US 2276076 A
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mh 1o, i942. J, L NGK 2,276,076
MEANS FOR INSULATING BUILDING AND LIKE STRUCTURES Original Filed Sept. 23, 1932 Patented Mar. l0, 1942 MEANS FOR INSULATING BUILDING AND LIKE STRUCTURES Joseph L. Finck, Cedarhurst, N. Y., assignor of thirty per cent to l. Richard Paris, Washington, D. C.
Original application September 23, 1932, Serial No. 634,604. Divided and this application 0ctoher 13, 1937, Serial No. 168,822
6 Claims. .,(Cl. 'l2-16) This invention relatesto the art of heat insulation, and more particularly to the insulation of building and like structures.
The total heat transfer through any structure may be considered as taking place in some or all of the following three forms: (a) conduction, (b) convection and (C) radiation. 'I'he first form occurs when heat is being transferred through a solid, or through a quiescent iiuid. 'I'he second occurs in a fluid, and is manifested by natural convection currents within the fluid. The third occurs in open spaces, whether those spaces be evacuated or filled with a fluid, as for example,
This invention is concerned entirely with the last form, radiation. If one should carry out one zone or space to another.
As previously indicated, in carrying this invention into effect, it is proposed to provide a rigid structure such as a building or other wall which is intended to prevent heat exchange from That is to say, it is proposed to metalize one surface of a nonmetallic sheet or wall in such a way as to utilize the high reflecting power of metal tothe best advantage.
It is practical, at the present time, to spray metal on any surface such as brick, wood, paper,
numerical calculations of the magnitude of the heat transferred by radiation at room temperature, basing the calculations-on Stefan-Boltzmanns law for total radiation, and also bearing in mind that the emissivity of materials ordinarily entering into building construction, such as wood, brick, paper, etc., may be as high as 80 or 90 per cent, one will lnd that this form of heat transfer is a very large fraction of the total heat transfer. large number of air spaces are intentionally introduced into a structure, by using hollow tile, studding or a brick construction so arranged as to form air spaces, radiation becomes the chief mode of heat transfer.
I propose to reduce the amountof heat transfer by radiation through a simple and effective method, namely by utilizing the high reecting power of metals. My method is to coat with metal the surfaces of materials which enter into the construction of buildings and the like, in order to reduce the heat transferred by radiation. It will be evident that only those walls which dene the air spaces need be coated with metal.
A few practical examples of how the invention may be carried into effect are shown in the accompanying drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of a wall built of hollow tile illustrating one application of the invention.
Figures 2 and 3 are more or less diagrammatic views illustrating the application of the invention to a brick wall.
Figure 4 is a horizontal sectional view showing the application of the invention to a wall space formed by a wooden studding.
Figure 5 shows another form of the invention. Figure 6 shows another modification of the invention.
At the present time, where a etc. Of course, one would naturally select a metal that is comparatively cheap, easy to work, which has a reasonably low emissivity, and which will not oxidize -very readily. Tin or some alloy of tin and lead, or aluminum might suit the purpose very well. However, no restrictions need be made as to the kind of metal to be used, or to the method of applying the metal. Practically all metals will have emissivities much lower than those of building materials, and there will be material gain in using any metal. Further, one method of applying the metal may be easier than another, but however the metal is applied, whether by spraying or by pasting on metal foil, the result, as far as the reduction in heat transfer by radiation is concerned, will be the same.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, it will be observed from Figure 1 that the air spaces I, I of the hollow tile are dened by the Figure 2,v and the surfaces 6, 6 of the air spaces 5 of Figure 3 are to be coated with metal to reduce the radiation. In a frame wall, such as is represented in Figure 4, the air spaces 1, 1 are usually formed by the studs 8, lath and plaster 9 f `and building paper or sheathing I0. Toreduce the heat transfer by radiation in this case,the several components may be coated with metal on those surfaces bordering on the air spaces 1, 1,
or the bordering surfaces may be coated with metal after the materials are installed in the wall.
While as shown in the drawing both faces brdering on air spaces may be coated with metal either in the form of a spray coat or in the form I of metal foil, only one such face parallel to the wall surface may be coated with metaliwithout any great loss of the effectiveness if the reecting power of this metal surface is high. For example, in case of aluminum foil the reflecting power may be as high as 95%, and therefore such metal on one wall reduces the transmitted radiation to a very small value.
The plaster 9 may be applied in the form of preformed sheets or slabs of plaster having the face bordering on the air space coated with a thin layer of metal as by metal foil or by a sprayed metal coating. Similarly, other sheet material, such as boards made of fibrous material, laminated or otherwise, may be coated with a thin metal coating on one face thereof and employed in the customary manner in buildings, taking care that the metal covered face borders on the air space.
