heretofore been realized in any injector device or turbine pump combinations.
Another object of the invention is the provisiOn 01' a kinetic pump in which the energy of the steam is maintained in the form of velocity throughout the functioning of the apparatus, to the point of final pressure build-up, without suffering the transformation losses inherent in those devices in which steam pressure is employed to operate the pump.
In known kinetic devices in which a jet of steam at high velocity impinges a column of water moving at comparatively low velocity, the steam suifers an impact shock resulting in turbulence and elastic rebound which materially reduces the velocity of the resultant column of water and steam moving in the velocity building limb of the venturi of the injector, that is to say, from the point of impingement of the steam jet, to the point of pressure build-up.
One of the objects of the present invention is to minimize this impact shock at the point of impingement of the steam jet with the water column, by accelerating the velocity of the water column, through a part of the energy of the steam jet, beginning at a point ahead of the point of impingement of the steam jet.
A further object of the invention is to approach the simplest device known for heating and pumping purposes, and at the same time to realize the emciency of the more complicated and expensive forms.
Another object of the invention is to construct a kinetic pump working upon the principles hereinafter more fully described, which will be light in weight, easily adjusted and maintained, and compact, in contradistinction to certain combinations in the prior art wherein jet devices and pumps are used in various combinations with attendant complications of design and control.
Other objects of the invention will appear as the following description of several illustrative embodiments thereof proceeds.
In the drawing, all figures of which are largely diagrammatic:
Figure 1 is a view in elevation showing a known type of injector;
Figure 2 is a similar view injector;
Figure 3 is a. view in elevation illustrating the elemental principles of the subject invention;
Figure 4 is a view in elevation showing one embodiment of the invention;
Figure 5 is a similar view showing a modification of the invention;
Figure 6 is an end view of the rotor and appertinent parts of that form of the invention shown in Figure 5; and
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 4 showing a slightly modified form of rotor.
The principle underlying the present invention may perhaps be best understood by contrasting the injectors shown in Figures 1 and 2 with the diagrammatic elemental form of the subject invention shown in Figure 3, it being understood that the steam pressure specifically mentioned is solely by way of example and that the invention contemplates the use of steam at any pressure value, as desired, or such as may be available.
In Figure 1, the water comes to the point of impingement of the steam jet at the low velocity of the water main, and meets the high velocity steam, the difference in velocities of the meeting fluids being so great that it is almost as though the steam were striking an immovable body. There is turbulence set up in the steam jet and back pressure or elastic rebound, to the extent that the velocity of the column of steam and water in the convergent zone of the venturi is greatly retarded and its pressure building capacity impaired.
Figure 2 shows a double jet injector in which the available steam is divided into two jets, one of which impinges the water in advance of the other, and while it is true that the jet A accelrates the velocity-of the water as it approaches the steam jet B, it is not accelerated at the point of impingement of the jet A, and the portion of steam constituting jet A suffers the same shock, with resultant turbulence and rebound, as does the single jet in Figure 1.
In Figure 3, the single steam jet, designated by the reference character I, acts upon the water and through it upon the forward end of a continuously movable water supporting wall 2, which for example, is shown as an endless belt. The belt is set in rapid and constant motion by the impingement of the steam jet. The water approaches the belt at the point 3 at low velocity,
showing a double jet and is accelerated on the belt through its frictional adhesion thereto, so that its velocity is greatly accelerated by the time it reaches the particular member rotative manner and point of impingement of the steam jet I. The differential of the velocities of the steam jet l and the water at the point of impingement of the steam is thus materially reduced. The shock of impact is minimized, with consequent reduction in turbulence and rebound. The velocity of the column of steam and water in the velocity building limb of the venturi is augmented, and its pressure building efficiency enhanced.
An essential ingredient of the invention, therefore, is a water supporting or forwarding member movable in the direction of water flow, set in motion and maintained in motion by a portion of the energy of the impinging steam jet, said movable wall extending in a contraflow direction a sufficient distance to receive and accelcrate the velocity of the water flowing upon it before it reaches the point of impingement of the steam jet.
