|Publication number||US2279586 A|
|Publication date||Apr 14, 1942|
|Filing date||Feb 4, 1939|
|Priority date||Feb 4, 1939|
|Publication number||US 2279586 A, US 2279586A, US-A-2279586, US2279586 A, US2279586A|
|Inventors||Willard H Bennett|
|Original Assignee||Slayter Electronic Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (39), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 14, 1942- w. H. BENNETT 2,279,586
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE SYSTEM Filed Feb. 4, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 1 4 a c? d "MAMMM .AMMMM q l -Mums 4 wmmawqz A a u M a m a m W53 A20 z I N VEN TOR.
dw- 19m? ATTORNEY April 14, 1942. w. H. BENNETT ELECTRIC DISCHARGE SYSTEM .Filed Feb. 4, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 TE-E 3 A a a t i 7 a 1 lk 7 a a F 6 2 a a b y INVENTOR. Que/Wax 3e. um FL,
ATTORNEY April 14, 1942.
W. H.' BENNETT ELECTRIC DISCHARGE SYSTEM Filed Feb. 4, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Apr. 14, 1942 UNITED STATES ---PATENT OFFICE ELECTRIC 133ml SYSTEM Willard I. Bennett, Newark. Ohio, assignor to '0! Ohio Application February 21 Galina.
My invention relates broadly to fans and more particularly to arrangements oi. electrodes in fans of the electric discharge type One or the objects of my invention is to provide a cascade arrangement of electrodes for fans of the electric discharge type by which mass movement of fluid such as air may be produced with a high degree of eillciency.
Another object of my invention is to provide constructions of electrodes for tans oi the electric discharge type having means for producin maximum movement of fiuid such as air under control of impressed electric potentials in which the number of stages of discharge electrodes may be readily cascaded.
Still another object of my invention-ls to provide an arrangement oi cascade electrodes for electric discharge apparatus inwhich the electrodes are stream-lined for reducing resistance to the fiow of air or other fluid around the electrodes'under control of an impressed electric A iurther object of my invention is to provide a construction of discharge electrode for fans in which a multiplicity of short sections of metallic wire are embedded in a semi-conductive plastic material. stream-line to oi'ler minimum resistance to the fiow or air around the electrode.
A still iurther object of my invention is to provide a circuit arrangement for operating a cascaded Ian, system in which alternately arfollowing by reference to the accompanyingdrawings in which: 7
Figure l is a perspective view oi one arrangement discharge electrode embodying my inventlon: Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken through one of the discharge electrodes shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 illustrates one circuit arrangeinent i'or cascaded banks of emitters embodying my invention; Fig. 4 shows a modified I circuit tor a fan constructed in accordance with my invention; Fig. 5 shows a further modified form of circuit" operating under; the principles 0! my invention; Fig. 6 shows a method or increas- Slayter lectronic Corporation,
a corporation 4, 1m, serial No. 254,124 (c1. sic-as) ing the delivery of air and improving the efficiency of fans constructed in accordance with 5 my invention; Fig. shows'the manner in which the electrodes in the fan system of my invention may be staggered ior increasing the tan delivery; and Fig.8 is a schematic circuit arrangement of the fan system shown in Fig. 7.
My invention is directed to an arrangement of electrodes for electric discharge apparatus and circuit arrangement for cascaded banks of electrodes in which'an electrically discharging element or member is molded from semi-conductive plastic material and stream-lined to a tapered multiplicity of sections of fine wire. Depending on the polarity of these electrodes, the electrodes will emit either electrons or will elect ions, and when the electrodes are negative and emit electrons, these electrons may (and probably do) immediately attach themselves to neutral molecules to form negative ions. Accordingly these electrodes are both electron and ion emitting. The
sections of fine wire are spaced uniformly one from another with their ends directed toward a target electrode. Both the target electrode and the semi-conductive plastic emitting electrode are stream-lined int contour ior oii'ering minimum obstruction to the fiow of fluid around the electrodes under control of the electric discharge between the exposed ends of the sections of fine wire and the target electrode. The. emitting electrode and the associated'target electrode may be readily cascaded for inducing a greater fiow or The emitting electrodes of each bank may be connected together and the banks alternately disposed with alternate ban connected to one side of an alternating current source through condensers. Due to the condenser blocks each 40 bank is individually caused to approach an average potential such that it draws as much current at positive potential as it draws at negative potential, or expressed otherwise, the total sum, through each complete cycle, of negative charge 4 received from a next preceding bank plus positive charge delivered must equal the total positive charge. received from the next preceding bank plus the negative charge delivered. Due to the natural bias of this type 01. discharge the successive bankswill shift bya D. C. potential so that successively increasing positive potential will be assumed by the banks in succession from the last target bank. If all banks are left condenser blocked the opas eration is still such that equal negative and posiedge portion in which there is embedded a tances.