If desired the lateral walls of air spaces, namely those surfaces which are disposed transversely to the wall and border on the air spaces may also be covered with a metal coating. The metal board and particularly to such fibre board which coating on these surfaces will increase the heat in conductance of the lateral or transverse walls of the air spaces is minimized and the advantages of the metal coating are obtained. This form of the invention is particularly applicable to hollow tile or the like where the expense involved in coating the heat transmitting surfaces or thesurfaces which are parallel to the wall is not substantially increased by coating also the adjacent portions of the lateral walls. In other forms of the invention disclosed herein the expense involved in coating the lateral Walls or surfaces may not bel warranted by the advantages that flow therefrom. It is understood, of course, that by far the major portion of the radiated heat flowing across the air space is transmitted or emitted by one or the other surface which is parallel to the wall. Where, however, it is possible to obtain the advantages of the metalized surface on a lateral wall of the air space without any substantial increase in expense involved, such surfaces or interrupted portions thereof may also be coated.
From the foregoing description it is believed that the essential features of the invention will be fully'understood, and that it also is the intent to make the claimed invention applicable generally to the construction of walls, partitions, ceilings, floors, roofs and like structures, or wherever air spaces are employed to reduce the transfer of heat from one zone to another.
If desired. the dry aluminum bronze for example may be employed during the process of manufacture of some of the above mentioned o sheet materials so as to coat one face thereof. This metal is particularly applicable to such of these materials which, in the course of their manufacture, have a tacky surface. Such surface may then be sprinkled with an excess amount of dry aluminum bronze powder, the
material being then rolled down and the excess powder brushed off. This process applies particularly to asphalt coated building paper in `which case the dry aluminum bronze powder is is coated with a water-proof layer in which case the dry aluminum bronze powder is sprinkled over the surface while the water proof coating is still tacky.
In the case of bricks and hollow tile, as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3, the present commonly employed processes of manufacturing the same need not be at all modified and the present invention may be applied to such bricks and hollow tile after the present processes of manufacturing, the same have been completed. For this purpose it is sufficient to coat such surfaces of the brick or hollow tile which are desired to be metalized with an adhesive such as asphalt or water glass or the like and then sprinkle ovr this adhesive coated face metal powder such as aluminum bronze or the like, to thoroughly cover the face. Then this brick or hollow tile is permitted to dry.
When such metal coated brick or hollow tile is employed in fire-proof constructions, the presence of the metalized faces against the air spaces. which minimizes the transfer of heat through the wall, greatly increases the fire-proof quality of the wall, The reason is that in case of a conflagration radiation is the principal form by which the heat is transferred across the air space, and the retardation of this heat transfer by the metalized wall delays the rise intemperature on the opposite side of the wall, and permits escape and removal 'of material during the time gained. In fire-proof constructions the present invention may be applied not only to outer Walls, ceilings, and roofs, but may also be applied to partitions, without adding combustible material to the wall.
In the case of asphalt coated building paper it is also possible to apply the present invention during the process of manufacture of the building paper.A This is accomplished by sprinkling an excess of aluminumbronze or powder over the asphalt coated face and passing the building paper through heated calender rolls; the' calender rolls being heated just sufficiently to impart to the asphalt a desired degree of tackiness, thereby causing the aluminum bronze or powder to adhere tdthe asphalt. Lead or aluminum foil may also be pasted on to building paper by means of heated calender rolls, and such paper may serve the same purpose.
In the case of studded wall, ceiling or roof structures which have an air space of three or four inches in depth or thickness, the present invention may be applied, particularly as shown in Figures 5 and 6 of the drawing. In Figure 5 a studded air space II is shown which is formed by the studs I2. Such studs generally form air spaces of three or four inches. In the form of the invention as shown in Figure 5, the interior is placed on the outer face of the wall.
From the description of the invention thus far described, it will be understood that the materials represented by the reference characters I3 and I4 may bear a metalized face or if desired building paper having a metal coat on one face thereof may be interposed between the building as shown at 2|.
materials. I3v and/or I4 and the vstuds so as to present a heat reflecting 'metal face to the air mately equal spaces, thereby increasing the heat.
resistance of the total wall several fold. More specifically, the air space is broken up by means of several layers of building paper I5 and I6 which are disposed in the manner shown in the drawing. Moreover, in the present invention the building paper I5 and I6 is provided with' a. metal coating on one orboth faces thereof,
thereby serving to minimize the transmission of radiated heat throughany of these air spaces.
