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Publication numberUS2274426 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 24, 1942
Filing dateAug 9, 1937
Priority dateAug 9, 1937
Publication numberUS 2274426 A, US 2274426A, US-A-2274426, US2274426 A, US2274426A
InventorsMiller William J
Original AssigneeMiller William J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for manufacturing pottery ware
US 2274426 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 24,1942; I A w. J. MILLE R 2,274,426 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR-MANUFACTURING POTTERY WARE I Filed Au 9, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR.


Feb. 24, 1942. v w. J. MILLER METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MANUFACTURING POTTERY WARE Filed Aug. 9, 1937 s Shets-Sheet 2- ILL/ANJMLZER. S 23 31 11pm Feb.'24, 1942. w. .LMILLER 2,274,426


Filed Aug. 9, 1937 "Patented Feb.

muonam) momma rorrsnr wean William J.- Miller, smear Application m 9, 1937, Serial No. 158,12?

25 Claims.

This invention relates to methods and apparatus for manufacturing potteryware. It has to do with a potteryware dryer and drying methods particularly adapted, but not necessarily restricted to, use in connection with diversified production machinery in the manufacture of semivitreous and vitreous table or dinnerware, such as plates, cups, saucers, bowls, etc., made in or on molds from plastic clay or slip. This application is a continuation, in part, of my copending application Serial No.

March 29, 1935, which is a division of application Serial .No. 343,692, now. Patent 2,046,525.v This application is also a continuation, in part, of

application 'Serial No. 573,017, now Patent No.

2,019,028 which in turn is a continuation, in part of application Serial No. 343,692, now Patent No. 2,046,525.

down or slow up production in order to allow for an increased drying interval because the product is coming off green and therefore production severely suffers.

In a mass producing automatic pottery forming unit, the molds are carried on an endless sprocket conveyor into the machine and then through a 13,683, filed dryer, the speed of the machine being constant and the molds repeatedly traversing the circuit' in scheduled time; The problem has beento bring all of the many lines of ware to maturitywithin a given time interval and to restore the molds to optimum condition so that definite predetermined operating schedules may be main- Pottery is conventionally done in on closures called stove rooms that are of various designs, some types having stationary mold racks along the inside walls, others having an arrangement similar to a revolving clothes pole with horizontal racks fitted with shelves. Still other types have a chain conveyor arranged in back and forth courses equipped with spaced shelves similar to a dipping'mangle. The jiggerman works in front 'of a loading opening and as the ware is made places the molds, or has a boy do it. on the shelves of the stove room. In the case of a chain dryer, theware is removed atan opening tained. Where a diversified production is made, I

the problem has been complicated by the greater differences in time at which various types of ware mature for various process operations. For mstance, cups mature only to leather hardness when they are in readiness for handles whilst such products as plates, saucers and other fiat ware ism'atured to a white dry condition before it is finished,- and there are even differences in elapsed time required to bring small ware such as saucers to maturity df large ware such as plates. Production in the present instance is not at the discretion of the workmen as in hand jiggerlng and therefore it is not possible to shut therein by the finisher, the shelves travelling past said opening and a loading opening at regulated intervals. Shape changes are made frequently so that one or more kinds of ware may be in the process of dehydration simultaneously,

In some types of dryer, the ware dries naturally' at a room or outdoor temperature; in other types, it is customary to dry by artificial means such as heat, blowers, etc. Owing to difierences, in the rate of drying, thereis apt to be difierences.

in the amoimt of moisture remaining in the ware at thetime it must be removed from the dryer. Variation in the rate of drying is not I -liinited to diflerencesin the size or kind of ware made and may occur in identically the same production because ,jpf certain factors influencing the rate of drying, for instance the elementary nature of the drying facilities, the degree, of saturation of the .mold, the position of the mold relative to the heat source or the source of air circulation to mention a few. .'1hus, some were down the machine if production schedules are to be maintained. Therefore, in the present invention, I have provided both method and means .for drying a product particularly a diversified product to optimum dry condition on a single unitary installaiton whereinthere is a uniform periodic production cycle.

