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Publication numberUS2280785 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 28, 1942
Filing dateOct 4, 1938
Priority dateOct 4, 1938
Publication numberUS 2280785 A, US 2280785A, US-A-2280785, US2280785 A, US2280785A
InventorsAlexander Boynton
Original AssigneeAlexander Boynton
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Well testing tool
US 2280785 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1616-250 Fpmj @arch April. 28, 1942. A. BoYNToN` WELL TESTING TOOL 4 sheets-sheet 1 Filed oct. 4, 1958 Fig. 5.

ALEXANDER BOYNTON;

Arron/vers,

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M., ...y @U

April 28, 1942. A. BOYNToN WELL TESTING TOOL Filed Oct. 4, 1938y 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 lApril 2s, 1942.

A. BoYNToN WELL TESTING TO0L Filed Oct. 4, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Apr. 28, 1942 UNITED des ma STATES PATENT OFFICE 18 Claims.

My invention relates primarily to well testing means in which two packers carried by the drill stem or other pipe are lowered, one to the top of, and the other to the bottom of the formation to be tested; the drill stem or other pipe extending below the packers and landing upon bottom of the well. Mechanism is provided to keep the well fluid from entering the drill stem until both of the packers have been expanded against the adjacent formation, so as to prevent downward movement' of well fluid from above the upper packer and also to prevent upward movement of well fluid from below the lower packer. The packers are so expanded by pressure of uid contained Within them; the fluid being driven to expand the packers by a piston provided for each packer, each piston being actuated by the weight of the drill stem above it. The lower packer is expanded before the upper packer is expanded. The same movement that expands the upper packer opens the drill stem below this packer to allow well fluid to enter it. This operation, in effect, pumps the well dry between the packers. Whatever liuid the well now produces into the drill stem in a given time, is a fair test of what the formation between the packers will produce if casing is set and the well completed. Lifting the drill stem oif of -bottom automatically releases the packers and closes the liquid inlet into the drill stem between the packers. The production of the well enters the drill stem while it sets on bottom, and may be recovered, tested, and measured when the drill stem is withdrawn from the well.

No shoulder, or so-called rat hole, is required to set these packers. They may be set anywhere in the Well bore. The packers are spaced at proper distance apart to embrace the formation to be'tested, and the position of the packers is then determined by the length of the anchor string of pipe below them; this length being such as to place the packers, one just above and the other just below the formation to be tested.

These packers are pumped loose from the formation by the pressure of the well liquid when the weight of the drill stem is lifted from the pistons which expand them, thus overcoming the great danger and general difficulty of the old type packers sticking fast, so that they could not be removed from the well when any such use was attempted.

Two latches are employed to hold the device in its fully extended position while shipping, handling, and running the assembly into the well, in order to prevent accidental compression from end thrusts which would otherwise expel some of the flare chamber fluids, which will be later explained. The latches also telegraph to the operator, so to speak, by producing an audible shock and noticeable vibration when each latch springs, if the drill stem or tool encounters heavy mud, cavings, or other obstruction that might endanger withdrawal of the tool, unless the drill stem be rotated or pumped through as it is lowered.

A bit of the usual fish tail type is ordinarily, but not necessarily, attached to the lower end of the anchor string to facilitate mixing the mud, if necessary to do so, while lowering the device into the well.

The drill stem may be pumped through, as well as rotated, while going into or coming out of the well. If pumped through, the drill stem may, of course, be withdrawn from the well to drain it if an absolutely clean production test is desired.

In the preferred form of the invention, both packers are caused to seal off, and the device is opened to intake into the drill stern between the packers, by two slight clockwise turns of the pipe, after the anchor string has landed on bottom; the normal closed position being automatically and instantly resumed when the drill stem is raised off of bottom.

