US 2272083 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 3, 1942. R, Rg CANDQR 2,272,083
' AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed Nov. s, 1535. :s sheets-sheet 1 a l1 Jnffunu sono 16 V 400000 lllll 30, 00000 llllll/ l 3g 00011,:
zo \29 22a /Ia Feb. 3, 1942. R. R. cANDoR 2,272,083
AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS y Filed Nov. s, 1955 l s sheets-sheet 2 n I. Y l NV NTOR.
' enr Cir-DM?, .l -BY l E Arron?? @the condenser.
l Patented Feb. 3, 19.42
s PATENT' OFFICE- AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Robert R. Candor, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Application Novemberv 8,1935, Serial No. 48,893
This" invention relates to refrigeration and more particularly to the conditioning of air.
An object of this invention is to provide an improved arrangement andl control of the refrigeration for the conditioning of air. i
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic"representation,of an may also be varied even when the air ows over all of the coils. The evaporating means I3, I4 may be connected to compressing means II which in turn is connected to condensing means I8. The water flowing through the coil|5 from the pipe I9 may flow through the pipe 2li-andv through the condenser to cool the same, and may be discharged at 2|. Means for causing the automatic ow of water in accordance with they compressing action may be provided, and this may take the form of a pressure responsive valve 22 which opens with the increasing Vhead pressure such as in the condenser I8 acting through the tube 23a.
rst compressing unit. The refrigerant from the warm evaporator and from the first compressing unit is introduced into a second compressing unit from whence the vapors are condensed in a unitary condenserwhich is connected to the evaporator.
Also the air may be cooled by a Waterow meansor coil which is placed in parallel relationship with the evaporating means, and the water owing through this device is used to cool Also, when desired, the operation of the `refrigerating apparatus is modified or stopped when a certain quantity. of water has been removedirom the air which is being conditioned in order to prevent the overflow of water.
In the 'modiiication shown in Fig. 1, air is caused to flow through a passageway I0 by means of a fan I I driven by the motor I2. The air flows past a relatively warm evaporator I3 and a relatively cold evaporator |4. It also nows', in parallel realtionship, past a water-flow means or coil |5. If desired, a damper I6 may be provided so that air need be circulated past the water coil only during mild weather. Under such conditions, if desired, the motor I2 may be made to l .have a plurality of speeds and the speed of the fan-may be regulated in accordance with the position of the damper IB. Thus, if desired, the speed of the fanV may be slower when air is forced only over the water coil I5 than when it is forced over all of the coils. The speed of the fan When the cooling coil I5 is to be usedwalone, the hand valve 22a may be opened, so that Water may flow through the coil |5 independently of the automatic valve 22.
1f desired, the compressing means |I may take the form of a first sealed motor-compressor unit 23 which is connected by the suction line 24 with the relatively cold evaporator I4. A second sealed motor-compressor unit 25 is connected by the' suction line26 with the relatively Warm evaporator I3 and also to the discharge of the unit 23 by means of the pipe 21. The units 23 and 25 thus discharge into the condenser I8 through the duced or lstopped regardless of suction pressure.
y bulb 32.
Refrigerant is introduced into the evaporator' I3 through the valve 3| which is throttled by th'e function to the valve 30 except that it is calibrated at a higher pressure or temperature than the valve 30. Both valves 30 and 3| may be calibrated to open at temperatures such that freez-ving of water is avoided, although it is to be understood that, if desired, the setting may be selected to freeze moisture.
The apparatus disclosed in Fig. 1 may be automatically controlled in accordance with air conditions. Also, if desired, the motor-compressor units 23 and 25 may be caused to start in sequence in order to reduce the starting load on the electric line. A wiring diagram for accomplishing this is shown in Fig. 2, in which 30 and The valve 3| is similar in action and 3| are the electric power lines. The operation of the apparatus may be manually' controlled by a manual master switch 32. The closing of this switch places the apparatus under the control of an air conditionresponsive switch and causes Athe 5 motor I2 to operate at a selected speed. A speed selector 33 may be provided to govern the flow of currentthrough the motor I2 and regulate its speed. An instrument or switch 34, responsive to air conditions, governs the operation of the motor-compressor units by starting and stopping them. .The instrument 34 may be a switch which is responsive either to dry bulb air conditions, wet bulb air conditions or a combination of both, such as effective air temperature conditions or relative humidity conditions. The closing of the switch 34 causes current to flow through the main winding 35 .of the motor 25a of either the unit 25 or 23.. The current flows from the line 38, switch 34, winding 35, solenoid 36 and bi-metal 20 31'to the line 3|. The flow of current through` the solenoid 36 closes the contacts 38 thus causing current'tc flow through the starting winding- 39. After a suiliciently long period of time to permit the motor to attain its speed, the bi-metal 25 j31 becomes suiiiciently heated to close the contacts 46 thus shunt the solenoid 36. This in turn opens the contacts 38, and the motorcontinues to operate on its running winding only. An overload switch 4| is provided with a bilnetal 42. 30 This bi-metal may be heated by the heater 43 which becomes sufllciently heated to open the switch 4| only when the motor 25a is overloaded.- The motor 23a, of either the unit 23 or 25, may be started in sequence to the motor 25a by any 35 suitable means. This may beaccomplished by placing a delay switch 44 across the motor 23a and under the control of the switch 34.` When the switch 34 closes and starts the motor 25a it motor 16.