Among the novel characteristics of my invention may be mentioned the following:

Provisions enabling the proper drying of a plurality of products-which may have different drying characteristics in an uniform periodic production and drying cycle; provision for drying various kinds of pottery ware to optimum dry condition before removing the same from the dryer, removal occurring at different points and intervals as determined by the timerequired to reach a desired dehydrated condition form one class of. ware and without interruption'in the regular periodic productionof the various kinds may find conditions congenial to proper'drying f during the time allowed, other ware not. 'It is not dryers of this toshut g of ware being made;

The adaption ofa humidity system of drying to the drying of a-producuhaving different dryin characteristics w rein all were is subjected to a heating up peri of sufiicient duration that all theproducts will become heated uniformly throughout to the temperature of the surround-' oFF Ica,

ing air before any evaporation from the-surface conditioning unit;

Fig. 6 is a top plan view of a conveyor tray of the material takes place, thereby creating a condition enabling regulated moisture absorption by air from the material and avoiding inequalities of shrinkage and subsequent drying. After passing through this stage, drying is commenced by a decrease in the relative humidity of the air and in increase in the temperature to dry the ware to a condition of leather hardness past the critical shrinkage stage, thereby enabling accelerated drying in the-final stages in order to bring the ware to a condition of white dryness and wherever the t me interval can be minimized, it means a reduction in equipment required such as molds, conveyor length, power, and other factors controlling the initial cost of the installation and the upkeep expense thereof;

Provision for restoring the molds to optimum condition within the elapsed time allowed between fillings so that there will be no unregulated condition ofmoisture content prevailing that would influence production schedules;

Provision for creating, regulating and controlling optimum conditions of air circulations, humidity and temperature in consonance with the aim herein of drying a production having different drying characteristics in schedule time;

Provision for drying a diverse production which 'may include slip cast as well as jiggered ware;

Other objectsand advantageous features will be noted in the following written description and in the accompanying drawings wherein like characters of reference designate corresponding parts and wherein Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate a side elevation of the dryer with portions of the shell broken out to show the nature and arrangement of the air circulating thermal and humidity control features.

Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the dryer shown in Figs. 1 and 2, illustrating the arrangement of the air conditioning devices.

Fig. 4 is an end illustration of the dryer looking in the direction of the arrows 4-4 in Fig. 1.

Fig. 5 is a detail partly in section of an a I with molds.

Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view showing the provisions for supporting hand led ware on the conveyor trays. I

The dryer is shown herein as being operated in conjunction with an automatic pottery ware fabricating machine A, Fig. 1, substantially the same as that shown and'described in my United States Letters Patent No. 2,046,525. This machine is a jiggering or combination jiggerlng and casting machine arranged to automatically feed clay charges to molds, and in the case of jiggered ware to bat out such charges on the molds andprofile the clay. The machine has a bank of laterally arranged belt feeders .I, Fig.

molds in any one line may be adapted to make ware of diverse character, shape or molding surface contour than the molds in any other line, thus providing for, diversification of production as taught in my patent supra.

The conveyor is continuously driven by shaft 2a through chain transmission 2b and sprockets 8 located in the dryer, however, the slack section allows the trays l to be halted at the feeder, press and jigger stations whilst the remaining portion of the .conveyor continues to travel. The sprockets 6 on swinging arms I, Fig. l, are operated to intermittently take up the slack accumulating between the machine and dryer to. prevent collision of trays during intermittent shifting andspotting of the trays in the machine.

' dependent means not shown herein but described adjacent the charging point.

laterally and longitudinally braced over which is.

and shown in my patent mentioned above.

Prior to receiving the charge of clay, the molds M preferably receive treatment with live steam cated in a pit B below the normal floor level of the dryer D and in a bay which may or may not be totally enclosed. The dryer frame is made up of suitable supporting columns H placed a cover I 2 of suitable heat insulating material. In the dryer proper, the chain conveyor 3 is arranged in a series of upward and downward courses and between which are 10- ,nel to avoid spent'air stratification cated partitions l4 extending the full width of the dryer and forming comparatively narrow passages through which the conveyor and drying air travels. The drying air may be baflied at selected points to cause the column of air to be interchanged or spiralled laterally of the chanand to meet the ware in diverse direction.

Thedryer is divided into four main drying 1 zones, eachof which is subdivided. The main 1, and a corresponding number of batting outheads and jiggers (not shown) normally located behind the frame portion 2 and juxtaposed relative to the molds and mold conveyor.