Adverting now to Figure 4 of the drawing, the numeral 4 represents a rotor having a cylindrical periphery 5. This rotor, from thepoint 6 to the point I, measured in a clockwise direction, constitutes the continuously movable water forwarding wallof the water conduit 8 in the pump casing 9. The pump casing is supplied from a suitable source such as a water main,
with low velocity water, by way of the inlet Ill.
A steam nozzle I l communicates with the pump casing at a point remote from the water inlet Ill, from which nozzle a steam jet issues at high velocity substantially tangential to the rotor at the exposed part 12 thereof which extends slightly into the path of the steam jet.
The issuing steam impinges upon the rotor 4 through the layer of water already enveloping the rotor, imparting rotation thereto. The constant flow of steam against the rotor will accelerate its speed to a higher rate of rotation, which will accelerate the velocity of the water flowing over the peripheral surface of the rotor so that it reaches the point of impingement of the steam jet issuing from the nozzle II at a much higher velocity than its initial velocity at the inlet l0.
It will be readily understood that the constant flow of steam and the consequent constant turning effort to which the rotor is subjected will cause the rotor to give its velocity and energy to the water around its periphery, it being understood also that the rotor has only a carrier function, and the only losses in transferring energy given by the steam to the rotor are the frictional losses at the axis and the windage losses of rotation, together with any frictional boundary losses between the rotor and the enveloping water.
The differential between the velocity of the steam and that of the water at the point of impingence of the steam jet, being thus minimized, the turbulence and back pressure affecting the steam jet will be correspondingly reduced, resulting in a higher velocity of the commingled steam and water in the convergent limb [2 'of the venturi l3, reaching a maximum at the point of greatest constriction l4, and a higher pressure build up in the convergent limb of the venturi which is connected to the boiler or other vessel to be fed.
In contemplating the structure illustrated in Figure 4, it is to be borne in mind that while the 4 constituting the water forwarding wall 'of the kinetic pump turns in a thereby gives a continuous motion constantly in one direction, the invention concerns itself primarily with the virtually linear increments of the curvilinear motion of the rotor 4, and therefore, the fact that it rotates in a circular path is not essential to the invention, but that a continuous belt such as is indicated in Figure 3, or any other means for producing continuous unidirectional cyclic motion, may be equally well employed.
Figure 4 shows an auxiliary steam nozzle I6 to divide the supply of steam to the rotor 4. This nozzle debouches into the water conduit 8 at a region remote from the incident end of the water forwarding wall 5, so that its principle of operation of accelerating the velocity of the water is the same as that of the nozzle H; that is to say, the water comes up to the point of impingement of the nozzle H accelerated through its contact with the turning surface of the rotor 4. The chief advantage in dividing this steam supply is a gain in efficiency, due to increased condensational effects.
In this connection, it may be stated that the magnitude of the steam pressure at the respective jets is immaterial to the inventive concept. The pressures at both nozzles may be high or low, or that at one nozzle may be higher than at the other. Neither does it matter at which of the jets the steam is at the higher pressure. The effect is essentially the same so long as there is a considerable difference in velocity between the steam and the initial velocity of the water.
In view of the fact that the velocity of the water is accelerated along the water forwarding wall of the water conduit 8, the latter is shown in Figure 4 as becoming progressively smaller in cross-section as it approaches the steam nozzles. The return portion of the rotor, that is, the portion of its surface which extends from the point I to the point 6 in a clockwise direction. is shown as being close to the wall of the pump casing so as substantially to prevent bypassing of the water from the point 8 to the point I along the left hand side of the pump casing.
Figure '7 shows a form of kinetic pump which differs from that shown in Figure 4 solely in that the peripheral surface of the rotor is serrated to provide ledges H which interdigitate with the water column andreduces slippage between the water and the surface of the rotor. It is obvious that the ledges as shown, are exemplary of any equivalent slippage reducing elements with which the surface of the water forwarding wall may be equipped.