59. Refrigerant is provided for the evaporator 52 through the automatic expansion valve 60 having a -throttling bulb 6|. Refrigerant for the evaporator 53 is 'provided by the valve 624 having a throttling bulb 63. The valves 63 and 62 are similar in function and operation to the valves 36 and 3| respectively. 'I'he compressing means' 51 may take the form of a first sealed motor-compressor unit 64 connected to the cold evaporator 53,' and a second sealed motor-compressor unit 65 connected to the warm evaporator 52 and to the discharge of the unit 64. 'I'hese .units discharge through the pipe 56 into the condenser 58.
Air is caused to ilow from and to the outside to cool the refrigerant circulating or liquefying means.' Thus a panel 10 is provided in the window 1|. An air intake pipe 12 is connected with the machinery compartment and with the outside of the room through the panel 10. An air discharge pipe \13 is likewise connected with the outside of the room and with the machinery compartment. A blowerA 14 causes air to flow through the conduits 12 'and 13 and through machinery compartment 15. A blower 14 is driven by a An air relief opening 11 having a regulating valve 18 is provided for the withdrawal of air from the room by thelblower 14 to compensate for the air entering at 5| a. However, a windowv or door may provide such air relief instead. l
The operation of the refrigerant ,liquefying means inthe compartment 15 may be governed in accordance with air conditions and also may be modified or its operation may be prevented in accordance with the accumulation of water from the evaporators 52 and 53. If desired, the motoralso simultaneously causesA the flow of current `ISOIIIDIeSSOI units 54 and 55 muy be. Caused t0 through the delay element or heater of the switch 44. After the bi-metal 46 has become suiiiciently heated, it closes the contacts 44. The heating*` period of the bi-metal 46 is so' calibrated that it does not close at 44 until after the motor 45 25d has attained its full speed and after the contacts 40 have closed. The closing of the contact 44 starts the motor 23a in a manner similar to that of motor 25a. Thus the motor 23a is provided with a main winding 41, a running winding 48, a solenoid 49, a starting switch 50, a bimetal switch 5| and an overload switch 5 2 operating in substantially the same manner as the corresponding elements of the circuit of motor 25a. 'I'he bi-metals of the overloads 52 and 42 55 automatically reset themselves after a relatively long period of time and continue to try to start their respective motors witha suiiicient time interval ofv idleness to prevent overheating of the motors. In the modification shown in Fig. 3, a cabinet .Y or casing 50 is provided and may be placed in a room or the like. Air to be conditioned for the' room may enter at the casing at 5|, this air being recirculated air. Air from outside the room enters at 5Ia from the tube 5|b under the control of hand valve 5|c. The air flows past a relatively warm evaporator 52, and a relatively -densing means 58 which condensingmeans is connected with the evaporators through the pipe 15 start in sequencetin a manner similar to the units 23 and 25 heretofore described. In addiztion, water condensed or frozenj; out of the air by the evaporators 52 and 53 may be gathered in a drain pan 86 which in turn may discharge into the receptacle 8| which operates a switch 82. 'I'he arrangement is such that when a certain quantity of water flows into the receptacle 8|,
. the switch 82 is opened and further operation of the refrigerating apparatus is prevented until the receptaclev 8| is emptied. This prevents the overflow of water.
The operation of the apparatus shown in Fig. 3 may be accomplished by the wiring shown in the diagram/of Fig. 4. 'I'he electric power lines 83 and 84 supply electrical energy for the apparatus. A manual master switch 65 controls the entireapparatus. Its closing starts the operation of the motor 55, which also may be a variable speedmotor. A switch 86 governs the operation of the liquefying unit in accordance with air conditions. The switch 86 may be the same in construction and function with the' switch 34. When the switch 86 is closed, motor 16 starts and the motor 65avof the unit 65 is started in a manner similar to the motor 25a. Thereafter, or in' sequence, the motor 64a of thef unit 64 is started in a manner similar to the motor 23a. When the receptacle 8| becomes suiliciently full, it compresses the spring 81 and opens the switch 82. This prevents further op eration of the compressors and motor 16'unti1 I the receptacle 8| is emptied.
