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Publication numberUS2271158 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 27, 1942
Filing dateMar 14, 1940
Priority dateMar 14, 1940
Publication numberUS 2271158 A, US 2271158A, US-A-2271158, US2271158 A, US2271158A
InventorsBrowne Andrew T
Original AssigneeJ G Brill Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Heating and ventilating system
US 2271158 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEM Filed March 14, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet l VINVENTOR ATTORNEY Jan. 27, 1942. A. T. BROWNE HEATING AND VENT'ILATING SYSTEM Filed March 14, 1940 6' Sheets-Sheet 2' 3 m T N E V m Jan. 27, 1942. A. T. BR wNE 2,271,158

4 HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEM 'Filed Marcq 14, 1940 6 sheets sheet 3 INVENTOR /I2egeur TBraume ATTORNEY Jan. 27, 1942.

A. T. BROWNE HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEM Filed March 14, 1940 e shee tksheet 4 INVENTOR- TBroume a ATTORNEY I W BY jndre FHA "14 II I Jan.- 27, 1942. 4.1-. BR WN: 2,271,158

' HEATING AND VENTILATING sY Ti5M Filed March 14, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 N j INVENTOR flndrgyffimume ATTORNEY A. T. BROWNE HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEM Jan. 27, 1942.

Filed March 14, 1940 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 rzareun ZBrazwz 2 BY a ,A TORNEY Patented Jan. 2' 7, 1942 HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEBI Andrew T. Browne, Lansdowne, Pa., assignor to J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a. corporation of Pennsylvania Application March 14, 1940, Serial No. 323,939

(01. zap-) 8 Claims.

This invention relates to heating and ventilating systems in general and in particular to such systems for use in light weight road or rail vehicles.

The majority of road and rail vehicles in the past have been ventilated by providing eduction openings in the ceiling and letting the ventilation take care of itself through opening of doors and windows. In winter heating of the cars was accomplished by various means, such as heating resistances in the case of. electrical vehicles, but the use of heating resistances placed an excessive load on the feeder lines and in many cases occasioned breakdowns during the storm periods when maintenance of traffic was of prime importance. The majority of attempts at proper heating and ventilating of road or rail vehicles have utilized bulky equipment placed in the vehicle or bulky ducts extending through or across the vehicle. It is an object, therefore, of the present invention to provide an eflicient heating and ventilating system of the forced ventilating type in which all equipment is placed beneath the car floor.

A further object of the invention is the provision of an efiicient heating and ventilating system in which all the equipment, except the supply ducts, is located beneath the floor of the vehicle and in the area defined by the step well.

A still further object of the invention is the provision of an efficient heating and ventilating system in which all equipment is placed either beneath the floor or in the car structure, thus permitting full use of the space inclosed by the vehicle walls for. occupancy of passengers.

Yet another object of the invention is the provision of an improved heating and ventilating system of maximum efliciency and which utilizes the waste heat from the control equipment and resistances, thereby cooling the same, while at the same time heating the vehicle interior.

These and other objects of the invention will be apparent to persons skilled in the art from a study of the following description and accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a phantom view of a rail car with the improved heating and ventilating system applied thereto;

. Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view taken through the vehicle at the step well and immediately below the car floor;

Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken through the car at the step well;

Fig. 4 is a vertical section through the transverse ducts adjacent the step well;

Fig. 5 is a horizontal sectional view taken through the upper transverse duct;

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken substantially on line 6-6 of Figure 5 andshowing one of-the outlets from the resistor box;

Fig. '7 is a sectional view through the resistor box taken substantially on line 1-1 of Fig. 8;

Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken substantially on line 88 of Fig. 7;

Fig. 9 is a horizontal sectional view similar to Fig. 2 but taken through the lower transverse air ducts;

Fig. 10 is an enlarged sectional view disclosing details of the. damper shown in Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken through the pier ducts and showing one of the fresh air dampers, and

Fig. 12 is a horizontal section through the pier ducts at the fresh air damper.