' vide a catalytic efiect, in the'field of electrotive emission occurs on successive half cycles, but the further advantage is, attained that any bank may be grounded at will without drawing any current after the initial charging current. I! the capacity to ground of the fan assembly is small enough the charging current at grounding can be made so small as to not be dangerous.
The velocity of drive may be increased by the use of guard members which serve to eliminate losses due to interelectrode action in successive banks. I may arrange the electrodes of each bank in staggered arrangement to form dual ranks, and have the. electrodes of one bank coacting as emitters, with electrodes of -an adjacent bank operating as targets. The electrodes of each bank are connected to the same side of the source 01' potential, the rank with leading target edges being directly connected to one side of the source of potential and the rank with retracted target edges being connected through a condenser to the same side of the source of potential. That is to say, each bank of electrodes is composed of two ranks arranged in staggered relation, the ranks alternately being effective as emitters. The field applied to the emitting edges of the electrodes is almost entirely determined bythe potential, of the buses of the next adjacent rank serving as targets for the emission because the other rank of that target bank is in a more remote position. The potential of those emitter ranks which are more exposed toward their target banks, is determined by that condenser potential required to make the emission the emission for on-set of each successive half which are molded from semi-conductive material in substantially stream-lined contour. The emitting electrodes taper from a rounded rear edge portion 2 to a relatively sharp edge portion 3. The rear edge portion 2 is constituted by a longitudinally extending curved plate member cycle; iourthly, the wind pressures produced by advanced banks assist in producing more regular discharges at the remote banks and as a result the drive produced is more regular and more susceptible to increase by decreasing interbank dis- I This staggered arrangement is also advantageous in connection with electric circuits which give phase rotation of applied voltage and which, therefore, make the emission extend over v a larger percentage or each half cycle.
. fans or "blowersf as hereinbeiore indicated.
The electric discharge system disclosed, however,
vmay be employed in a variety otways for the accomplishment oi'other varied effectai'oz' example, in the electric precipitation of particles. from suspension in fluidsto electrify the particles, in making chemical: substitutions to promechanics to produce reactive forces, and for various other purposes where a controlled electric. discharge, accompanied by relative move- -electrodes l in cascade;
which is embedded adjacent the rear edge portion of the semi-conductive material .of the electrode I during the molding process so that the junction between the sides of the molded structure of the electrode and the rear edge portion 2 is stream-lined as at 4. The discharge elements consist of a plurality of short sections of metal wire 5, molded at spaced intervals in the tapered edge 3 of the emitting electrode l. The sections of fine wire 5 constitute discharge points directly toward the rounded edge 2' of the coacting stream-lined target electrode I. A difference of potential is established between connection 1 to the'rear edges 2' of target electrodes I and the connection 8 which leads to the rear. edges 2 of The electric discharge between the points constituted by the sections of fine wire 5 and the rear edges 2 of target electrodes l' establishes a movement of, fluid.
from the discharge points toward the target.
Wherethe assembly of electrodes is arranged in w the atmosphere, the wind direction is established in the direction which I have indicated by arrows.