In the preferred form in this invention, a clutch is provided, proximately above the upper packer. This clutch is engaged, so that the entire drill stem will rotate as a unit from tcp to bottom, until the drill stem lands on bottom, the latches spring, and the pipe is twice rotated part of a turn to they right. This slight rotation frees a piston to be forced downward by the weight of the drill stem, which causes the expansion of the lower packer. A settling of the pipe, equal to the piston travel, then takes place, and fluid under the piston is forced by the weight of the pipe into the lower packer, causing it to expand and seal o against the wall of the well. The upper packer is then expanded in the same manner, resulting in a second settling of the drill stem. This second settling frees the clutch. The drill stem from the clutch upward may then be rotated as in drilling, while the packers and all parts below them remain stationary.

When the lower packer expands, a are chamber just below it automatically discharges a liquid of such color as will identify it from the Well liquid. When the upper packer expands, another flare chamber, just above it, automatically discharges a liquid of such color, .but difesta ferent from the other, as will identify it from the well liquid. If both packers effect a complete seal olf against the formation, all of this nare liquid will remain trapped in the well above and below the packers. If either packer allows any leakage of well liquid past it, its flare liquid will be found in the test iiuid recovered.

The device also provides for the employment of means for recording pressures, temperatures, etc., obtaining in the well.

The main object of this invention is to provide a formation testing device for wells, which, incidentally, may be used also for cutting off leaks in the casing or unwanted production anywhere else in the Well, which device has the following advantages:

First: That it may be safely run into, and readily withdrawn from a drilled well for the purpose of isolating any formation or horizon of the well and recovering a measured sample of the wells production from such isolated fol'- mation or horizon above and below which the packers on the device are set, whether the well be cased or uncased; and which device may be also used to discover and locate leaks through the casing.

, Second: That it operates in a straight bore, and does not require that an offset or shoulder be provided by drilling a rat hole of reduced diameter into or through the formation to be tested.

Third: That the pipe upon which the device is run may be rotated from top to bottom, including the device itself, while it is being lowered into, or being withdrawn from the well, and which may be pumped through during any or all such times.

Fourth: That the pipe may be rotated above the device when a production test is being made, while the device and anchor string remain stationary.

Fifth: That it alfords means for advising the operator when mud or cavings, which should be rotated through or pumped out, have been encountered as the device is being lowered into operating position.

Sixth: That, by the action of two pistons, each of which compounds the weight of the drill pipe, the packers may be set with more force than packers which employ the weight of the drill stem, directly applied, to expand them.

Seventh: That, by wholly withdrawing the internal pressure employed to expand the packers, when the pipe is raised, the packers are released and contracted by external pressure of the well fluid upon them.

Eighth: That the pipe may be set down on bottom one or more times with all its weight, at will of the operator, before either of the packers is expanded.

Ninth: That it will show whether any of the uid recovered in the test came from above or below the formation being tested.

Tenth: That pressure and temperature recording instruments, and other instruments, if desired, may be placed in the device for the purpose of ascertaining the pressure and temperature and variations thereof, obtaining during the test, in the formation being tested.

Eleventh: That casing leaks, or other unwanted production anywhere else in a well, may be cemented off by employing the same device as the one used to locate and test the leaks r other production.

Twelfth: That, in addition to being efficient, sturdy, and durable; employing neither gears, shear pins, nor other complicated or fragile parts; it requires no left hand rotation, no left hand threads, or the dropping of weights, bars, godevils, or the like, to operate it; all movements of the device being controlled by built-in features operated by lowering, raising, or clockwise rotating the drill stem.

With the foregoing and other related objects in view, reference is now made to the drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the preferred form of the invention in a well bore, with portions of the device broken out, the expanded position of the packers being shown by dotted lines.

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the upper portion of the device shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of another portion of the device shown in Fig. 1, this portion being a continuation of the portion shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is a longitudinal section of another portion of the device shown in Fig. 1, this portion being a continuation of the portion shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section of the lower portion of the device shown in Fig. 1, this portion being a continuation of the portion shown in Fig. 4 and completing the assembly.

Fig. 6 is a transverse section on the line 6 6, Fig. 1.

Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section on the line 1 7, Figs. 3, 14, and 18.

Fig. 8 is a transverse section on the line 8 8, Fig. 2.

Fig. 9 is a transverse section on the line 9 9, Fig. 2.

Fig. 10 is a transverse section on the line |0 |0, Fig. 2.