' Referringn'ow to the drawings in detail,.it will be seen that the improved heating and ventilating system has been applied to a vehicle of the streetcar type but it is to be understood that this is merely representative, since the system could be applied to road vehicles or to large passenger cars of the type running on main line railroads. The car in the present instance is com structed with side walls 2 joined to end walls 3 and supporting vehicle roof 4 and inclosing, together with the floor '5, a space in which passengers may be accommodated.- Windows 6 are provided in the side and end walls and are preferably of the fixed type so that passengers cannot raise and lower the same. Entrance and exit to and from the passenger space may be had through central and end step wells, which are normally closed by any suitable doors D.

The side walls of the vehicle are stifiened by posts 8 of any suitable form, but the posts adjacent the center step well in the present instance are formed of channels with the flanges directed toward each otherand to which are secured the car side and a lining sheet 9, thus defining a space P which may be utilized. for passage of air. For purposes of identification these ducts will be referred to as the pier ducts. These pier ducts extend throughout the height of the vehicle and communicate at their upper ends with the space inclosed between the car roof and the side ceilin plates II]. V These side ceiling plates have portions at least of their inner edges spaced slightly below the side edges of center ceiling plates I I, thus forming communication between the pier ducts and the interior of the vehicle at the ceiling zone. As clearly shown in Fig. 1 the arrangement of the ceiling plates is such that ceiling ducts are provided along each side of the vehicle extending from adjacent the vehicle ends toward the center thereof where they connect with the upper ends of the pier'ducts. Preferably, these openings between the side and center ceiling plates are located adjacent the ends of the vehicle or if provided throughout the vehicle the openings at the ends will be made slightly larger than those near the center. It will be obvious, of course, that if the pressure is reduced in the pier ducts by some means, then air will be drawn into the ducts from the openings in the ceiling but such air is sometimes unsuitable for recirculation and in such cases or where the vehicle requires fresh air, such may be admitted to the pier ducts by movement of damper l2 by means of handle l3 extending into the vehicle interior. The damper l2 opens or closes the inner edges of louvered opening i4, thus permitting fresh air free from rain or snow to be admitted or excluded fromthe pier ducts.

The center step well as shown is formed by side plates i5 having connected thereto and supporting step treads and risers I6 and H respectively and the plate i5 is extended upwardly above the floor line to form a barrier B at each side of the step well, thus protecting the passengers adjacent to the step well. This plate has attached thereto any suitable means, such as pan shaped pressing l8, defining a space between its inner surface and the plate l5 previously referred to. This pan shaped pressing is formed adjacent its upper edges with screened openings which will permit entrance of air into the space, thus providing what may be termed a barrier duct. Air entering the barrier duct can escape therefrom through openings 2| extending through the lower edges of plate IS. The air passing through openings 2| enters an upper transverse duct 24 formed by the car floor and by side channels 25 which may be the stringers themselves. The lower side of this upper transverse duct is closed by plate 26, all as clearly shown in Figs. 2, and 7. Thus it will be seen that the pier ducts on opposite sides of the car are joined directly together by the upper transverse ducts which are also supplied with air from the barrier ducts.

The two upper transverse ducts have openings 28 formed therein adjacent the ends opposite the steps and these openings provide direct access to Q fan chamber F formed by the car floor, by side plates 29 attached to the transverse ducts and by outer and inner wall plates 30 and 3| respectively; as well as by removable pan 32. Located in this fan chamber is certain auxiliary equipment and motor M driving the fan F, the dis-' tains the starting and running resistances as indicated at R and since considerable heat is developed by these resistors, the resistor housing is spaced below the car floor by means of channel members 42 attached to the floor and to the upper plate 38 of the resistor housing. The channel member 42 nearest the fan chamber is provided with a plurality of small openings 44, while small openings 45 are provided in the inner walls of the transverse ducts between the channels, thus permitting the fan todraw air from the transverse duct through the space immediately above the resistor housing and prevent any transmission of heat to the car floor (Figs. 7 and 8).

The end wall plates 28 of the resistor housing have openings 45 formed therein and these openings permit air to escape from the resistor housing into a lower transverse duct 48 located imme- ",diately below the previously referred to transof the air either to one side or to the other sideor to both sides of the resistor housing. One end of the lower duct is open and connected to a curved discharge spout 55 which may have the outlet directed in any direction, but in the present instance is directed downward toward the road bed. The opposite end of the lower transverse duct is also open and connected by a curved transition member 58 to the floor duct 60 (Figs. 2, 7 and 9). Extending along the wall of the vehicle adjacent the floor this floor duct is formed by the inner lining of the car and by angle pressing 5| as well as by floor extension 62. In the present instance the inner walls of angle pressing iii are provided with openings 63 permitting air in the floor duct to escape to the car interior ata plurality of points as clearly shown in Fig.