Traversing the fabricating machine is a slack section mold conveyor 3 having a plurality of longitudinally spaced mold trays 4, Fig. 6, each provided with a plurality of individual mold supports 5 dowelled in laterally adjustable relation thereon. Longitudinally of the conveyor the supports 5 and molds M, Figs. 6 and*7, form spaced parallel production lines, each'line having associated with it a feeder, press head and jigger or a slip feeder (not shown), albeit the zones are arranged in the order of their occurrence back of the fabricating station in the direction of travel of the freshly formed ware as (1) a clay heating and sweating zone wherein the ware is preferably heated in the presence of a humid atmosphere to place it in condition for rapid dehydration in a critical shrinkage zone to a condition of leather hardness without case hardening the surface or creating shrinkage strains, (2) a tempering zone which may be optional, (3) a drying zone wherein the ware is finally dried by the application of high temperature and low humidity air travelling at a high velocity and (4) a mold drying zone wherein the molds are brought to optimum thermal and humidity condition for application of a clay charge.

The first main zone may terminate at either point E or point F in a bay which represent openings in the shell through which the ware is accessible. Preferably both hollow ware and fiat ware are made simultaneously on the installation and after -a predetermined interval of Shifting and spotting is by in-- m V "2,254,426" drying, the hollow ware such as cups is removed at E or F spaced at optimum distance from the ware entrance to insure proper dehydrated-state of the ware requiring handles in the interval required to traverse the zone. Belt conveyors l8 and I! are arranged laterally of the dryer close up to the dryer opening with a center aisle between where the stripper stands. One of the conveyors may be used for taking ware out to the handlers bench and the other for returning same-or both may be used for taking ware out of the dryer if cups of varying thickness mature to leather hard condition at different time periods. Figs.'6 and 7 show how the cups after being handled may be replaced on the dryer .trays in 19 which. may be clamped or doweled between seats l8 provided in auxiliary members mold supports. Either of the openings. may be utilized for this purpose or if desired, the cups may be placed in a separate dryer.

Likewise, "at the back end of the dryer are arand I, Fig. 2, having openings 2| and 22 respectively through the dryer shell to permit the stripper selectively to remove completed dried ware of all classes vfrom the molds or. conveyor as above described. The openings being spaced permit a variation in drying time according to [ranged two ground floor level takeout bays H humidified if required by steam or water spray nozzles 29a. Fans driven by motor 3| (Fig. l) impel the air through the chambers and into the ducts Ma'and 32b. Located in each duct 32:: and 32b is a dr'ybulb 35 which controls the input of new air, discharge of spent air and the temperature of the air through controls 31 and 54 I'he dry bulb as is connected by line as with an indicating control 31 connected by lines 38 i and '39 with lever motors 40 and respectively. Motor 48 controls the input of heating fluid to the coils 29 through valve 43 and lever 42. Moe I tor 4| operates the valves 55 and 5| in intake conduits 21 to control the input of new air, valves 41 and 45 in the vents l8 and 48" control the bleeding off of spent air and valves 45 and 49a in' return ducts 34 and 34a control recirculation. Ducts 34 and 340 can be completely closed and-a one way travel from the header 28 through the conditioner, dryer and bleeders l8 and 48' to atmosphere established if sufficient waste heat air is available, or the return air is spent or an exceptional dry air condition is required as in zoneP. 1

The wet bulb 52 is connected by line 53 with an indicating. recording controller 54 which is con.-

wh-ich opening is utilized for stripping. For instance, ware which has progressed straight through the dryer may come of! at the first of these two openings while ware replaced-at I! or ware requiring a longer drying interval such as bulky pieces-may be stripped at the second opening. Belt conveyors 20 and 23, are conveniently located to the-openings 2| and 22 for transporting the ware out through the side of the dryer tothe finishers benches. The opening The bay' J circulatory paths. The dryer airis conditioned by air-conditioning units N, 0, P and Q (see Fig.

' 5) arranged in spaced relation along one side of the dryer, Figs. 1, 2 and 3, each unit comprising two separate conditioning devices each one of which controls a dryer air circulatory circuit.

