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Publication numberUS2274010 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 24, 1942
Filing dateDec 16, 1939
Priority dateDec 16, 1939
Publication numberUS 2274010 A, US 2274010A, US-A-2274010, US2274010 A, US2274010A
InventorsDomnic V Stellin
Original AssigneeDomnic V Stellin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lock washer
US 2274010 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

LOCK WASHER Filed Dec.

2 Sheets-Sheet l 3 4 I INVENTOR. my 572/0)? BY I ATTORNEY.

Feb. 24,, 1942. b. v STELLIN 2,274,010

' LOCK WASHER Filed Dec. 16, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEY.

Patented Feb. 24, 1942 mien xi :ifxm 09' ntema l, countersunk" pe' "Various s'fiy'lesi of I lockpr tions; are descri bed' te'r'jchangealdlmas will Figure 29 is a similar section of a modification thereof.

The washer illustrated in Figures 1 to 4 is formed from an annular blank I which has previously been slit radially at 2 into the outer circumference and also to some extent circumferentially at 3 from the inner ends of the slits to permit the formation of locking points and supporting portions. Each tongue defined by a set of slits Land 3 is shaped by a suitable die to. form twoilockingtpointsfl at the radial edges,-.a'f central wave5 extendin'g to the same side of the washer as the locking points, and two end waves 6 at the sides of the wave 5 and extending in the opposite direction. As shown in Figure 2* jacerit tongues have their locking pointsexte ing respectively to opposite sides oithe vfa'sher', or in opposite directions, whilesthe -corresponde ing waves are similarly reversed.

It will also be seen in Figure 2 that the 'points i 4 of: any tongue: extend azshortersdi stance irorn the planeof thewasher than. does I the intervene ing-wave 510i thesame tongue, Inlilge manner, the waves- .6,extendfroniqtheplane'oi the washer a longer distance than do 'the'locking'"points Q of the next tongue. 'Iihus,'the 1o,cl;ing;.;p1oints;of each :tongue' areyprotectedby the wave 5' of ;;the sam t n u n b'Y-twav s 5g f;t ;as ie9 nt; tongues. The .pr'es'surebetween the partsljt o. be screwed together is firstttalifenby theisupporting portions5, 6 and next by the locking hints}, with the ,result..;that;.the. latter .do notgreceiv'e the initial'and total-pressure. The pressurennally applied to the locking points .i s,, howe v'er sufficient to cause-them 1 bite into the 'metal and produce the desired locking action."

,Moreover,...t he distortion or squeezing of the e al'atihew s 5, 6 qt e t eleeking int into the metal in. ;ja manner, to increasethelocking action withoutadditional gpressure .o' strain on the lockingg'pol'nts. h I theyyavy tongues, p11their"resistance tobeing flattened, further 'incr'easesthe locking'actfion by creatingpressure lateral y against the thieads or inthe direction of the axis" of the member. [I

To di'stribut'e' the 'pres'sure'nio're uniformly be: tween the circumferences of the washer, a num ber' of tabs-T are providedat the inner'or' unformed circumference, These are folded over the body or the washer to opposite sides thereof in succession, as may be seen in Figures 3 andki.

A space 8 is retained between each 'tabi-and che body of the washer and the outer surface. of

each tab isislightly'within the "level-of the'waves on the same side of the washer, sojthat-thepressure -lis takenby the tabs. a fter -th'e waves have been-engaged. Thusz'xthe-tabs reinforce the looking elements and furnish resiliency-whichr-increases the; locking action. It will-,be. understood that the locking tongues may-be formedgon the inner' circumference-1aridijthe" tabs on theouter circumference, if desiredpan d'; that :,the .-other constructions herein adescr ibed are {capable of reversal as well as interchangeabilityof .,1 he= .forms, of locking points and SuDpOlftingfl-portion s, within the scope of the invention. I a

each other but to opposite sides of the washer.

site directions.

