US 2275056 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 3, 1942. A. N. WHITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. 2, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet l film/07:11.7,
(Til?!) March 3, 1942.
BUILDING Filed Dec. 2,' 1938 WHITE 2,275,056
CONSTRUCTION 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 K fly 7 /Q /f wil We /6 m n we /9 f F Id 1 4 362 7 filjfl 5 ('7 INVENTOR.
March 1942. A. N. WHITE 2,275,056
BUILDlENG CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec 2, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 xi INVENTOR.
March 3, 1942. A. N. WHITE 2,275,056
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. 2, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4' INVENT OR.
Alfred A! Willie BY W ATTORNEY.
Patented Mar. 3, 1942 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
Application December 2, 1938, Serial No. 243,549
My invention relates to building construction, more particularly improvements in concrete walls, floors, roof and ceiling construction of buildings and the objects of my invention are:
First, to provide a very light construction of plastic materials for the walls, floors, roof and ceiling of buildings;
Second, to provide such a construction that provides substantially large, continuous air space in the walls, floor, roof and ceiling of buildings;
Third, to provide a construction of thi class in which the material consists of plastic material such as concrete and fabricated metal;
Fourth, to provide a structure of this class in which the plastic material may be applied by either pouring, spraying on or by plastering on;
Fifth, to provide a construction of this class in which the plastic material may include either adobe, plaster,- stucco, cement, cement stucco,
molten silica or like substances, orsubstances v classed as concrete;
Sixth, to provide a building construction of this class which is very durable and not subject to deterioration, strong and permanent;
Seventh,- to providea building construction of this class which is sufficiently elastic and yieldable so that breakage or cracking is reduced to a minimum and particularly adapted for earthquake shock;
Eighth, to provide a novel web structure for building walls, floors, ceiling or roofs or the like;
Ninth, to provide a novel bracing strut memher for building construction;
Tenth, to provide a novel means of reenforcing building walls, floors, ceilings, roofs and the like;
Eleventh, to provide a novel method of spacing, supporting and reenforcing double plastic wall portions;
Twelfth, to provide a novel-building construction of this class; and
Thirteenth, to provide a building construction of this class which is very simple and economical of construction, very strong and efllcient, durable and which will not readily deteriorate or get out of order.
With these and other. objects in view as will appear hereinafter, my invention consists of certain novel features of construction, combination and arrangement of parts and portions as will be hereinafter described in detail and be particularly set forth in the appended claims, reference being had to the accompanying drawings mentary sectional view of a roof or floor con struction with truss braces used for large spans between vertical supports;. Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view of a modified form of con-.
struction for roof or floor; Fig. 6 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a special structural web member used in my building construction;
. Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional view taken from the line 1-1 of Fig. 6; Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken from the line 8-8 of Fig. 6; Fig. 9 is an enlarged fragmentary view of one of the prong members from the special web member shown in Fig. 6; Fig. 10 is a side view taken from the line Ill-l0 of Fig. 9; Fig. 11 is a fragmentary view showing the spread position of the prong members of the special web member 4 shown in Fig.
20 of the drawings and the prong members of,
the truss members 2 interlocked therewith and in their spread position shown positioned in the concrete or plastic material; Fig. 11a is a similar view at a right angle thereto; Fig. 12 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a special truss member; Fig. 13 is a transverse sectional view taken from the line I 3- of Fig. 12; Fig. 14 is a side elevational view of a modified form of truss member; Fig. 15 is a sectional view taken from the line I5-I5 of Fig. 14; Fig. 16'is a fragmentary side elevational view of the special web member showing one of the prongs bent down. showing a strand of reenforcing wire wrapped around the prong member; Fig. 17 is a similar view showing building paper placed over some of the prongs and resting against the outer side of the bent down prongs, the next step in the construction of the wall, floor, roof or ceilings; Fig.
18 is a similar view showing the reenforcing wire I positioned on some of the prongs and the end bent showing a further step in the construction;
' Fig. 19 is a similar view showing the plastic material in position thereon; Fig. 20 is a special co.d web member and Fig. 21 is an edge view taken from the line 2l2 l of Fig. 12.
Similar characters of reference refer to similar parts and portions throughout the several views of the drawings:
In my building construction I employ a special construction web member as tie members for tying the spaced wall portions together which is shown best in Figs. 6 to 10 inclusive of the drawings. It consists of a metallic strip I of a length to suit its particular use in the building construction and is of a width to suit the thickness of the wall floor, ceiling or roof support. It is provided at its opposite sides with a plurality of prong members Ia which are provided with bevelled ends Ib terminating in a sharp point Is. Each of these prong members is provided with a plurality of integral laterally extending portions Id in each side edge which are preferably punched from the side edges of these prongs and the material is extended laterally to one side as shown best in Figs. 9 and 10 of the drawings. These prong members Ia are bent alternately in opposite directions along both edges so that there are two spaced rows of prongs as shown best in Fig. 7 of the drawings which I have designated I and id and they are preferably formed with curves at their intersections with the body of the strip designated Ie. Inwardly from these prongs at each side of the strips there is provided the depressed or curved portions I j which serve for lateral reenforcing of the web member and prov des greater flexure strength, and between these depressed portions If the. web, strip is provided with a plurality of cutout portions I9 and between the adjacent cutout portions lg are rib portions Ih which are also provided with depressions or reenforcing members Ii as shown best in Figs. 6 and 8 of the drawings which provides for greater iiexure strength than if they were fiat. These web members are utilized for connecting, supporting and reenforcing the spaced wall portions formed of plastic slabs at the opposite sides of the wall, ceiling, roof or floor, as will be hereinafter described.