The unit, Fig. 5, is; divided into two air conditioning. devices N and N2 as are the other units. Since all units are alikeinconstruction,

only the unit N will be described in detail. Each unit comprises a main conditioning chamber 25 and 25a respectively separated by a partition 26 which extends above and below the casing 25b and divides the intake pipe 21 into two branches 21a and 21b andthe discharge pipe 32 into ducts 32a. and 32b. Ducts 32a and 52b are connected with elongated discharge nozzles 33 located in the dryer and ducts 34 and 34a are connected with an intake nozzle 3 3a (Figs. l, 3, 4 and 5) in the dryer, thus completing an air circulating circuit which includes a plurality of passages between dryer partitionsto cause the air to* travel in a series'of vertically undulating courses adjacent the molds and ware between'the point of input and withdrawal; v

Both used and new air entering chambers 25a nected by line 55 witha lever motor 55 operating valve 51 to control the-discharge of moisture through nozzle 29a.

The input of kiln air and volume of air supplied, and air exhausted to atmosphere is proportioned as well as the temperature and humidity of the input air, circulation, velocity and recirculation. Furthermore, entering or recircu' lated air may be diverted, progressed or interchanged'between adjacent circuits before or. after reconditioning by proper adjustment of deflector valves 55, 56 and 51 pivotally mounted inside by side relation in partition 25. Moreover, conditioned air may be diverted from one duct to the other by deflector valves 55a and 55b located below the shut ofi valves 51 and 51:; thereby pro-- viding means for selectively intermingling the 1 air in either localized air circulatory path as well as providing means, together with the valves 51 of completely shutting out one or more conditioning units. With the foregoing arrangement the desired temperatures and humidity which I desire in the various dryer zones can-be -maintained. r

It is understood that the present dryer may be utilizedfor the drying of severaldifferent kinds of were simultaneously, that is to say ware which may vary as to molding surface contour, shape, design, bulk, etc. albeitit is preferred that such ware be manufactured from clay of substantially the same consistency and moisture content. Furthermore, ware of similar class may also be made and dried 'on the machine to the exclusion of diversification.

'- In explaining the, operation of the dryer, it

will be assumed that several different kinds of' ware are being made simultaneously including cups and bulkier articles such as bowls, large plates, etc. The ware after it leaves the fabricating machine in a freshly formed and moist condiand 25 are passed overheating coils .29 and tion enters the first zone of the dryer, this zone beingunder the control of unit N which set to deliver air at a low velocity but at a high temperature'and highhumidity. The condition thus prevailing in the dryer causes the clay to become thoroughly heated and to sweat. There is no appreciable moisture extraction at this stage except for that. which is absorbed by the mold which insures a moist exposed surface condition in the pieces undergoing drying and prevents case hardening and cracking. Moisture absorption by the mold is relatively slow be- I cause of the high humidity of the surroundina atmosphere from which the mold tends to ab- I sorb moisture. This zone of the dryer is indicated zone running counter to the direction of travel of the conveyor.

The ware next enters the zone under the control of unit N2, the zone extending between the input nozzle 33b and the intake or suction 33b. In this zone the velocity and temperature conditions of the drying medium are maintained but the humidity is reduced thereby commencing the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the ware, however, the humidity condition of the air is such that rapid drying does not occur. In the next zone, namely that controlled by the unit 0' and extending between the input nozzle 33c and the intake or suction nozzle 330', the drying rate is accelerated by reducing the humidity of the drying medium and increasing the temperature and it is preferred that the condition of the drying medium in the three zones just specified be so regulated that the critical shrinkage period will take place during the interval required for the ware to traverse said zones, said shrinkage occurring gradually and under the favorable conditions specified.

The zone of the dryer under the influence of unit 02 which is shown as extending between the input nozzle 33d and 33f, Fig. 3, may be combined, with the preceding zone in order to provide a continuation of the drying conditions existent therein in order to bring the ware to a condition of leather hardness at or about the time the mold carrying trays appear oppositethe opening E, Fig. 2, in the dryer. Cups may be removed at this opening and conveyed to the handler as previously described and the processing necessary may require ten to fifteen minutes during which time the ware'undergoes a certain amount of natural drying. Owing to, the fact that cups dry at a slower rate than flat ware because the cavity prevents good circulation of air over the exposed portion of the cun there is apt to be a difference in the stage of dryness between the flat ware and the cups as they pass the openingjE.