.- Immediately adjacent to each locking point is formed a wave [4 extending to the opposite side of the washer from the same point and slightly beyond the immediately adjacent point'to form a supporting member protecting the latter in the manner previously described. Adjacent to each wave I4 is formed a wave I5 extending to the other side of the washer and slightly beyond the integral locking point l3 to protect the same.

ltwill beseen that the constructions. shown in Figuresikto 6 are provided on each side with looking elements extending angularlyin oppo- Such washers are suitable for either right or left hand threads, as described in UL-"S. Patent No. 2,191,101, and this is also truepf the remaining washers herein having ockingele'ments so disposed.

.: glngFiguresfl; to l0 -is shown a washer of the splitring type wherein locking elements are provided -or 1ly at the radial slit. This washer comprises an annular blank l6 split radially at; I! iromedgeto edge andcircumferentiallyjat 18 across, the slit, ll, forming'tongues 19,20, 2| and 22. ,Each tongue is shaped in the manner shown in .Figure'rfi to form a locking element- 23 extending to one sidc oithelwa'sher, a wave 24 extending to .the same ,sidegand an intervening wave 25-extending to the opposite Sidfib The locking elements of tongues; adjacent to .each other, either radially 01".; circumf t a ytar parallel to each other but extend in opposite directions. :At each side, of thewasher, the waves extend beyond thelocking-elements to protect the latter'in the-mannerdescribed;

The remaining area..of the blank with .suitable protuberahcesto distribute the pressure uniformly. These may be of' anydesired shape and are shown. in:-Figure 10in the form ofi depressions 26 extendingzto opposite sides rittle b1anl and, slightly; belowv thewaves '24, .25 w. L, Z n

;'I1'l-.Figures- 11 and; 12, the annular blank 21 is formed withradial-slits. 28- from the outer circumference yand with a .circumferential slit .29 across the inner end of each slit '28.", The tongues 30 formed by eachslit 2-8 are extended angularly away fromithe jalaneof-thewasher, as shown in Figure l'Z Preferably, each pair of tongues converges from the plane of the washer, while adjacent pairs extend to opposite sides of the washera Adjacent to each tongue the locking element islformedwith a circular depression3l extending to the same side of.;.the .washer and-slightly be- .yond-thelocking elements. atthat side. Thus,

each-pair of elements is protected by. supporting'rnembers 3|. atopposite sides thereof.

- -.Figures, 13 and l t show -Pa somewhat different style of washer wherein theangular portion 32 of thejblank.is not.. dist,ortedi This portion of the blank .is formed :originallylwith radial tabs 533 'extendingsuccesslvely. from theinner and outter circumferences -thereof.-l v Those at one circumferenceare; .;,bent. over upojn, one suria'ce' of the .part 32, and thoseat the 0ther circ umfereric a are bent over at-the ot'hersurface'. If-the tabs are all formed'on onecirc'umfer'ence, as they may .be, they are bent successively. over'opposit e surraces .of the annulus;

1 I the shapingfloperationj the radial edges of eachytab 33, are bent away from the annulus 32 to form locking elements 34. Also, the free end of, eflchtab isrormedwi' a e." engaging the nnulusandh v .lnin 'theloclringele- Dents. or' snnilar, for rna ti ons-' 36 may be aoentto the loclging-jmembers and exis formed washer, as shown in Figure 16. i

Also, the metal is formed with a dent I3Iim- 1 sure. pose in addition to furnishing resiliency, and may full pressure.

tended beyond the same for protectionagainst excessive {strain in the manner previously de-;

scribed. Figures and the annular blank I21. A radial slit I28 is cut,

along the forest of eachwave between the circumferences; and an arcuate slit'l29 is cut across each end ofeach slit I 28. I Thus there areformed:

two fingers I30 -at each slit I28, andtheseare bent angularly into the troughof the wave, providing pairsof such fingers at both sides of the mediately adjacent. to each finger and extending slightly beyond the sameat the samelside of the; washer to'protect the finger fromthe initial pres- The wavesthemselves serve a similar pur be utilized without further modification for this purpose aswill presently be described. In Figure 17. is shown the blank for another wavy. form ofwasher. The blank I32 is annular and isformed with 'a .circular series of spaced arcuate'slits I33. Fromthese slits are'extended radial slits l34 and I35 successively in opposite directions-to the inner and outer circumferences. By'this means there are formedpairs of fingers I36-at the inner circumference and similar pairs;

I3'I at theout'er circumference.