Figures 5 and 6 show a form of the invention in whichthe steam acts directly upon the rotor as well as through the medium of the enveloping water for the imparting water velocity accelerating motion to the rotor. In this form of the invention the rotor I8 is a cylindrical shell having a middle peripheral water engaging surface l9 which forms the moving wall of the water conduit 20, the latter having the water inlet 2|, and the injector venturi 22 at its discharge end, with the main steam nozzle 23 positioned at a point remote from the incident end 24 of the moving wall l9, and directing a steam jet substantially tangentially against the rotor through the intermediary of the water which envelops it in the region indicated by the reference character 25.
The nozzle 23 communicates with aheader 26, to which steam is supplied from a boiler through the inlet 21.
The rotor I8 is provided on oppositesides of the water engaging surface H! with peripheral series of turbine vanes 28 opening into the central chamber 29 of the rotor. The lattermoves between the stationary casing end plates 30 and 3| which enclose the central chamber 29 and also the sides of the spaces between the turbine vanes. A pair of steam nozzles 32 and 33 lead from the header 26, straddling the water conduit 20, and direct jets of steam upon the vanes 28 in a direction to rotate the rotor in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Figure 5, the steam exhausting into the central chamber 29.
The rotor is thus directly rotated by the impingement of the steam upon the turbine vanes.
One of the casing end plates has a discharge connection 34 for the exhaust steam, which connection terminates in an auxiliary nozzle 35, the latter entering the water conduit and discharging a jet of steam against the rotor enveloping Water at a point remote from the incident end of the moving wall l9, thus contributing its quota of energy to enhance the acceleration of the velocity of the water carried upon said rotor, .without itself developing excessive back pressure losses, in view of the fact that the velocity of the water is already accelerated upon said rotor before it reaches the point of impingement of the jet issuing from the auxiliary nozzle.
It may be readily discerned from a contemplation of the several embodiments of the invention herein disclosed, that there is a studied avoidance of non-essential details which might encumber the clarity of the broad concept of the invention, and it is to be understood that such structure as has been disclosed is solely with the intent of illustrating the versatility of adaptation of the inventive principle to various structures.
structurally, the sole generic essential is the provision of a water carrying element moving toward the steam jet, maintained in motion by the impulse of said jet acting through the intermediary of the water upon the water carrying element to move the latter, said water carrying element moving at a faster rate of speed than the velocity of the water entering the pump, receiving the low velocity water at a point anterior to that at which the steam jet impinges the water, and accelerating the velocity of the water before it is delivered to the said point of impingement, whereby the differential between the velocities of the steam and water at the point of impingement is minimized, this being true whether the steam be high pressure or exhaust steam.
Functionally, the invention is characterized by the feature that pressure is never developed until finally in the pressure build-up limb of the discharge venturi, that the heat of the steam is conserved, and that optimum condensational effects are secured and maintained.
What I claim as my invention is:
1. In a boiler feed water admitting apparatus of the type in which a high velocity steam jet from the boiler being fed meets a column of water in a conduit moving in approximately the same direction accelerating the velocity of the mixture and transforming the velocity of the mixture column into pressure in the boiler superior to boiler pressure, means forming a movable wall of said conduit, carrying said water column, a nozzle positioned to impinge a jet of steam upon said water column while on said moving wall, at a point subsequent to the point of initial engagement of said water column with said movable wall, whereby said wall is maintained at a high velocity of linear movement by said steam that part of the jet acting through the water carried thereby, for enhancing the velocity of fiow of said water column at the said point of impingement.