For certain portions of my construction ll also employ a special strut member 2 which is preferably composed of a relatively thin metallic strip which is principally formed in U shape as at 2a shown best in Fig. 13 of the drawings to provide lateral and fiexure strength. It is provided at each end with a plurality of prongs 2b and 20 which are bent outwardly in opposed direction vfrom each other as shown best in Fig. 21 of the drawings, thus two of the prongs 2b are turned in one direction and the other two prongs 2c are turned in the opposite direction and they are in alternate relation to each other. Each of these prongs are provided with a plurality of punched integral ofiset portions Zdwhich serves as bonds for the plastic material.
I also employ a similar strut member 3 which is constructed the same as the strut member 2 throughout except that the main portion is provided with a plurality of corrugations 3a as shown in Fig. 15 of the drawings, thus providing a modified form of strut member for particular use when desired.
I also have provided a special structural cord web member 4. as shown best in Fig. 20 of the drawings which is the same as one side of the web member l, but only utilizes one side from the holes I g outwardly, the prongs and the depression If being the same construction throughout.
Referring now to Fig. l of the drawings, buildings are constructed substantially as follows: Foundation is laid in the usual or conventional manner with a raised central ridge 5a in the preferred form. The shoulder 51) of the foundation 5 is substantially liush with the base line or ground surface and positioned on this shoulde 5b and on the ground is a relatively thin slab of plastic material, preferably cement 6 and provided with conventional wire net reenforcing 6a. After this slab 6 is laid it is approximately one inch thick. While the concrete is still in a plastic state the web members are set on one side with the prongs Ia embedded in the plastic cement and after the concrete is hardened with these web members extending vertically spaced the proper distance apart, the work of constructing the upper or top slab I is begun, by first laying substantially one inch in thickness and the floor is finished. In erecting the side walls the web members I perform the function of tying the inner and outer slabs t and 9 (which are preferably concrete) together and bracing the same in rigid position, the web members being preferably set in at about sixteen inch centers for the reason that sixteen inches is the normal space for stucco wire netting to span. After these web members I are set and aligned and braced the wire strands are stretched over the inner and outer area of the wall web members as a backing for'the building paper the same as hereindescribed for the top floor slab. The building paper is placed tight over the inner and outer surfaces of the webs and wire strands to form a backing for plastering operation which is accomplished in the conventional manner. These web or connecting members I are also used for forming ceiling and roof supports and areas in the same manner as the floor and wall construction as shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings. I
Referring now to Figs. 16 to 19 inclusive of the drawings, the prongs Ia are used for anchoring the wire strands II! which are stretched over the walls, floors, ceilings or roof areas. The wire strands Eli are drawn tight and the ends wrapped around the prongs as shown best in Fig.16 at varions intervals in order to hold the wire strands Iii tight and the prongs bent over where the wire strands Ill are secured. Building paper II is then placed over these wire strands lb and some of the extended prongs are forced through the paper, thus supporting the paper rigidly in position. Then a few more of the prongs are bent down over the paper to hold it rigidly in position. This is shown in Fig. 17 of the drawings. Then wire netting I2 is stretched over the area to be reenforced (against the building paper as shown in Fig. 18 of the drawings). This wire netting is used for reenforcing of the concrete slabs. Then the cement is laid in the conventional manner as shown in Fig. 19 of the drawings so that the prong members I a form a bond into the concrete slab by projecting into it about the center of the slab and the prongs are not bent snug against the building paper. Therefor a liberal amount of concrete will embed itself in around the prongs as the bent portions of the prongs are approximately at right angles to the face of the web members and are aligned parallel to the line of the concrete slab in which they are embedded and therefore form a positive bond into the concrete slab.
Therefore these prongs Ia perform five important functions: First as an anchorage for the wire strand; second as an anchorage for the building paper; third as *an anchorage for the wire reenforcing and fourth a a bond for the concrete slabyand fifth they form a bracing together with the web portion and tie members for the spaced slabs, either for floor, side wall, ceiling or roof support.