The blank is waved circumferenti'ally asshown in Figure 18, the radial slits'occurring at. the crests I38 of the waves. The fingers are struck into-the troughs in divergent relation and to "such an extent that theyreach somewhat short of the crests, whereby the latter protect the fingers.

Additional supporting members may be provided in the f rm of tabs I39 on the inner ciraway, from the body of thie fwasher,

plane andsuiliciently beyond the lockingends I54 at thejsa e sideto protect them' from the initial pressure.

I Figures. 2'5v and illustrate the I application .of the invention to a count ersunk washer. The washer I56 isof conical shapeto be r'eceive'd be tween the countersunkscrewhead I51 and the,

countersunk member I58. The upper edge of the washer is formed [with locking'elements I59 10,

cutting alternately into the members I5] and I58. In like mannenany of the various styles 'of lockingelements disclosed hereinmay be applied to countersunkv washers.

at intervals with triangular tongues ISI adjacent to the crests. These are bent into the crests in a manner to; have their biting points I62 lie within theplaneslof the crests to be protected thereby, For additional reinforcement, the

tongues maybe :formedwith stamped out'lugs I63 extending outwardly fromthe tongues or Figure 29 is a modification'of Figure 21 in which the blank is'forrned with right angular waves or channels lt l having their mouths disposed respectively atopposite sidesof the washer.

The locking member's I65, which may resemble the members I162, are struck intothe channels channels, whereby these bottoms receive the full pressure in' advance ofthe locking elements.

The washers; shown in.,Figur es' 21,; 2'3 .and 27 are single-handedJhat is,,they lock against rota- I tion in onedirection only, as distinguishedjfrom the remaining. Washers show'n herein which are I 4| in Figure 19 or may be rolled into contact with the body of the washer as indicated by the numeral I42 in Figure 20.

The washer shown in Figures 21 and .22 is somewhat similar to that, shown-in Figure 15 but is fiat.

The annular body portion I43 is formed with a series of radial slits I44 between the circumferences, and across the end of each such slit is cut an arcuate slit I45, thereby forming pairs of fingers I46 with their free ends adjacent to one another. an S-shape as shown in Figure 22, with adjacent free ends or locking elements I41 extending to opposite sides of the washer and substantially parallel to each other. The bends I48 in the fingers extend slightly beyond the locking ele- Each finger is bent into v grlescribed in, the above smentionedv goo-pending application. In this connection, any of the other ,forms of. washers ,shown'll erein may, by the elimination of some "of the lockingelements, be made for locking in one directiononly if desired.

It will now be seen that, within the scope of the invention as disclosed herein, I have provided lock washers which not only have the looking points or biting edges protected from the initial and full clamping pressure, but which also are suitable for both right and left hand threads according to the principles disclosed in my U. S. Patent No. 2,191,101. Also, any particular style of. washer may be modified for use with only right hand or left hand threads if desired. These washers are simple in construction, efficient in operation and comparatively inexpensive by reason of the factthat they lend themselves to production by comparatively simple dies as stated above. I

The invention is not limited to the particular forms as shown herein. Various features of these constructions are interchangeable, as previously creased as required, as well as the number of grooves, waves, reinforcing tabs and the like. Also, any of the fiat washers. may be made wavy,

and vice versa.

1 In connection with the tabs, it will be noted that these, by their resiliency, add to the locking action of the washer and further relieve the locking elements from the initial clamping pressure.