, Therefore, the cups may be replaced on the dryer at the opening E if it is found that the natural drying the cup. has received during its removal brings it to a condition of dryness approaching more than that of the other ware not removed at this point. Depending on the dry condition of the ware removed at E when in readiness for replacement on the conveyor, either of the openings E or F may be used. Furthermore, if it is found that the ware subjected to removal at E is not 1:: condition at the time it approaches said opening, it may be permitted to travel on until it appears opposite the opening F, thereby allowing for a longer drying interval without interruption in the production cycle. Once the condition is found to exist. it can be corrected.

by proper regulation of' the air condition and circulating units controlled on this and the imrate dryer for final drying and should it be desired to operate the equipment only on'cupa-the 15 first section of the dryer just described may be considered as the cup dryer proper and the remainder as an auxiliary dryer for completing the drying of the ware.

The nextzone of the dryer which is behind the openings E and F in the direction of travel of the conveyor and is under the control of the air conditioning unit PI and extends between the input nozzle 331' and the intake nozzle 339, the ware is subjected to a drying medium of increased temperature and substantially decreased humidity travelling at a higher velocity owing tothe fact that the major portion of the dryingof the ware has taken place in the preceding dryer sections and major shrinkage has already occurredwhich makes it possible to dry the ware with greater rapidity. The zone under the control of the unit Pl may also be used to advantage in drying heavier, bulkier ware which may lag in drying over cups or other articles of lesser bulk so that all of the. ware when it reaches the stripping points at the back end of the dryer will be in substantially the same dry condition.

Furthermore, the zone Pl may be of anylength high temperatures are maintained herein andthe air is travelled at a high velocity with very low humidity. This causes the ware to dry rapidly and be reduced to a. condition suitable for stripping. Plaster molds burn at about F. in a dry atmosphere and in an atmosphere of high humidity temperatures up to F. are not detrimental. Due to the moisture absorbed by the molds in the zones N or N! temperatures much higher than those deemed ordinarilynormai may be maintained in any of the succeeding zones, particularly zones P and P2.-

As hereinbefore mentioned, the openings on each side of the area ways H and I through the dryer may be utilized for removing various classes of ware in white tiried condition. Thus, as shown, four openings are available and each in point of time and travel are a diiferent distance from the fabricating machine. Therefore, ware which matures at the time it reaches the left hand opening 21 may be removed and ware requiring .a' longer interval to dry to optimum condition may proceed on fora longer interval to a point opposite the right hand opening 2|. For instance, small ware such-as saucers and the like may reach maturity in less time than large plates or bowls and therefore may be removed at the left hand opening 2!, whereas, the larger sizes of were may proceed on to the openings at 22, or for that matter, to the zone J where at least two more stripping openings are provided.

Thus, it will be seen that the system is flexible and the openings to be used for stripping any particular class'of ware are best determinable on the job.

In the event cast ware is being made on the conveyor the molds may be removed at the stripping point E or F if drained at some previous point preferably in the bays in. The molds may be filled on the conveyor or oi! if desired. If circulated on the conveyorthen they may be charged at A either automatically or by hand, drained at some intermediatepoint (6a), broken out. at E or F and sponged and placed back on 11m conveyor and then stripped and removed at recharging.

Beyond the stripping zones H and I the 'conveyor ascends through a channel 60 past another stripping zone J which may be located at anfirst named opening through which finally dried other level where remaining ware may be stripped and then the molds continue through horizontal. 60" to the mold conditioning section of the dryer under the control of units Q and Q2. Because 'of the low humidityand high temperature in zones P and P2, the molds leave the stripping station in a hot dry condition which would be detrimental tothe making of'cer'tainj classes of ware if immediately reused, not to mention the damage which might occur to the molds. In the zone under the control of units Q and Q2 which includes the channels 60, 6| andtila, the molds ar 'reconditioned by subjecting the same to a relatively warm atmosphere to reduce the temperature of the mold and one which has a higher relative humidity. Since the conditioner the drying medium in the zone depends to a great extent onthe thermal and humidity conditions of the molds after they leave the stripping station, I do not propose any speciflc condition of the, drying medium in this section of the dryer other than to say that it should be regulated so that the molds ,when delivered again to the machine will be warm and not entirely devoid ofmoisture. The time interval re- .quired for molds to traverse the mold drying section may be increased or decreased by removing a chain;course, this being one way in which I to increase the number of fillings within axgiven time intervalwithout speeding up the conveyor.