In Fig. 3y I have shown the manner in which the discharge electrodes may be arranged in a cascade system. The banks of emitting electrodes are connected as shown with the source oi alternating current connected to primary winding I001 transformer ll, having secondary winding l2 connected to the banks of emitting electrodes as illustrated. The electrodes are similar to the electrodes set forth in Figs. 1 and 2 in that each electrode includes a target 2 and emitting points 5. Each bank of emitting electrodes is staggered with respect to the adjacent bank. I have shown the separate banks at l4, i5, l6, l1, l8, l9 and 2B. The banks of electrodes which serve as emitters are condenser blocked with respect to the alternating current supplied from secondary winding I2 of the transformer H. The alternate banks are connected through their condensers to opposite ends of the secondary winding l2. That is to say, the bank of emitting electrodes I5 is connected through condenser 2| and conductor 22 with the end 23 of secondary winding [2 while the alternate bank It is connected through condenser 24 and conductor 25 with the opposite end 26 of secondary winding l2. Similarly, the adjacent bank I! is connected through condenser 21 and conductor 22 with the end 23 of secondary winding l2. The next ad- ..iacent bank of emitting electrodes I8 is connected through condenser 28 and conductor 25 with the end 26 oi secondary winding l2. The next adjacent bank of emitting electrodes I8 is connected through condenser 29 and conductor 22 to the end 22 01f secondary winding I2. The adjacent alternate bank of emitting electrodes 28 is connected through condenser 30 and conductor 25 to the end 28 or secondary winding I2.
merit of. the medium and the 'eiectrode'structure,
way of example only. Referring to the drawings in detail, reference By reason of the condenser blocks 2|, 21, 29,
. and 24, 2. and 30, each bankiis individually caused to approach an average potential such that it draws as much current at positive potential as it draws at negative potential, or expressed otherwise, the total sum, through each complete cycle, of negative charge received from a next precedcharacter I designates the emitting electrodes-rs s banking p us pos t e charge e ivered st electrodes represented. by
and G1 mounted in rows 38 and II behind the rows equal the total positive charge received from the next preceding bank plus the negative charge delivered. Due to the natural bias of this type of discharge, resulting in a potential difference between each two successive banks, successively increasingv positive potential will be assumed by the banks in succession from the last target bank. If all banks are left condenser blocked as shown in Fig. 5, the operation is still such that equal negative and positive emission occurs on successive half cycles, but the further advantage is attained that any bank may be grounded at will without drawing any current after the initial charging current. If the capacity to ground of the fan'assembly is small enough; the charging current at grounding can be made so small as to not be dangerous.
Fig. 4 illustrates schematically the circuit arrangement diagrammatically shown in Fig. 3, wherein the emitting electrodes are condenser blocked butin which the final bank of target bank H are directly connected through lead 25 with the end 28 of secondary winding I! of transformer II. In this arrangement the center tap SI of secondary winding it is connected to ground as indicated at 12.
As previously noted, all banks may be condenser blocked as indicated in Fig. 5 where the group of electrodes l4 constituting targets may be connected secondary winding II of transformer l l. Tap II is connected to ground 32 as in the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 4. As heretofore noted, the operation under these conditions is still such that equal negative and positive emission occurs on successive half cycles. However, electrodes may be grounded without drawing any current after the initial charging current.
In Fig. 6 I have shown amodifled form of my invention by which two or more banks of fans, emitting electrodes or blowers may be cascaded and used to drive an or other fluids by the direct action of electric discharge I from fine points or wires with .or without ballast resistances. In this arrangement the emitting electrodes are arranged in the form of longitudinally extending emitting wires indicated at E1 and E2 disposed in through condenser 33 to the end 28 of any bank of' rank in group B a designated at is while the staggered of emitters 34 and I! operate to eliminate blocking losses because the lines of force extending from the rows of guard members 38 and Is toward theassociated targets 36 and 31 when the guard members have the same potential as the associated rows of emitters, part of, the volume electrically inactive so that ions which produce wind travel only along regions shown by the dotted lines in the flgure. The guard members G1 and Ga are each streamlined in contour for offering minimum resistance to the flow of air or fluid around the guard members. In this way a high degree of eiliciency is secured in the generation of air or fluid pres sure.