It is believed that the web members I have considerable structural value in whateverposition they are used, but they are not necessarily designed to carry any particular structural value as far as calculated stresses and strains are concerned other than a bracing effect between the connected slabs. The webmembers when placed between two slabs produce a web-like structure to coact with the wall slabs in providing a wall adapted to act as a series of vertical trusses, the web members acting likewise whether placed in a wall, floor or ceiling or roof structure as disclosed herein.
In preparing roof, ceiling and floor construction as shown in Figs. 1 and 4 of the drawings where strut members are used as a level ceiling with pitched roof or a level ceiling with a floor above as in Fig. 4. The prongmembers la'of the cord member 4 and the prong members 2b and 2c of the truss member 2 are interlocked and bent and spread in varying directions and embedded in the cement slabs forming the roof and ceiling or floor and ceiling as shown best in detail in Figs. 11 and 11a of the drawings, thus forming rigid ties between the cords, trusses, and slabs. The cord members] as shown in Fig. 20 of the drawings are used for rafters and ceiling beams as shown in Fig. 1 and as floor joists. and ceiling beams in Fig. 4 of the drawings and the prongs 4a, which are the same as the prongs la in shape and construction, are utilized in the same manner in the slabs forming the roof and ceiling and these slabs forming the roof and celling are interconnected and braced by means of truss membersas shown in either Figs. 12 or 14 in lieu thereof when desired. These truss memi bers 2 are positioned in bracing relation as shown in the roof and ceiling construction in Fig. 1 of the drawings and in the floor and ceiling construction as shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings and the ends 2b and 2c are embedded in the concrete slabs forming the roof and ceiling or floor and ceiling and the members 2b and 2c are spread similar to that shown in Figs. 11 and 11a oi the drawings and provide for rigid .bonding between the slabs and the ends 212 and 2c of the truss members 2. Thus where a level ceiling is constructed in conjunction with a pitched roof as shown in Fig. 1 and the trusses are used to support the ceiling slab and the roof slab is in compression and is deemed to be of'suiiicient strength to support the ceiling slab, both ends of the truss being rigidly secured in the slab and the top and bottom cord members are tied together forming a complete truss, it being noted that the trusses are set in their vertical position to carry their vertical load and others are set at an angle to produce a bracing or trussing effect and that the prongs on the trusses project well into the concrete slab and with the concrete poured around them provides a very efficient conmotion between the trusses and the concrete slab.
It will be here noted that the ends of the wire netting placed in adjacent floors, walls, ceilings, or roof construction are extended from one slab into the adjacent slab so that the ends overlap and form rigid connecting ties between the adjacent slab in either the floors, walls, ceiling or roof construction.
It will be here noted that any form of plastic material may be used for forming the slabs. Any form of wire netting reenforcing may be utilized embedded wholly in the slab. All of the walls are of double slab spaced construction with continuous air space between the two slabs. The walls provide insulation against weather and efficient insulation against transmission of heat.
By varying the width of the web members varying thicknesses of walls may be produced and roof and floor constructions are produced in ub stantially the same way except the concrete is poured instead of plastered or sprayed on the surface.
Though I have shown and described a particular construction, combination and arrangement of parts and portions and certain modifications thereof, I do not wish to be limited to this particular construction, combination and arrangement nor to the modification as herein disclosed, but desire to'include in the scope of my invention the construction, combination and arrangement substantially as set forth in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a building construction of the class described, the combination wltha pair of spaced plastic slabs of a structural web member including a metallic strip provided with a plurality of closely arranged pointed prongs extended laterally from opposite sides thereof into said slabs.
2. In a building construction of the class described, the combination with a pair of spaced plastic slabs of a structural web member including a metallic strip provided with a plurality of pointed prongs extended laterally from opposite sides thereof into said slabs, and each prong provided with a plurality oi lateral notches i its side edges.
3. In a building construction of the class described, the combination with a. pair of spaced plastic slabs of a structural web member including a metallic strip provided with a plurality of pointed prongs extended laterally from opposite sides thereof into said slabs, and said strip provided with a longitudinally disposed depressed portion at opposite sides adjacent to said prongs.
4. In a building construction of the class described, the combination with a pair of spaced plastic slabs of a structural web member including a metallic strip provided with a plurality of pointed prongs extended laterally from opposite sides thereof into said slabs, each prong provided serve as a backing and stiffening means to hold building paper from sagging duringpouring or said prongs.
7. In a building construction of the class described, a pair of spaced plastic material slabs, means for connecting said slabs including metallic members provided with laterally extending oppositely disposed prongs embedded in said slabs and wire strands as a supporting means for building paper, and building paper positioned on said prongs and secured thereto by bending some of said prongs and reinforcing wire in said slabs secured to said prongs by bending the remaining prongs over the reinforcing wire.
8. In a building construction of the class described, the combination of a pair of spaced plastic material slabs, means for connecting said slabs including metallic members provided with laterally extending oppositely disposed prongs embedded in said slabs, wire strands secured to said prongs outwardly of said slabs and held in position by bending said prongs.
ALFRED N. WHITE.