Instead of discharging the condensed moisture into the receptacle 8| it may be discharged over .similar to that described for Fig. l.
the condenser 58 where it is evaporated and its water Vapor wouldA be discharged through the pipe 13 outside of the room. This may be accoxnplished by providing a two-way valve 9|) which may connect the drain pan 80 either with the pipe 9| or with the pipe 02` which latter pipe is connected with the distributor head 03 overA the condenser 58.
In the modification shown in Fig. 5, a' cabinet |00. may be provided and may be'placed in a room. Air from the room or from-outside the room or both may enter the cabinet at It passes in thermal contact with the water-flow means or coil |02, a relatively warm evaporator |03, a relatively cold evaporator |04 and is discharged through the outlet |05 into the. room.- The ow of air may be caused by means of a fan |06 driven by a motor |01. The motor |01 may be a multiple speed motor similar to the motor l2. The evaporator |04 maybe conected with a first sealed motor-compressor unit4 |00. The
through said water-now air cooler, meansfor bypassing at least a portion of the air around one evaporator |03 may be connected with a second sealed motor-compressor unit |09. Thel discharge of the unit |08 may be into the unit |09, and these two units may ldischarge into the'condenser |,|0. Water from the coil |02 may ow through the' condenser coil III. The vflow of water may be governed in accordance with the head pressures by the valve 2 in a manner A thermostaticv switch 3 may govern the wiring arrangement for the units |08 and |09 in a similar manner Vto that described with respect to Fig.'2, the wiring arrangementbeinar diagrammatically indicated by the square H4. In this manner the units |00 and |09 are caused to start in sequence in accordance with air conditions of the room.
In all ofthe modifications, itis understood that a thermostatic, humidostatic or'other type of switch, such as 34, 86 or |I3, may be made responsive to the conditions of the air of the room or space which receives the conditioned air or it may be responsive to the conditions of air outside such room or space or may be made responsive to a combination of the two.
While the form of embodiment of thel invention as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred formQit is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
l. The method of conditioning air which com- Y prises operating a fan to circulate air through a refrigerant evaporating zone and a Water-110W zone in parallel, mixing the air passing from said zones. compressing refrigerant from lsaid evaporating zone. condensing the compressed refrigerant with water from said water-flow zone, and varying the speed of said fan so as to vary the volume of aircirculated.
2. An apparatus-for conditioning air comprisy ing fan means establishing a stream of air to be conditioned. a refrigerant-flow air cooler in said means. a water-now air cooler in said means in parallel relationship to said refrigerant-now air 'coolen means for mixing the air from said refrigerant iowv cooler with the' air from said water-now air cooler, a refrigerant liquefying unit connected to said refrigerant-flow air cooler, means for cooling `said unit with water -owing of said air coolers, and means for varying the speed of said fan means.
3. A unitary room air conditioner adapted to be used near a window of said room and including a cabinet separate from the walls of said room, acooling compartment and a machinery compartment in said cabinet, a plurality of evaporators in said air cooling compartment, means for maintaining one of said evaporators at a relatively high temperature, and means for maintaining one of said evaporators at a relatively low temperature, refrigerant liquefying means in said machinery compartment in refrigerant flow relationship with said evaporators, a rst blower connected to said air cooling compartment,a second blower connected to said machinery compartment, said air cooling compartment being provided with an air inlet from said room, an air inlet from said window and an air outlet to said room, said machinery compartment being provided with an air inlet from said room, an air inlet from said window and an air outlet to said window, whereby fresh air from said window is cooled and is discharged into said room,
and cooled air is circulated in said machinery compartment and out said window.
4. An air conditioning apparatus comprising an air cooling unit, a refrigerant circulating unit connected to said cooling unit, means responsive to changes in one function of the psychrometric condition of the air for governing the operation of one of said units, and means inherently responsive to the quantity of water vapor removed from air treatedby said cooling unit for preventing operation of one of said units.
5. An airconditioning apparatus comprising a first evaporator having means for maintaining said evaporator at a relatively wann refrigerating temperature, a second evaporator having means for maintaining said evaporator at a relatively cold refrigerating temperature, said evaporators satisfying a common air cooling load, a first motor-compressor unit connected to said second evaporator, a second motor-compressor unit having its suction side connected to said first evaporator and to the discharge of said rst unit, condensing means connected to said second unit and to said evaporators, and means inherently responsive to air conditions for starting said units in sequence.
6. An air conditioning apparatus comprising a first evaporator having means for maintaining said evaporator at a relatively warm refrigerating temperature, a secondevaporator having means for maintaining said evaporator at a relatively cold refrigerating temperature, saidevaporator satisfying a common air cooling load, a rst sealed motor-compressor unit connected to said secondA evaporator, asecond sealed motorcom iieation o1' air.
ROBERT R. CANDOR.