US 2271280 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
lan 27 1942- c. R. wElNER-r i 2,271,280
GAS PRODUCING PROJECTILE Filed Dec. 11, 1955 r-awww Jan. 27, 1942. c. R. wElNr-:R'r 2,271,230
GAS PRODUCING PROJECTILE Filed Dec. 11, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 www:
Patented Jan. 27, i942 2,271,280 GAS PRODUCING PROJECTIL Carl Reinhold Weinert, liittsburgh, Pa., assignor to Federal Laboratories, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Delaware geniessen December ii, i935, serial No. 53,988
(ci. rc2-ai) 6 Claims.
This invention relates to projectiles and more particularly to projectiles which are adapted to be used in dispersing mobs and breaking barricades.
The use of so-called tear gas bombs is well known, but heretofore the use of such bombs has been restricted to the dispersion of mobs among which police ofcers have been able to mingle and into which they have been able to drop a bomb or grenade adapted to expel repelling fumes and gases. The devices of this character now in use are not adapted to be propelled along a predetermined trajectory, and consequently their use in breaking barricades has been relatively limited. Furthermore, many of the devices now in use are of an explosive character which renders their use dangerous when no physical injury is intended.
t is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a repellant gas expelling projectile which may be propelled along a predetermined trajectory and which will accurately maintain its course of flight for a considerable distance. This object is accomplished by providing a projectile having at the rear thereof articulated iins or vanes which are adapted automatically to move into a wider radial zone than that described by the body of the projectile itself. The articulated stabilizing members are adapted to be held in retracted or inoperative position by a cartridge which contains a sufficient amount of propellant material to sustain the projectile in iiight for a substantial distance. The projectile and its associated cartridge are adapted to be used with a comparatively light Weight and compact riot gun in which the propellant cartridge is exploded and from which the projectile is discharged.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a repellant gas projectile which is non-explo sive, and this object is accomplished by providing a plurality of gas discharge vents from which a gas being vgenerated within the p rojectile may now in profusion.
It is a further object of the invention to provide in a projectile of this type a time fuse which may be set to meet the requirement of varying conditions in combination with a unique arrangement of certain other parts of the device.
Additionalimportant objects and advantages of the invention'will be apparent in part and will be explained in part in the following specii'ication read in connection with the drawings in which, by Way of example only:
Fig. 1 is an elevational view of the projectile balance.
forming the subject matter of this invention, in which the cartridge is shown in longitudinal section.
Fig. 2 is an elevational View of the projectile as it appears in ight with its varies extended into flight stabilizing position.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the projectile shown in Fig. 2, and the same is taken upon a plane 90 about the plane of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line fl-t of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on line B- of Fig. 1.
Fig. 7 is a rear view of one form of vanes in open position, with parts in fragmentary section.
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary view corresponding in general to Fig. 2, but shows modified form of varies and vane mountlngs.
Fig. 9 is a view corresponding in general to Fig. 6, but shows the modified vane structure illustrated in Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a View corresponding in general to Fig. 7, but shows the modif-led vane structure illustrated in Fig. 8.
Fig. 11 is a central longitudinal sectional view of the loaded projectile casing, and illustrates the gas discharge channels through the charge within the projectile casing, and
Fig. 12 is a sectional view on line |2--I2 of Fig. 11.
The projectile comprises a casing lll fixed at its rear end to a fuse block l2 upon which are placed articulated vanes M, and these three assembled principal elements are adapted to be received by a propellant containing cartridge IB.
The projectile casing l0 comprises a substantially cylindrical seamless casing, the nose of which is of ogival formation. Within the nose, the walls of which may be thicker than the body portion of the casing to resist shock, is a Weight I8 so proportioned and located as to impart to the projectile the optimum ballistic At two or more equally spaced points about the circumference of the projectile and extending longitudinally along its length are formed depressions 20, the purpose of which will hereinafter be more fully explained.
Pressed tightly into the projectile casing and terminating short of the rear end thereof to form a gas generating pressure chamber A. is a body of gas forming chemical composition 22. This gas generating pressure chamber A is positioned intermediate of the gas producing compound 22 and. the fuse block 32 ,respectively shown in Figs. 11 and 3.l This composition, which forms no part of this invention, may be a lachrymatory, stermitatory or irritant suchv as chloracetophenone or diphenylaminechlorarsine, or a mixture of both,
an igniting fuel such as smokeless powder, and a stabilizer such as magnesium oxide or calcium carbonate. The chemicall composition 22 and the weight I8 are securely fixed in the projectile so that any tendency toward set-bac is avoided constituting an initial gas generating space or area. The radial passages 23 in "the chemical mass are coincident and in alignment with vent passages 2li formed in the casing groove 20 and extend radially from the axially arranged gas generating space.