' In Figs. 7 and 8 I have represented the manner in which the emitters may be staggered for increasing the volume of flow of fluid or air. As illustrated in Fig. 7, the groups of electrodes are arranged in banks B, B". B'-B*. The groups of electrodes are disposed in two ranks comprising each bank. The electrodes in the two ranks are staggered as represented by the overlapping relationship of the emitters. The emitters of one are represented at 2. electrically interconnected through conductor ll. The emitters of the second rank in group B are represented at 2'- interconnected through conductor 2. Ingroup B" the flrst "rank of emitters is interrelated rank of emitters is designated at 2". In group B the emitters in one rank are indicated at 2: while the emitters in the adjacent rank are shown at 2" A similar arrangement exists with respect to succeeding groups of emitters designated generally by group B. Emitters .2. are
control electrodes, while 2' is governed by the function in the nature of the potential of emitters operation of condenser 43. It will be observed spaced groups. The emitting electrodes E1 and E: are arranged in rows designated generally atll and II stretched in a substantially vertical plane. The coacting sets of targets for the groups oi emitters SI and 35 are represented at 38 and 31 which are stream-lined in form. I have illustrated the functioning of the emitters in which electric discharge from emitters E1 in row 34 toward the targets 80; and from the emitters Ed in row i! to the targets 81. The obiect of the arrangement is to obtain a velocity of drive on the air being moved which would be the sum of the eiiects of either of the two fans taken I or used alone.
Ordinarily, if only the emitters and targets were used as shown, the'emitters E1 and Ezboth at the same potential and the targets Ti and '1: both at-the same potential, the emitters together being at a potential diflerence with respect to the targets sufficient to cause passage oi' electricity from the emitters to the targets, the passage of the ions from Erto T1 as-well as the passage of ions from E: to T: would both tend to produce fluid motions towards the left in the naure, but there would be a considerable passage of current-from Ea back towards'li. This latter would serve to a very considerable extent to block the wind produced by the other two currents.
I have round that guard members such as Ch that emitters 2. of group B coact with the target portions of both emitters in and 2" of group B" as an assembly, while emitters 2' of electrode assembly B likewise coact with the target portions of emitters 1s and 2" Similarly, the emitting portions of emitter is 0! group B coact with the target portions of both emitters 2e and 2" of group B' coniointly. The
" emitting portions of emitters 2" of group B" coactwith the target portions of emitters :e and 2" of group 3'. Similar arrangements are followed for other coacting groups of electrodes.
In Fig. 8 I have illustrated the manner of applying potential to the coacting groups of electrodes. A power transformer similar to the transformer illustrated in Fig. 3 is provided with secondary winding 12 provided with terminal connections a and It. Alternating current is supplied to the groups oi electrode assemblies in alternate positions as shown. That is to say. group of electrodes B, B'", and B'- are connected to terminal 28 while the alternate groups of electrodes B", and B" are connected with terminal 23 oi-secondary winding It. In the groups of electrodes B, B' and B', the ranks 2-, 2s, 2P2: are directly connected to output terminal I! while the associated ranks 2'. ".1' are connected through condenser u to output terminal 20. Groups of electrodes B" and B" have their ranks of emitters Is and is connected in parallel and directly connected to outputterminal 28 oi the secondary winding II of transformer I I, while their associated miss 2" and serve to render that of electrode assembly B".
denser H to terminal 23. The field applied to the emitting edges of the electrodes is almost entirely determined by the potential of the buses of the next adjacent rank serving as the target for the emission because the staggered row of discharge members constituting the other rank of the target bank is in a more remote position. The potential of those emitter ranks which are more exposed toward their coacting target banks is determined by the potential of condensers 43 and 44 which supply the potential required to make the emission on the positive swing equal to the emission on the negative swing. The emission of the more retracted emitting edges of each bank will always occur only on the negative swing.
The advantages of the staggered arrangement of emitters arethat the current is substantially the-same on each half cycle and all banks fire simultaneously for integrating pressure efiects. Moreover, the charge impressed upon each bank from the previous bank assists in inciting the emission for cn-set of each successive half cycle.
The fluid or wind movement produced by ad- Vance banks assists in producing more regular discharges at the more remote banks and as a result the pressure produced is more regular and uniform and more susceptible to increase by decreasing interbank distances. The staggered arrangement is also advantageous in connection with electric circuits which give phase rota'tlo of applied voltage and which, therefore, migh L make the emission extend over a larger percentage of each half cycle.
While I have shown discharge electrodes formed by wire-like members it will be understood that I may employ dlscharge electrodes formed from fibrous members or thread-like textile elements suitably treated or impregnated to render the fibrous members or thread-like textile elements semi-conducting.