It will be noted that I thus provide at least six independently controlled localized air -circulating courses or zones, each zone being regulable to promote atmospheric conditions most suitable to the proper drying of the ware and furthermore, to control the rate and extent of shrink age in any one zone, the rate of drying, the rate of circulation and exchange of air, etc. In addition, two zones are provided for preconditioning and finally conditioning the molds as well as means for reconditioning the molds just prior to Throughout the dryer certain of the sprockets III are mounted in floating bearings 62 with screw holddowns for taking up unnecessary slack.

Wherever in the claims the expression on molds" shall occur, it-shall mean in or on" molds by virtue of the disclosure of both hollow.

ware and flatware molds unless there is a specific designation of the type of mold being worked.

It is to be understood that the automatic iiggering machine may be replaced by hand lin ers.

preferably one to each line of moldaand theware fabricated by hand or Jiggering machines of the type disclosed in my co-pendine application S. N. 5,795 maybe located adjacent the machine .(dryer) and utilized in making the production.

- Having thus described invention. what I claim is:

' 1. In a dryer for use with diverse production potteryforming machinery. one or moredrying compartments, means for circulating conditioned air therein, conveying means operating in said dryer for transporting molds-and were therethrough in spaced lines of production. said con veying means including open bottom mofld' seats and diverse molds disposed therein, an opening in said dryer through which were in an intermediate stage of dehydration is removed for processlng and another opening spaced fromfsaldon said conveyor and adapted to be circulated ware may be removed.

2; In a dryer for use with diverse production pottery forming machinery, means for circulating a drying medium therein; a conveyor arranged to transport molds. and ware of various description through said dryer, a ware takeout opening in said dryer located at a point where the ware, after being subjected to the drying medium for a predetermined interval of conveyor travel, will emerge in a leather hard condition suitable for attaching handles thereto. and one or more openings in said dryer spaced irom said first named opening in the direction of conveyor travel through which other ware may be removed from said conveyor, said ware being in a green dried condition for finishing, there being. conveying means located adjacent one or more of said openings ior transporting waretherefrom.

3. In a pottery dryer for use with diverse productionpottery ware forming machinery, a mold conveyor operating in said ,dryer, molds located through said dryer, a plurality of drying zones in said dryer, said zones including'a zone of high "humidity and temperature for freshly formed ber divided into zones, a conveyor for molds arranged in-a series oLundulating courses in said chamber, molds disposed on said conveyor, said molds being for the manufacture of hollowware such as cups requiring appendages and flatware, air conditioning means associated with each zone whereby a condition of high temperature and high humidity may be maintained in thefirst zone where freshly. formed ware enters and a condition of high temperature and lower humidity can be maintained in a succeeding zone thereby first heating the clay and causing it to sweat and thereafter causing the clay to dry rapidly after the critical shrinkage stage has passed, and an opening in the dryer through which the hollow ware is removed for appendaging said were being replaced on said. conveyor after appendaging for further drying and one or more openings in said dryer for removing both hollowware and flatware in flnaily'dried condition from said conveyor.

5. In a dryer for use with diverse production pottery ware forming machinery, comprising a drying chamber divided into zones, a mold conveyor associated with said dryer and adapted to be operated in coniunction with said pottery I fabricating machine,molds on, said conveyor, said conveyor having a run in one'zone of said dryer to serve as a delivery run accessible'from the outside or said drying chamber in order to remove were dried to leather hardness, said conveyor having another runspaced from the'firstlrun and located in another zone of thedryer and accessible from the outside of the drying chamber in order to remove finally dried ware oi. all description. 5

6.,In a dryer for use with diverse production pottery forming machinery, a mold conveyor in said dryer and adapted to be operated in con- I located in said junction with said pottery machine, means for circulating conditioned air in said dryer, saiddryer having a plurality of drying zones, molds on said conveyor for making ware of diverse nature such as flatware and hollowware said dryer having a plurality of openings arranged adjacent conveyor courses in the dryer for emptying the conveyor of ware at various stages of g.

7. In .a dryer for use with diverse production pottery forming machinery, a mold, conveyor adapted to be operatively connected with pottery forming machinery and arranged to travel in an endless path through said machine and dryer, air conditioning means associated with said dryer and arranged to. cause the air to circulate in said dryer in a plurality of localized air circulatory courses, partitions in said dryer forming air circulating channels, input and intake nozzles located in said channels, molds on said conveyor for making ware of -diverse nature'such as hollow ware and flatware and a plurality of openings .in said dryer through which ware in various stages of drying is accessible from the exterior of the dryer for selected fabricating operations consistent with the nature of the ware and the degree of dryness thereof at the time of removal.