The vent passages 24 are sealed by means of a water proof sealing strip 2E' which may be an adhesive tape, or other suitable material. The groove 2l) is suiciently depressed below the principal diameter of the projectile casing to receive completely therein the sealing strip 26 without any portion thereof extending beyond the principal diameter of the projectile casing. This relationship is maintained with care to guard against contact of the sealing strip 26 with the barrel of the gun during discharge of the projectile which might result in damage to the sealing strip and its possible premature removal dur`v ing the discharging operation.
The rear or open end of the projectile casing l0 is offset inwardly at 2l to form a neck of reduced diameter adapted to t snugly into the open end of the cartridge i6. The formation of the diametrically reduced neck 2 results in a Consequently the vanes shoulder 28 which serves as a stop to limit the movement of the projectile casing into the cartridge i6.
After the projectile casing has been loaded with a chemical` compound, as above indicated, the open end is attached to the fuse block i2 in any convenient manner such as spinning the periphery 3% of the open edge of the casing into `a groove 32 provided along the circumference of the fuse block i2.
In the most convenient method of assembly the vanes lli are attached to the fuse block i2 and projectile casing soas to` extend into a'zone at the end of the projectile casing where they can be of maximum advantage in stabilizing the flight of the projectile along its entire trajectory. The vanes i4, of which several forms have been found satisfactory, are turned in upon themselves at their inner edge to form a bearing member 36 which is adapted to fit over the vane spindle 34, and the vanes are retained on the spindles by means of washers 38 on the one hand or the screw heads 40 on the other hand. Associated with each vane is an actuating spring 42 which is coiled about the vane spindle and one end of which is in contact with the vane while the other end is in contact with a stop pin H4. Il are continuously urged into their operative or open position and assume a stable open position as soon as the projectile is released from its cartridge i6 and the gun barrel. The stop pins 44 limit the movement of the vanes and these pins are carefully positioned so that, in their open or operative position, the vanes maintain a stable balanced relationship to each other.
It has been found that the vanes may be made of different sh'apes and it has been found in practice that those formsillustrated in Figs. 2,
6 and 7 are most satisfactory. In this form of the invention, four equally spaced vanes are provided and the vane bodies are bent at an angle throughout their length which permits the same to fold compactly, but at the same time affords maximum stabilization during iiight. A modified arrangement is illustrated in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, wherein have been shown a set of three vanes spaced about the circumference of the projectile, and in this form the vanes represent a diagona segment of a cylinder.'
It will be noted that a free axial zone is provided between the vane spindles both when the vanes are in inoperative and operative positions. Coaxially with this zone and extending directly through the fuse block is a fuse receiving aperture d6. The fuse aperture 46 is adapted to hold a time fuse of any well known construction satisfactory for the purpose. By virtue of the free axial zone between the vane spindles, the time fuse i8.,will be readily ignited by the discharge of the propellant in the cartridge i6.
Turning now to the cartridge i6, it will be noted that the same consists of an open ended cylindrical body 50 of which the internal diambefore the fuse block is assembled with the projectile casing. In any event it has been found convenient to at least place-vane spindles 36 in position before-any assembly of the fuse block with the projectile casing is effected. Several methods of fixing the vane spindles 313 may be employed and two methods have been illustrated. In Fig. 3, the fuse block is provided with four equally spaced holes around the circumference thereof, and through these holes may be passed the reduced ends of spindles Sli whichare securely fixed in position by upsetting the inwardly projecting reduced ends thereof. In Fig.l8.the
spindles 3d are illustrated as threaded elements which may be threaded into holes' provided in the fuse block.
The movable vanes at the rear end of the projectile are so constructed that. in their inoper* ative, or folded position they occupy an over-all. diameter which is less than the diameter of the fuse block and projectile casing, and in their operative, or open position they describe a diameter greater than any diameter of the fuse block eter fits in snug relation the reduced portion 2l of the projectile. In the base of the cartridge it is a detonation cap 52 which, upon explosion, is adapted to ignite a propellant 54 which may be any satisfactory material such as powder. Over the propellant is placed a wad 56 of satisfactorysheet material such as cardboard. The wad 5t is provided with an axial bore 5B which is sealed with a strip of cellulose tape t or with some other easily ignitable and rupturable material. Above the Wad 56 is a felt Wad t2 which is also formed with an axial bore (it, and over the Wad E@ is placed a non-yielding sheet metal washer @t which likewise has an axial bore concentric with the bore @Il in the wad t2. It is the function of the sheet metal washer @t to impart the force generated by the propellant M equally to the vane spindles 363) which rest on this washer at equally spaced points about its surface.