1. It will thus be seen that by movement of the damper 52 air escaping from the resistor housing may be directed either into the car through floor duct 60 or onto the road bed through curved discharge spouts 56. In case the vehicle is intended for use in sections having excessive cold.

spells, auxiliary heaters 65 (Fig. 7) may be placed in the lower transverse duct or in the floor duct or, as shown in the present case, in the curved transition member 58.

The connection or disconnection of the auxihary heaters to or from the source of power will be controlled by means of a thermostat 65 (Figs. 3 and 11) located at any convenient position in the vehicle interior and this thermostat will be set to turn on at some relatively low temperature such as for example a temperature of 60 degrees. The pneumatic motor 54, previously referred to, is controlled by a thermostat 68 (Figs.

3 and 5) located in the barrier duct or some other convenient location where it will be subjected to the air being drawn from the vehicle interior and this thermostat will be sov connected to the pneumatic motor as to cause the same to operate to draw air from the resistor chamber into the vehicle interior at all times when the vehicle return air is at a temperature below 70 degrees. If the temperature of the return air should rise above 70 degrees, then the thermostat will cause the pneumatic motor to operate and throw the dampers into such a position as to direct the air from the resistor box out onto the road bed. "If the heat supplied from the resistorbox is insumcient to maintain the car temperature, then thermostat 66 will operate causing the auxiliary heaters to function. It is to be understood, of course, that these representative temperatures of 60 and 70 degrees are purely representative since'the thermostats may be set at any desired temperature, but in any case are so set that maximum use will be obtained from the waste heat of the resistors and the auxiliary heaters cut in only when absolutely necessary. r

The operation of the system will be as follows and assuming the car interior temperature to be below some representative temperature, such as '70 degrees. Air will flow from the car interior adjacentthe ceiling zone through the space between the roof and side ceiling plates into the will be diverted through openings 45 into the space above the resistor housing and into the fan chamber through openings 44 (Figs. 7 and 8). This air will be forced by the fan th'rough boot 34 into the resistor housing and will be forced through the resistors in the housing and through end openings 46 into the lower transverse duct 48 and, since the car temperature is relatively low, dampers 52 will draw all heated air from the resistor chamber toward the floor ducts 60, from which the airescapes into the car interior adjacent the floor level.

If the car temperature for-any reason lowers to some point, such as 60 degrees, the air will flow exactly as just explained but the auxiliary heaters will be actuated through operation of the thermostat 66 and these auxiliary heaters will cut in and out dependent upon the temperature of the car interior as defined by the limits of the thermostat 66. In case the vehicle temperature should rise above some point, such as '70 or '72 degrees, such as in the summer time or mild Spring and Fall weather, the thermostat 66 will operate and through pneumatic motor 54 will cause damper 52 to assume the dotted line positions shown in Fig. 9, thus drawing the heated air from the resistors onto the road bed. i

It will thus be seen that when the damper 52 is in the full line position shown in Fig. 9 the vehicle air is circulated through the resistor housing to absorb the heat from the re sisters; in other words, the air is fully recirculated, but in case the vehicle temperature rises beyond a certain point, then damper 52 is movedto a position discharging the heated air and the stale air is drawn from the vehicle and discharged outside of the vehicle. It will, of course, be obvious that fresh air may be admitted to the vehicle at any time and in any proportion desired through operation of the dampers i2 in the pier ducts. With all of the fresh air dampers fully open no air will be drawn from the vehicle interior, but only fresh outside air will be forced through the resistors to be fed to the vehicle interior or forced onto the road bed, depending upon the position of dampers 52. It will thus be seen that an extremely flexible system is provided permitting complete recirculation, with heating or full fresh air supply with heating or a combination of the two, or the vitiat'ed air may be discharged from the vehicle with fresh air being supplied through the iii) natural leakage around doors and windows or when doors are open.