- The arrangement 01' electrodes set forth herein has been found highly desirable in cascade arrangements in fans for developing wind pressures by electric discharge. However, I realize that v other modifications in structure and arrangements of electrodes may be made and I intend no limitations upon my invention other than may be imposed by the scope of the appended laims.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent 01 the United States is as follows:
1. In an electric discharge system, a streamlined electric discharge electrode and a coacting stream-lined target electrode, said discharge electrode comprising a mass of semi-conductive material stream-lined in the direction 01' said target electrode, a multiplicity of spaced wire lik members embedded in said discharge electrode with the outer ends thereof directed toward said target electrode, and a metallic support for said tiplicity of wire like members molded within the tapered edge portionot said mass ofsemi-conductive material with the outer ends thereof extending toward said target electrode and constituting electric emitters with respect to said' target electrode.
members, each of said discharge members being stream-lined and including a charge collecting portion and a charge emitting portion, said discharge members being arranged in a pair of ranks constituting each group with the members of one rank ofl-set from the members or the associated rank, and means for impressing alternating current between the discharge members or one of the ranks in one of said groups, and the discharge members in a corresponding rank of an adjacent group whereby discharge alternates between the corresponding ranks of adjacent groups of electrodes according to the cyclic change of the alternating current.
5. An electric discharge system comprising members disposed in rows in staggered spaced relation one to the other, each of said members including a charge collecting portion and a charge emitting portion, and means for exciting the rows of members with alternating current in cyclic recurring order.
6. A discharge electrode comprising a semiconductive plastic body portion, charge emitting means at one end of said semi-conductive plastic body portion and charge collecting means inserted in the opposite end of said semi-conductive plastic body portion, whereby'charges impressed upon said charge collecting means at one end of said semi-conductive plastic body portion are conducted through said semi-conductive plastic body portion to the charge emitting end thereof.
7. A fan comprising a multiplicity of groups of discharge electrodes, said groups of electrodes being alternately positioned one with respect to another, each group of electrodes comprising two rows of staggered discharge members, a source of alternating current, a connection between one end of said source and one of the rows of discharge members of alternate groups of electrodes,
'3. In an electric discharge system, a target connections between the other rows of discharge members of said last mentioned groups of electrodes through a condenser with the same side of said source of alternating current, a connection from the opposite side of the source of alternating current with one row of each of the intermediate groups of electrodes, and a connection through a condenser from the last mentioned side of said source of alternating current with the other rows of the groups of electrodes in saidlast mentioned intermediate groups of electrodes.
8. An electric discharge system comprising a multiplicity of groups of electric discharge electrodes, each'of said groups of discharge electrodes comprising a pair .of rows of dischargemembers with the discharge members of one row spaced from and disposed in staggered relation to the discharge members in the associated row of the same group of electrodes, whereby discharge portions of one row of electrodes project beyond the plane of the discharge portions of the charge electrodes pressed thereon coacting with the charge colgered relation with respect to the charge coliecting portions of the electrodes in an adjacent lecting portions of correspondingly displaced electrodes in the adjacent group of electrodes.
v9. An electrical discharge system comprising in combination with a source of alternating current, rows of electrodes, each of said electrodes having an emitting portion and a target portion with the emitting portion of one row of electrodes staggered with relation to the target portions of an adjacent row of electrodes, .means electrically connecting all of the target portions of the electrodes of one of said rows, a condenser disposed between said means and one side of the source of altemating current, separate means interconnecting the target portions of the other row of electrodes, and an independent condenser con- I nected between said last mentioned means and the opposite side ofsaid source of alternating current.
10. An electrical discharge system comprising I in combination with a source of alternating our.-
rent, a multiplicity of rows of discharge elec-' trodes, each of said discharge electrodes having anemitting portion and a target portion with the alternate rows of electrodes having their emitting portions disposed in staggered relation to their target portions and coacting therewith, the altemate' rows of electrodes each being connected through a condenser with opposite sides of the source of alternating current.
11. An electrical discharge system comprising in combination with a source ofv alternating current, a multiplicity of rows of discharge electrodes, each-of said discharge electrodes having an emitting portion and a target portion with the alternate .rows of electrodes having their emitting portions disposed in staggered relation to their target portions and coacting therewith,
the alternate rows of electrodes eachbeing connected through impedance devices with opposite sides of the source of alternating current.