The operation of the projectile hereinabove described is probably clear from the description which has been given, but by way of summary the complete operation will be described. When m'part'propelling force to the projectile.
the projectile casing lll and the cartridge I6 are handled as a unit, it is simply necessary to remove the projectile from the cartridge in order to set the time fuse 48 to meet the requirement of a particular situation. The articulated vanes i4 are then folded inwardly against the tension of the springs 42 and the projectile casing is again placed into the shell I6 until the shoulder 28 comes in contact with the mouth of the lshell. 'I'he projectile casing and cartridge are then placed in a gun of suitable caliber and upon the operation of the same, the firing pin strikes the percussion-cap 52 which in turn ignites the propellant material54, the force of which movesthe wad 62 and the metal plate 66 forwardly to im- At the same time the cellulose strip 60 is broken and flame from the propellant 54 passes forward l through the axially free zone leading to the fuse 48 which is ignited as the projectile begins to move forward in the barrel of the gun.
As the projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun the springs 42 move the vanes I4 into their extended position where they lie in a zone most eiective to stabilize the ight of the projectile. As the time fuse 48 ignites the gas producing compound -Within the projectile, the pressure therein begins to rise and ll the channels in the body of the compound under/the discharge vents 24 lying beneath the tape 25. This pressure is effective to force the tape 26 oil the channel 20 to expose the gas discharge vents 24. The number of vents provided and their spaced position around the projectile insure an adequate discharge of the generated gases and also insure the projectile against explosion. The heat being generated by the combustion of the fuel within the projectile, even before the gases therein reach a pressure suicient to dislodge the seal 26, raises the temperature of the casing to such a point that convenient handling becomes impossible, thereby insuring the same against destruction by a barricaded person or persons.
The principles herein taught may be variously utilized. For example the stabilizing vane arrangement ink its relation with a propellant containing cartridge may be applied to any projectile whether gas producing, explosive,V or otherwise. Likewise the gas discharge vent arrangement is useful not only in a gas producing projectile adapted to be red from a gun, but is equally as useful ina grenade type gas bomb which is adapted to be manually handled. Since, therefore, the embodiments herein described and illustrated are for the purpose of illustration only, and since it is obvious that various modications and changes may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, it is intended that the practice of the invention be not limited other than by limitations which may be imposed thereon by the scope of the subjoined claims.
What I claim is:
1. A gas producing bomb for firing from a smooth bore gun comprising a projectile, a fuse block at the base of said projectile, pivot posts secured upon the fuse block and extending rear-` wardly and longitudinally of the projectile, flight stabilizing vanes articulated on said pivot posts and movable thereabout, a propellent charge for said projectile, and means in direct contact with the rear ends of said pivot posts and separating the propellent charge and the stabilizing vane structure for unifying and distributing the force of the propellent charge over the projectile at the time the charge is tired.
2. A gas producing bomb for ring from smooth bore gun comprising a projectile with expansible ilight stabilizing vanes longitudinally pivoted on therbase of theV projectile and capable of contracting suiliciently to enter the casing of a cartridge forming part of said gas producing bomb and having a base flangeA for engaging the breech chamber of the gun to hold the bomb therein, a propellent charge for the projectile within the casing, and means in direct contact with the rear ends of the longitudinal pivots of said stabilizing vanes for separating said vanes from the propellent charge and for unifying and distributing the force of the propellent charge equally over the projectile when the charge is red.
3. A non-explosive gas producing projectile adapted to be fired from a gun, said projectile comprising a casing, a closure member at the base thereof and a fuse in said closure member, saidcasing having discharge vents in the side Walls thereof, sealing means over said vents adapted to be blown off by gas pressure, a gas producing charge within and fitting the forward portion of said casing, leaving a gas generating space between said charge and said closure member, said charge having a longitudinal passage therein and transverse passages extending between said longitudinal passage and each of said discharge vents.
'4. A projectile according to claim 3, in which the discharge vents are located in a depressed area of the outer wall of the casing within the cylindrical contour thereof.
5. A projectile according to claim 3, in which the discharge vents are located in a depressed area which is formed by longitudinal grooves in the wall of said casing, the depth of the grooves being suicient that vent sealing material lying therein is protected from abrasion by contact with the barrel of the gun from which the projectile is red.
6; A projectile according to claim 3, in which the discharge /vents are located in a depressed area which is formed by longitudinal grooves in the wall of said casing, and a strip of adhesive tape extending substantially the length of each of the grooves and over the vents forms the means for sealing the vents.
CARL REINHOLD WEINERT.