2. Kinetic pump comprising a casing and a 1'0- tor, defining peripherally between them a water conduit having a water inlet at one end and'an injector venturi at the other, of which conduit the peripheral surface of said rotor forms a water carrying wall, and a steam nozzle discharging toward the convergent limb of said venturi, said rotor with the enveloping water, at the-posterior end of said water conduit, being in the path of the steam jet between said nozzle and venturi, whereby the energy of the jet rotates the rotor, accelerating the velocity of the water carried by the rotor before it reaches the point of impingement of the steam jet.
3. Kinetic pump comprising a casing and a rotor defining peripherally between them a water conduit having a water inlet at one end and an injector venturi at the other, of which conduit the peripheral surface of said rotor forms a water carrying wall, and a steam nozzle discharging toward the convergent limb of said venturi, said rotor, with the enveloping water at the posterior end of said water conduit, being in the path of the steam jet between said nozzle and venturi, whereby the energy of the jet rotates the rotor, accelerating the velocity of the water carried by the rotor before it reaches the point of impingement of the steam jet, and an auxiliary nozzle located at an intermediate point of said water carrying wall, to direct a steam jet upon said wall, contributing to the acceleration of the water velocity, impacting water, at its point of impingement therewith, that has already been accelerated upon that part of the moving wall anterior to the point of impingement of the auxiliary jet.
4. Kinetic pump comprising a casing and a rotor defining peripherally between them a water conduit having a water inlet at one end and an injector venturi at the other, of which conduit the peripheral surface of said rotor forms a water carrying wall, a steam nozzle discharging toward the convergent limb of said venturi, said rotor with the enveloping water, at the posterior end of said water conduit, being in the path of the steam jet between said nozzle and. venturi, whereby the energy of the jet rotates the rotor, accelerating the velocity of the Water carried by the rotor before it reaches the point of impingement of the steam jet, said rotor having a circumferential series of vanes, a steam nozzle positioned to direct a jet of steam on said vanes, rotating the rotor, and an auxiliary nozzle receiving exhaust steam from said vanes, located intermediately with respect to said water carrying wall, to direct a steam jet upon said Water carrying Wall, contributing to the acceleration of the water velocity, impacting the water at its point of impingement therewith, that has already been accelerated upon moving wall anterior to the point of impingement of the auxiliary jet.
5. Means for creating optimum velocity, together with optimum heat and steam condensate conservation in a stream of water, steam and condensate and for building pressure from the velocity of said stream, comprising a movable water carrier, a Water supply delivering water at relatively low velocity to said water carrier, said carrier extending to a point remote from the delivery point and being movable in a direction to the delivered water away from the de- 4- livery' point, a nozzle operably positioned with respect to said water carrier to direct a jet of steam at relatively high velocity upon the water flowing upon said water carrier, at a point remote from said delivery point and in the direction of movement of said water carrier, said jet acting-through the intermediary of the water on said carrier to move said water carrier at a velocity superior to the velocity of the water at the delivery point, whereby the velocity of water flowing in contact with said water carrier is accelerated through said contact and comes to the point of impingement of the steam jet at a higher velocity than its initial delivery velocity, and a venturi beyond said steam nozzle having velocity and pressure building limbs through which the stream of mixed water, steam and condensate successively passes.
6. Means for creating optimum velocity together with optimum heat and water condensate conservation and for building pressure from the velocity of said stream as claimed in claim 5, including a second steam nozzle positioned so as to impinge a jet of steam upon the stream of mixed Water, steam and condensate, beyond said first nozzle, in the direction of flow of said stream, said second nozzle being connected to nozzle communicating with said conduit at a' point adjacent said movable wall at a point intermediate said delivery portion and said pressure building nozzle positioned to direct a jet of steam at relatively high velocity toward said movable wall in the direction of flow of said water column toward said pressure building nozzle, said jet acting through the intermediary of the water on said movable wall to move said wall at a velocity superior to the velocity of the water in the delivery portion, whereby the velocity of water flowing in contact with said movable wall is accelerated by virtue of said contact and comes to the point of impingement of the steam jet at a higher velocity than its velocity in said delivery portion.
WALTER H. TINKER