Fig. 11 is a transverse section on the line Il l I, Figs. 3, 14, and 18.

Fig. 12 is a transverse section on the line |2 I2, Fig. 4.

Fig. 13 is a longitudinal section of the upper portion of the first modified form of the device illustrated in Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5.

Fig. 14 is a longitudinal section of the continuation of the device shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 is a longitudinal section of the remainder of the device shown in Figs. 13 and 14.

Fig. 16 is a transverse section on the line |6 |6, Fig. 13.

Fig. 17 is a longitudinal section of the upper portion of another modied form of the invention.

Fig. 18 is a longitudinal section of a continuation of the device shown in Fig. 17.

Fig. 19 is a longitudinal section of the remainder of the device shown in Figs. 17 and 18.

Fig. 20 is mainly an outside view of the shield in Figs. 13, 14, 17, and 18.

Fig. 21 is a perspective view of the upper base in Figs. 2 and 4.

Fig. 22 is a perspective view of the lower base, in Figs. 2 and 4.

The section 6a-6a, in Figs. 4, 17 and 18, is, in form, like section 6 6, Fig. 2, but is distinguished therefrom for the reason that some of the crosssectioned parts in section 6a Ea bear different reference numerals from the corresponding parts shown in section 6 6, due to the fact that these parts are somewhat different from each other above or below the place where the sections are taken. For the same reason, section 9a 9a, Fig.

4, is similarly distinguished from the section 9-9, Fig. 2.

The same reference characters are employed to refer to the same or duplicate parts throughout the several views.

In Fig. 1, the preferred form of the invention is shown inserted in a well bore with a bit I resting on bottom of the well at b; the packers 2 embracing the formation to be tested c. The expanded position of the packers is shown by dotted lines 2a. The drill stem 3, upon which the device may be lowered into the well, is shown connected to the device by coupling 4.

In the preferred form of the invention, illustrated in Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5, the device consists of two units. The upper unit extends from the upper end of Fig. 2 to the piston-coupling 40, in Fig. 3. The lower unit, Figs. 4 and 5, extends from, and including, the piston-coupling 40 to the bottom of the device. The device may be formed of the several parts joined together as appears in said figures; wherein the outer shell of the upper unit of the device is formed by the following elements, latch chamber cap I1, having internal circular recess I1a and pressure ports I1b; sleeve I9, having internal circular recess I9a; the latch housing nipple 29; nipple 2I, having internal shoulder 2 Ia; externally upset nipple 22; connection member 23, having packer and shield 23a, grooves 23h, and weld 23C; packer nipple 24, having grooves 24a and pressure ports 24h; sleeve nipple 25, having grooves 25a; inlet nipple 26, having inlet ports 26a; coupling 21; instrument housing nipple 28; and coupling 29.

The outer shell of the lower unit of the device may be formed by the following elements, a latch chamber cap 12, having pressure ports 12a and annular packing groove 12b; latch housing sleeve 13, having internal circular recess I9a; nipple 82; coupling nipple 2|, having internal shoulder 2Ia;.pston cylinder nipple 14; connection member 23, having packer end shield 23a, grooves 23h, and weld 23o; packer nipple 24, having grooves 24a; swaged coupling 16; return spring housing nipple 11, having discharge ports 11a; swaged nipple 18; coupling 19; and bit I, having passages Ia.

The inner string of the upper unit of the device is formed by the following elements, a swaged piston nipple nipple 6, having wrench slots 6a; clutch shell 1, having shoulder 1a, turned off portion 1b, slots 1c, ribs 1d, and 1k, upper pockets 1e, sloping surfaces 1f, lower pockets 1g, and downwardly inclined surfaces 1h; nipple 8, having external flange 8a; bearing housing nipple I8, having internal circular shoulder IIJa; thrust roller bearing support 9; intake valve nipple II, having intake ports IIa; piston I2, having valve seat I2a and grooves I2b; and cage I3, having slots I3a.

The inner string of the lower unit of the device is formed by the following elements, pistoncoupling 40; clutch shell 1A, having unslotted portion 1Ab forming the upper termini 1Aa of slots 1Ac, and ribs 1Ad; piston carrier nipple 83; spring rider coupling 84; and lower end nipple 85, having lower portion of reduced external diameter 85a.