8. In a. dryer for use with diverse production potteryware forming machinery, a mold conveyor arranged in vertical coursesin said dryer, molds on said conveyor for making a diversified production, said dryer having a plurality of openings therein located at one ing ware from the dryer at various stages of dehydration, conveyors located in adjacency to said openings for carrying the ware outside the dryer :md means for circulating conditioned air there- 9. In a dryer for use with diverse production potteryware forming machinery, a mold conveyor arranged to travel in saiddryer and adapted. to

be operatively connected with said fabricating machine, drive means for said conveyor, molds disposed on said conveyor for making a multiple of ware in diverse shape-such as cups and plates,

a plurality of air conditioning and circulating means located adjacent said dryer and having input and intake nozzles located inside said dryer, said dryer being divided ing zones certain of said zones having openings in the dryer for the removalof ware in various stages of drying, a mold conditioning zone and means associated with said fabricatingmachine for conditioning the molds prior to filling.

10. In a dryer for use with diverse production potteryware forming machinery, a mold conveyor, said dryer having a mold conditioning zone provided with air conditioning and circulating means and means for applying heated fluid to said molds for conditioning purposes mounted on said fabricating machine.

11. A pottery dryer having,adrying chamber,

a conveyor arranged to travel in an endless path in said dryer in anjundulating path, air condi- "tioning and circulating means associated with said dryer having intake and discharge nozzles drying chamber, said chamber being divided into\zones wherein the temperature and humidity differ, molds on said conveyor comprising hollow ware and flatware molds and openings in said drying chamber at various zones whereby the ware is accessible from the outside of the drying chamber into a plurality of dry-- or more levels for removin order to remove ware from the conveyor in various stages of dehydration.

12. A pottery dryer having a drying-chamber, amic material and a conveyor arranged to travel in an endless path therein, air circulating and conditioning means associated with said dryer, molds on said conveyor for making a plurality of different kinds of ware such as hollow ware and flatware, an opening in said dryer adjacent the point where hollow ware matures for appendaging and one or more openings arranged adjacent the point where other ware matures for removal from the conveyor for finishing, said last named openings being located at the same or different levels.

13. A pottery dryer having a drying chamber and a conveyor operating therein with open bottom mold seats, molds disposed on said seats with the bottoms thereof exposed, said drying chamber having openings in the walls thereof for the removal of maturing ware said openings being located in close adjacency but having at least one conveyor course therebetween whereby ware which has not matured sumciently for re-' moval as it passes the first opening may be allowed to continue on to the second opening whilst being subjected todrying influences before removal.

14. An air conditioning unit comprising a dual air conditioning chamber provided with air circulating and humidifying chambers, separate air circulatory ducts associated with each chamber for delivering the air to the point of use and withdrawing air therefrom, means for by-passing 'air from one circulatory path to the other, and

means and the second section of the dryer havin a plurality of drying zones provided with air conditioning means whereby the ware drying is completed under conditions of temperature and humidity which promote rapid drying of the dryer being characterized in that the ware is conveyed through the first section of the dryer on the molds in which it is made and through the second section renioved from the molds.

16. A dryer'for pottery comprising a drying chamber, a waste heat duct arranged alongside the same, air conditioning means, branches leading from'said duct to air conditioning means located adjacent the drying cham r, ducts communicating with each air conditioning means and leading to and from the drying chamber, vents in said ducts, baiiles in said branches and said vents andsaid ducts under control of a wet bulb, means for heating said airunder control of a dry bulb, a conveyor in said dryer, molds for making ware of different character located on said conveyor, a dryer each having individual; regulated heat and humidity conditions, openings in the dryer chamber for finally :dried removing ware'in leather hard and condition, said air conditioning for intermingling the air between any two units so grouped, said dryer having a mold conditioning section.

17. in a pottery exclusively for the quent to stripping liminary to filling ware dryer, a section utilized of; were therefrom and preor refilling thereof with cerplurality of drying zones in said conditioning of molds subse-' havingmeans associated with quent ware such as would prevent having a plurality of openings therein located liquid constituents of the clay or actual drying.- of the various products together with a drying chamber wherein temperature and humidity conditions promote actual drying of the ware, said last named compartment having a plurality of openings therein spaced along the path of travel of the ware therethrough'whereby diverse ware as it matures may be removed from the said dryer. I

19. In the manufacture of pottery ware, the method which consists in continuously forming a plurality of different kinds of ware, introducing the same continuously into a common dryer, circulating the ware therein and subjecting the same, to a drying atmosphere and removing the ware from the dryer as the various kinds of ware matures, some ware being circulated in the dryer and subjected to the drying atmosphere longer than other ware.