If paper having only one metal coated face is employed the same is so employed that each air space has at least one metal coated face. It will be understood, therefore,'that if the material I3 has a metal coated face disposed toward the air space, the paper I5 will have its metal coated face disposed away from the layer I3 and similarly the paper I6 will have its metal coated face disposedtoward I4. With this arrangement each airspace will have at least one metal coated face. If desired the layers I3- and I4 mayebe uncoated'with metal and one-of the sheetssay sheet I5 will have both faces metal coated, while the other sheet, I6, will have one fface coated and so disposed that its unmetalized face is disposed toward I5.
It will now be understood that by the use yof s this form of the invention the air space is broken .up into twoor more air spaces and each air ized.
In the form ofthe invention shown in Figure 6, one or more blankets of insulating material 26 e may be employed for the general purpose of breaking .up the air space into two or more air spaces, the blanket being nailed to the studs I2 In order to take full advantage of the present invention the blanket 2U is provided on one or both faces thereof with a layer of metal foil or with a layer of metalized paper.
The present applicationis a division of application Serial No. 634,604, filed September 23, 1932, now Patent No. 2,098,138, granted Novemaavaofze being teov thin and inadequate te withstand the wear and abrasion of an exposed radiated` heat across the `air space, Ithe coating .t
surface for the' purpose of substantially eliminating the transfer of radiated heat across the air space, theother face of said bo/ard being uncoated/ and adapted to receive `any desired -flnishingorxy decorative coating thereover.
2. As 'a new article of manufacture, a-building board having a-width greater than the distance between adjacent wall studs in frame dwelling construction, for attachment to' such wall studs, and to form air spaces within the wall bordered by one face of the building board on the interior side of the wall, one face of said board having a coating of very thin metal foil for exposure to theair spaces within the wall to minimize the transfer oi' radiated heat across the air space, the metal foil being too thinr and inadequate to withstand the wear and abrasion of an exposed wall surface and of such thickness as adequately to cover the surface for the purposeI of substantially eliminating the transfer'of radiatedl heat Y,
across the air space, the other face of said board being uncoated and adapted to receive any desired finishing or decorative coating thereover.
3, A building board, having a width greater than the distance between adjacent wall studs in frame dwelling constructiomfor attachment to such wall studs and to form air spaces within the wall bordered by one face of y.the building board on the interior side of the wall, the board .comprising plaster board for its essentialcomponent, one surface of said board having a metal coating for exposure to the airwspaces within the c' wall to minimize the transfer of-radiated heat ber 2, 1937, which is a continuation as to common subject matter of the copending Patent No. 1,883,774, granted October 18, 1932 Having thus described my invention, I claim:
l. As a new article of manufacture, a building board having a width greater than the distance between adjacent wall studs in frame dwelling t construction, for attachment to such wall studs,.
across the air space, the coating being too thin and inadequate to withstand the wear and abrasion of an exposed wall surface and of such thickness as adequately to cover the surface for ,the purpose of substantially eliminating the transfer of radiated heat across the air space, the other face of said board being uncoated and in frame dwelling construction, for attachment to such Wall studs and to form air spaces within board on the interior side of the wall, the board comprising plaster board for its 'essential comthe wall bordered by one face ofl the building ponent, one surface of said board having a coatingV of very thin metal foil for exposure to the air spaces within the wall tominimize the transfer of radiated heat across the air space, the
metal foil being too thin andl inadequate to withstand the wear and abrasion of an' exposed Wall surface and of such thickness as adequately to cover the surface for the purpose-.of substantiauy eliminating the transfer of radiatedheat,
across the air space the other face of said board being uncoatedand adapted to receive any desired nishing or decorative coating thereover.
' 5. A plasterboard, having a width. greater than, the distance between adjacent wall studs in frame dwelling construction, for attachment to such wall studs to form air spaces within the f'walls, the board having a core of gypsum, one surface of said board having a metal coating for exposure to the air spaces within the-wall to minimize the transfer of radiated heat through the air space, said coating being only of such thickness as adequately to cover the surface for the pur- -v pose of substantially eliminating the transfer of radiated heat across the air space, but inadequate for exposure on an exposed wall surface, the other face of said board being uncoated for receiving a decorative finishing coating thereover.
6. A plasterboard, having a width greater than the distance between adjacent wall studs in frame dwelling construction, for attachment to such wall studs to form air spaces within the walls, the board having a core of gypsum, one surface of said board having a coating of metalfoil for JOSEPH L. FINCK.