It will be noted that the outer shell of the upper unit of the device continues downward to become the inner string of the lower unit of the device, the piston-coupling 40 being employed to join the two units. It will also be noted that the outer shell of the upper unit of the device and the outer shell of the lower unit of the device are not joined together, both shells being independently mounted upon their respective inner strings. Each outer shell is adapted to have limited telescopic movement upon its inner string.

Both packers 2, which may be of rubber or any other tough and durable expansible substance, may be formed exactly alike, each having moulded within it the steel rings 2b proximate to the tapered ends 2c. Each packer has slight clearance between it and the nipple 24. The tapered packer ends 2c are received within shields 23a and 58, respectively; the shield 23a being stationary and the shield 58 being threadedly movable upon sleeve nipple 25. The lock ring 60 secures the movable shield 58 in proper position to snugly engage the packer. The packing 59 prevents any escape of fluid under pressure from between the packer and nipple 24. The grooves 23h and 58a cause the packer ends 2c to become imbedded within them when great pressure is applied interior of the packer; thus providing that the tapered ends will not be blown out of their respective shields 23a and 58 when the packer is expanded by great internal pressure. Steel rings 2b cause the principal packer expansion to tak-e place between them; and they further aid in causing the tapered ends 2c to resist internal pressure tending to force them out of their shields when the packer is expanded by fluid force applied through the openings 24h. The grooves 24a provide that the interior surface of the packers will be imbedded within them by external pressure of well liquid upon the packers as they are being lowered into the well, no internal pressure being then exerted upon them.

These grooves serve, at such times, to prevent the packers from being distorted if they should encounter heavy mud or other obstacles while being lowered into the well. The welds 23o, Figs. 3 and 4, provide that the threaded joinder between connection member 23 and packer nipple 24 is made permanent, this feature being merely a convenience for assembling the device and taking it apart. Other features pertaining to the packers and the pistons employed to expand them will be discussed later.

In Fig. 2, the cup carrier sleeve 49 is threadedly engaged upon intake valve nipple II. In Fig. 4, the similar part 49 is similarly engaged upon piston carrier nipple 813. Upon each of the members 49, cups 50 are assembled by means of two end spacers 5I, each having annular grooves 52a, and middle spacer 52, also having grooves 52a, the clamp 54 engaging upon washers 53 to secure each piston assembly, which will be hereinafter identified by the reference numerals 49-54. Below these pistons, which have a close movable fit within their mating cylinders, annular chambers e and e', respectively, are filled with a fluid such as paint, glycerine, or heavy oil through the openings closed by plugs 51. The ring shaped cups 6I received within circular recesses interior of the sleeve nipples 25 and 15 have a close t around the nipples II and 83, each of which nipples has a close sliding t within the central opening through sleeve nipples 25 and 15, respectively, in order to confine the fluid in chambers e and e so that the pistons 49-54 will force this uid out through openings 24h and expand thepackers 2 when said pistons are forced downward.

In discussing all embodiments of the device, the drill stem or other pipe upon which it is run into the well will be considered to include all tubular members constituting the inner string of both upper and lower units of the device.

An expansion control means for the lower packer is shown in Fig. 4 by the shell 'IA and associated parts in which the coupling nipple 2| has the upper ball socket base 3'I pressed into it and held against independent rotation by the utes 3io imbedded within the inner wall of coupling 2|A. The lower ball socket base 38 ha: a loose removable t within this coupling. Both members 3'I and 38 are locked between the circular internal shoulder 2 IAa and the upper upset end of piston cylinder nipple 14. The ball sockets 3'Ib and 38h, Figs. 21 and 22, receive each of the balls 39 to one-half of its diameter, and since the base 3'I is held against rotation within the coupling 2IA by flutes 3'Ic, it is apparent that the balls, bases, and coupling are immovable with respect to each other, except that the balls may rotate in their respective sockets into which they are held by the shell IA which receives the balls to one-half of their diameter within the slots 'IAc. These slots, formed by the ribs '1nd, are of irregular shape, having a constant depth. The shell 'IA is, therefore, rotatably and longitudinally movable within coupling ZIA and nipple 82, such movements being limited within slots IAC. The balls normally engage within the lower pockets 1g. The downwardly inclined surfaces 'Ih' may slope at an angle of l0 degrees to the horizontal, or one-half the angle of the slope of the similar surfaces 1h, Fig. 2, in the construction employed for the combination clutch and packer expansion control means in the upper unit of the device, as will be later explained.