These reinforcing members may be provided on either periphery,'or both, or between the peripheries. The projecting tabs, particularly, may be square or may have their corners rounded off. They maybe thinner than the body of the washer, and likewise the locking elements may be' l. A lock washer comprising a body of resilient,

metalhaving a radial slit, the body being cor-' rugated radially directly adjacentto said slit, the corrugations extending to both sides of the general plane of said body, said slit defining an edge of the corrugated portion positioned as a locking element at one, side of said plane and at a shorter distance therefrom than the crests of the corrugations at said side.

'2. A lock washer comprising a body of resilient metal having a radial slit, the body being cor rugated radially at both sides of said slit, the corrugations extending to both sides of the general plane of said body, said slit defining edges of the corrugated portions positioned as locking elements at opposite sides of said plane and at a shorter distance therefrom than the crests of the corrugations at the respective sides.

3. A lock washer comprising a body having resilient, radially corrugated segments formed therein, the corrugations extending to both sides of the general plane of said body, said body being slit -radially adjacent to each segment and formed at each slit as a locking element in continuation of the segment and radially co-extensive therewith, said elements extending to both sides of said plane and to a shorter distance therefrom than the crests of the corrugations at the respective sides.

4. A lock washer comprising a body having resilient, radially corrugated segments formed therein, the corrugations extending to both sides of the general plane of said body, said body being slit radially adjacent to each end of each segment and formed at each slit as a locking element in continuation of the segment and radially coextensive therewith, said elements extending to both sides of said plane and to a shorter distance therefrom than the crests of the corrugations at the respective sides.

5. A lockwasher comprising a body having re"- silient, radially corrugated segments formed therein, the corrugations extending to both sides of the general plane of said body, said body being slit radially adjacent to each segment and formed at each slit as a locking element in continuation of the segment and radially co-extensive therewith,said elements extending to both sides of said plane and to a shorter distance therefrom than the crests of .the corrugations at the respective sides,said elements also converging at each side of the general plane of said body.

6. A lock washer comprising a body having resilient, radially corrugated segments formed therein, the corrugations extending to both sides of the general plane of said body, saidbody being slit radially adjacent to each end of each segment and formed at each slit as a locking element in continuation of the segment and radially coextensive therewith, said elements ektending to both sides of said plane and to a shorter distance therefrom than the crests of the corrugations at the respective sides, said elements also converging at each side of the general plane of said body. Y

' DOMNIC V. STELLIN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3390713 *Dec 16, 1965Jul 2, 1968Illinois Tool WorksUndulated lockwasher with locking abutments at the valley side of each peak
US4056645 *Jul 12, 1976Nov 1, 1977British Hovercraft Corporation Ltd.Aperture reinforcing means for apertures in reinforced flexible materials
US5378102 *Sep 30, 1991Jan 3, 1995Sfs Stadler, Inc.Barrel assembly and composite stress plate
US6152665 *Aug 20, 1999Nov 28, 2000Applied Bolting Technology Products, Inc.Direct tension indicating washers
US6425718Jul 11, 2000Jul 30, 2002Applied Bolting Technology Products Inc.Direct multi-tension indicating washer having bumps of a first and second height
US8382409May 14, 2010Feb 26, 2013Applied Bolting Technology Products, Inc.Direct tension multi-color indicating washers
US8444357 *May 5, 2010May 21, 2013Ronald C. ClarkeProviding a counter torque force within a fastening
US8627617Aug 16, 2010Jan 14, 2014Robert M. M. HaddockPhotovoltaic module mounting assembly
US20100284765 *May 5, 2010Nov 11, 2010Clarke Ronald CProviding a counter torque force within a fastening
US20130022426 *Jul 19, 2011Jan 24, 2013Yih Shwei Bolt Industrial Co., Ltd.Screw
Classifications
U.S. Classification411/161, 411/147, 411/154, 411/960, 411/148, 411/162
International ClassificationF16B39/24
Cooperative ClassificationY10S411/96, F16B39/24
European ClassificationF16B39/24