12-. An electrical discharge system comprising in combination with a source of alternating current, a'transformer having aprimary winding and a secondary winding, a multiplicity of rows of discharge electrodes,-each of said electrodes having an emitting portion and acharge collecting portion, connections between the charge collecting portions of alternate rows of said diswith one side of said secondary winding, connections between the collecting por- 7 tions of the intermediate rows of electrodes with the other side of said secondary winding, and condensers disposed in certain selected ones of said connections.
13. An electrical discharge system comprising in combination a source of alternating current, a multiplicity of; rows of discharge electrodes,
- each having an emitting portion and a charge collecting portion with the emitting portions oi the electrodes in one row arranged in staggered relation with respect to the charge collecting portions of the electrodes in an adjacent row,
connections with the respective sides of the source of,alternating current and the charge collecting portions of the alternate rows of 14. An electrical discharge system compris in combination a source of alternating current, .a multiplicity of rows of discharge electrodes,
each having an emitting portion and a charge collecting portion-with the emitting said electrodes, and condensers disposed in certain of said connections.
row, connections with the respective sides of the source of alternating current and the charge 15. In an electrical discharge system, a mul tiplicity of rows of emitting electrodes, a multiplicity of rows of coacting target electrodes, and
control electrodes associated with said emitting electrodes and electrically charged at substantially the potential thereof for directing the discharge from said emitting electrodes, toward said target electrodes all of said electrodes having a stream-lined shape and facing in the same direction so as to utter the minimum obstruction to the flow of fluid with respect to said electrodes. I
16. An electrical discharge system comprising, in combination, a source of alternating current, a multiplicity of electrodes in cascade formation; each of said electrodes having a semi-conductive body portion withcharge collecting means at one edge and charge emitting means at the opposite edge thereof, whereby charges impressed upon said charge collecting means are conducted through said semi-conductive body portion to the charge emitting means; and means for energizing successive electrodes in said cascade 'iormation from diiferent terminals of said alternating current source including means for maintaining an average potential on each electrode such that the sum of the negative charge received at the collecting means plus the positive charge delivered at said emitting means equals the sum of the positive charge received plus the negative charge delivered, through each complete cycle oi the alternating current supplied.
17. An electrical discharge system comprising, in combination, a source of alternating current, a multiplicity of electrodes in cascade formation, each electrode including a charge collecting portion and a charge emitting portion,-
means for connecting successive electrodes in said cascade formation to different terminals of said source of alternating current. and means operative in combination with the aforesaid means for maintaining each electrode at an average potential to equalize the emission in the positive and negative phases of the alternating current applied.
, 18. An electrical discharge system as set forth in claim 17 and including additional electrodes arranged adjacent the aforesaid electrodes in staggered relation thereto in said cascade formation; said additional electrodes having charge collecting portions arranged respectively in advance of the charge collecting portions of the adjacent aforesaid electrodes and constituting primary target means, and charge emitting portions retracted with respect to the charge emitting portions of the corresponding aforesaid electrodes; and means forconnecting said additional electrodes successively to different terminals of said source of alternating current in cor-- respondence with the aforesaid electrodes re spectively adjacent thereto.
19. An electrical a discharge electrode. a combined target and discharge electrode and a target electrode disin cascade cooperative relation. said com- 7 discharge system comprising i minal and the discharge portion thereof; and means for energizing said electrodes by alternating current including a source of alternating current, separate connections from one terminal of said source to said discharge electrode and said target electrode, and a connection from the opposite terminal of said source to said combined target and discharge electrode at the said terminal thereof, and means disposed in at least two of said connections for supplying bias potentials tor equalizing the emission from said discharge electrode and from the discharge portion of said combined target and discharge electrode I charge electrodes and alternate groups of the in the positive and negative phases of the applied alternating current at each electrode.
20. In an electric discharge system, a discharge electrode, a target electrode extending substantially parallel to said discharge electrode, tooth oi said electrodes having body portions of semi-conductive material stream-lined in the trodes.
target electrodes-a group of control electrodes associated with each group of discharge electrodes, and means connected to the source of alternating current for supplying a bias potential on the control electrodes to control emission irom the discharge electrodes to the target elec- WILLARD H. BENNE'I'I.
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