While the invention has been described more or less in detail, it will be obvious to persons skilled in the art that various modifications, rearrangementsof parts and difierent operation of the system is possible and all such modifications, rearrangements of parts and different operations are contemplated as will fall within the scope of the following claims defining my invention.

What is claimed is: I

1-. In a ventilating system for vehicles formed witha floor and side walls and ceiling inclosing" a passenger space, a closed -air circuit including the passenger space, a plurality of ceiling ducts, a plurality of wall ducts connected to each of said ceiling ducts, and a plurality of transverse ducts located beneath the floor and connecting said wall ducts together in pairs, means to draw air through said ducts from the passenger space, a plurality of additional transverse ducts located beneath said first named transverse .ducts for receiving air from said means, outlet openings in said additional transverse ducts for discharging air to the atmosphere exterior of the vehicle, a plurality of floor ducts connected to saidadditionai transverse-ducts for distrib-- uting the air into the passenger space at the floor zone, and means for directing said air either into said floor ducts or out of said outlet openings.

.2. In a heating and ventilating system for self-propelled roofed vehicles formed with a floor and side walls and ceiling inclosing a passenger space, a closed air circuit including the passenger space, a ceiling duct, 9. wall .duct, a transversely extending floor duct, and a compartment located beneath the vehicle floor and contain ing propulsion control equipment which generates'heat, said compartment being connected with the transverse duct, a substantially closed space above said compartment and beneath the vehicle floor, means to move air through said closed air circuit whereby said passenger space is heated and said propulsion control equip- ,ment cooled, and connections between said closed space and transversefioor duct and said means whereby said means may draw air from the transverse floor duct through the space to prevent transmission of heat to the vehicle floor from the compartment. v

3. In a heating and ventilating system for self-propelled roofed vehicles formed with a floor and side walls and ceiling inclosing a passenger space, a closed air circuit including the passenger space, a ceiling duct, a wall duct, a transversely extending floor duct, and a compartment located beneath the vehicle floor and containing propulsion control equipment which generates heat, said compartment being connected with the transverse duct, a substantially closed space above said compartment and beneath the vehicle floor, means to move air through said closed air circuit whereby said passenger space is heated and said propulsion control equipment cooled, and connections between said closed space and transverse floor duct and said means whereby said means may draw air from the transverse floor duct through the space to prevent transmission of heat to the vehicle floor from the compartment, and damper means located adjacent said compartment for drawing the air moved by said means either back into the pas- 4. In a ventilating system for roofed side entrance vehicles formed with a floor, side walls and a ceiling incloslng a passenger space, a closed air circuit including the passenger space, a ceiling duct opening into the passenger space, a vertical wall duct connected with the ceiling duct, a floor duct with which the wall duct is connected, and a short vertical duct connected with the floor duct and opening into the passenger space adjacent the. side entrance and defining a .side of the entrance within the passenger space,

means arranged below the floor of the vehicle and included in the connection between the floor duct and wall duct for moving air through the closed air circuit, and temperature controlled means operating in accordance with the temperature of the air in the closed circuit and permitting exhaust of air from the passenger space to the outside atmosphere, said vertical wall duct being so formed and arranged as to permit entrance of fresh air to said closed circuit.

5. In a ventilating system for roofed side entrance vehicles formed with a floor and side walls and ceiling inclosing a passenger space, a closed air circuit including the passenger space, a ceiling duct opening into the passenger space, a vertical wall duct connected with the ceiling duct and a fioor duct connected with said wall duct, and a short vertical duct opening into the passenger space adjacent the side entrance and communicating with said floor duct, said short vertical duct defining a side of .the entrance within the passenger space, means located beneaththe floor of the vehicle and included in the connection between the floor duct and wall duct to move air through said closed circuit, valve means also included in the connection between the fioor duct and vertical wall duct and permitting the exhaust of air from the passenger space to the outside atmosphere, the exhausted air being drawn by said first named means through the ceiling duct, wall duct and short vertical duct for discharge beneath the vehicle by said valve means, adjustable means permitting the entrance .of a regulated supply of fresh airto the closed circuit, said fresh air supply being augmented by said short vertical duct when the side entrance is opened.