20. The method of drying pottery ware which consists in continuously moving lines of pottery. ware consisting of different kinds of ware into a, common drying chamber and raising the temperature of all of the ware to thoroughly heat the clay without causing substantial evaporation of the liquid constituents or actual drying of the ware and then circulating the group of ware in.

an atmosphere which will promote'the maturing thereof, said ware however not all drying within substantially the same period of time and removing each of the various kinds of ware from the dryer at or about the time each kind of ware matures, certain of the ware remaining in the dryer longer than other or the ware.

21. The method of effecting the continuous operation of anautomatic pottery ware fabricating machine having a mold'conveyor operatively associated therewith which conveys the molds in an endless path through a dryer and the fabricating machine with periodic regularity which consists in removing various of the ware produced from-the dryer at the time the ware matures and subjecting the ware whilst in the drier to influences which will bring said ware to maturity within an interval (predetermined according to the distance the ware has travelled in the -dryer and speed of the machine) and thereafter conditioning all of the molds prior to refilling so that the temperature and humidity of the molds will 'nothave an eflect on subsethe drying ofthe ware in scheduled time.

22. In a. dryer for use with diverse production potteryware forming machinery, a mold conveya or in said dryer,molds disposed "on said conveyor for making a diversified production said' dryer at one or more levels through which ware at various stages of maturity may be removed, one

or more conveyors located adjacent'said open lugs for transporting the ware therefrom and means for conditioning the air circulated in said dryer.

23.111 combination with diverse production potteryware forming machinery, a dryer having r'nold conveying means therein with molds disposed thereon arranged in spaced lines of production, the production in such lines being diversified, means for circulating a drying medium in said dryer, takeout openings in said dryer disposed at spaced points therein to enable the removal of ware at predetermined stages of dehydration and conveying means associated with each opening for transporting ware therefrom.

24. The method of manufacturing pottery ware which consists in simultaneouslycirculating several lines of diverse molds in repeated; closed cycles through a mold filling or fabricating zone and then through a drying zone common to all the lines, filling the molds .with clay or fabricating ware thereon and then drying the ware and'in drying, the ware subjecting each diverse class of ware to the influence of a drying medium for such interval as required to reach a stage of dehydration suited to thatparticular class of ware and then removing same from the dryer, the molds being returned to the filling or fabricating zone after they are emptied and whilst in transit thereto being subjected to reconditioning-treatment adapted to restore the in repeated closed cycles through a mold filling or fabricating zone and then through a common drying zone, the ware thus produced having dif-.

ferent drying times, filling the molds with clay or fabricating ware thereon and then drying the ware and in drying the ware subjecting each class of ware to the influence of a drying medium for such interval as required to reach a stage of dehydration suited to that particular class of ware and then removing same from the dryer and maintaining the drying times of each class of ware substantially constant for repeated circulations of the molds through. the drying zone by'establishing and maintaining optimum drying conditions and subjecting the molds whilst in for-refilling.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2431742 *Apr 24, 1943Dec 2, 1947Farnsworth Res CorpMoisture indicator
US2554705 *May 9, 1947May 29, 1951Pacific Clay ProductsMethod of and apparatus for drying ceramic pipe
US2558338 *Nov 17, 1947Jun 26, 1951Clements William ACeramic drier
US2563408 *Jun 8, 1948Aug 7, 1951 Apparatus for curing building
US3091833 *May 4, 1960Jun 4, 1963Bergen Machine & Tool Co IncApparatus for curing molded building blocks
US3383780 *Feb 8, 1966May 21, 1968Ginori Ceramica Ital SpaApparatus for drying ceramic ware
US4808365 *May 26, 1988Feb 28, 1989International Business Machines CorporationMethod for reducing edge curl on green sheets
U.S. Classification264/297.5, 34/204, 264/297.7, 34/212, 34/557
International ClassificationF26B15/24, F26B15/00
Cooperative ClassificationF26B15/24
European ClassificationF26B15/24