6. In a ventilating system for vehicles formed with a floor and side walls and a ceiling inclosing I a passenger space, a s'ubstantiallyclosed heating and ventilating circuit including the passenger space, a plurality of ceiling ducts opening into' 'space between said housing and floor to prevent the transmission otheat from said resistors to said floor, said-housing forming part of the heating and ventilating circuit and having portsin communication with said ventilating duct means and with the atmosphere, thermostatic means subjected to the temperature of the airin the passenger space for regulating the temperature in said car by the regulation of said resistors, additional thermostatic means subjected solely to the temperature of the air circulating in said ducts for regulating 'the temperature of said car by discharging air from said housing to the atmosphere, a blower in said circuit for circulating air through the ducts and passenger space. a passage discharging air from said ventilating duct means and housing into said passenger space. i

'7. In a ventilating system for roofed side entrance vehicles formed with afloor and side walls and ceiling inclosing a passenger space, a closed air circuit including the passenger space, a plurality of ceiling ducts, a plurality of wall ducts connected to each of said ceiling ducts,

and a plurality of transverse ducts located beneath the floor and connecting said wall ducts together in pairs, a short vertical duct opening into the passenger space at each side of the side entrance and partially defining the sides of said entrance, said short vertical ducts having inlet openings at their upper end portions facing said side entrance, and-outlet openings connected with said transverse ducts, means to draw air through said transverse ducts from the connected wall and ceiling'ducts and short vertical ducts and out of the passenger space, a plurality of additional transverse ducts located beneath said first named transverse ducts for receiving air from saidmeans, outlet openings in said additional transverse ducts for discharging air to the atmosphere exterior of the vehicle, a plurality of floor ducts connected to said additional transverse ducts for distributing the air into the passenger space at the floor zone, and means for directing said air either into said floor ducts or out of said outlet openings.

8. In a ventilating system for roofed side entrance vehicles formed with a floor and side walls and ceiling inclosing' a passenger space, a

closed air circuit including the passenger space,

a pluralityof ceiling ducts, a plurality of wall ducts connected to each of said ceiling ducts, and a plurality of transverse ducts located beneath the floor and connecting said wall ducts together in pairs, ashort vertical duct opening into the passenger space 'at each side of the side entrance and partially defining the sides of said entrance, said short vertical ducts having inlet openings at their upper end portions facing said side entrance, and outlet openings connected with said transverse ducts, means to draw air through said transverse ducts from the connected wall and ceiling ducts and short vertical ducts and out of the passenger space, a plurality of additional transverse ducts located beneath said first named transverse ducts for receiving air from said means, outlet openings in said additional transverse ducts for discharging air to the atmosphereexterior of the vehicle, means for regulating said outlet openings in response to the temperature of the air in said short vertical ducts, a plurality of floor ducts connected to said additional transverse ducts for distributing the air into the passenger space at the floor zone, said last named means directing said air either into said floor ducts or out of said outlet openings.

ANDREW T. BROWNE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2476368 *Aug 3, 1946Jul 19, 1949Marmon Herrington Co IncDeflecting separator air scoop for ventilating closed vehicles
US2566212 *Aug 7, 1948Aug 28, 1951Gen Motors CorpLocomotive ventilating and cooling system
US2760725 *Oct 24, 1951Aug 28, 1956Budd CoThermal conditioning and ventilating means and method
US6688678Jan 28, 2003Feb 10, 2004Alfa Leisure, Inc.Motorhome with increased interior ceiling height
US6776451 *Oct 4, 2001Aug 17, 2004Alfa Leisure, Inc.Motorhome HVAC system
US6807735Sep 26, 2001Oct 26, 2004Alfa Leisure, Inc.Method of fabricating a motorhome
US7021699Feb 10, 2004Apr 4, 2006Alfa Leisure, Inc.Motorhome with increased interior ceiling height
US7082685May 28, 2004Aug 1, 2006Alfa Leisure, Inc.Method of fabricating a motorhome
US7338109Apr 4, 2006Mar 4, 2008Alfa Leisure, Inc.Motorhome with increased interior ceiling height
US7340832Oct 26, 2004Mar 11, 2008Alfa Leisure, Inc.Method of fabricating a motorhome
Classifications
U.S. Classification237/5, 236/99.00G, 454/105, 236/99.00R
International ClassificationB61D27/00
Cooperative ClassificationB61D27/0081
European ClassificationB61D27/00D2