The combination clutch and packer expansion control means for the upper packer is shown in Fig. 2, the same being the clutch sh-ell 'I and associated parts, in which upper ball socket base 3'I, having flutes 3'Ic imbedded within coupling 2|A, and lower ball socket base 38 are assembled within the coupling nipple 2|, as was explained for the packer expansion control means for the lower packer, these members being locked between the shoulder Zia and the upper end of nipple 22.

Each of the balls 39, received to one half of its diameter within the sockets 31h-38h, extends the other half of its diameter into its mating slot 'Ic. The slots 1c, open at their upper ends, are of irregular shape formed by the irregular ribs 'Id and 1k. The portion of reduced external diameter 'Ib above the slots and ribs provides that the balls are free of all contact with the shell 'I, while the annular space 'Iy' is opposite them, except that they may not emerge from their sockets. The shoulder 1a, having slight clearance within the nipple 29, and adapted to impinge upon the balls, limits the downward movement of shell 'I, and the walls of slots 'Ic limit all other movements of the shell until it is lowered far enough to place the ribs 'Id and 'Ik below the balls. The shell 'I is then free to be rotated. The balls in this construction are also normally engaged within the lower pockets Tg. It will be noted that each of the ribs is wedge shaped at its upper end and that one rib 'Ik is longer than the others which are of equal length. The downwardly inclined surfaces 'Ih may slope at an angle of 2O degrees to the horizontal, or doubl-e the angle of the slope of the similar surfaces 'Ih' in the similar construction described for the lower packer.

The latch for the upper and lower units of the device may be exactly alike, and are shown to be so. In Fig. 2, the latch spring support 34, having circulation holes 3M for a lubricant, in the upper unit of the device, is threadedly engaged upon nipple 6. In Fig. 4, the spring support 34, in the lower unit of the device, is threadedly engaged over the upper end of shell 1A. The compression of latch spring 33 may be adjusted by screwing the member 34 upward or downward as is obvious. The circular ball fioor ring 32 transmits the force of spring 33 to latch balls 3|, which normally engage within the circular recess I'Ia- The latch balls, preferably of hardened steel, may be 7A6 diameter. The depth of the recess I'Ia-ISa should be slightly less than one-half the diameter of the balls, in order that they may not become locked upon the lower side I9a of the recess, which locking would, of course, render the latch inoperative. The upper end of circular ring 32 has two slopes. The steeper outer slope 32a is the latching angle which, together with the force imparted by spring 33, determines the force by which the latch balls are engaged within the recess Ila-|911. The less steep inner slope 32D is the surface upon which the latch balls engage when the balls have been forced out of their recess I'Ia-Illa. The ring 30, preferably of hardened steel, and which may be pressed upon its mating member, forces the latch balls out of their recess when sulcient force is applied by the drill stem. The balls ride downward between the members 3i) and 32 when the latch springs, at which time they are urged outwardly by the sloping surface 32h with only enough force to positively cause them to reenter the slot Ila-|911 when the latch returns. The vertical travel of the latch balls in either unit of the device is equal to the travel of the piston which causes the packer expansion in that unit. The inner surfaces of the sleeve I9 and nipple 20, upon which the latch balls travel when the latch is sprung in the upper unit, and the inner surfaces of sleeve 'I3 and nipple 82, upon which the latch balls travel when the latch springs in the lower unit, should, of course, be smooth.

Assuming the latch balls to be engaged within the recess IIa-|911, to the maximum depth oi slightly less than one-half the diameter of the balls, the latch of the upper unit can be adjusted to be sprung by less force by screwing the nipple 2|] upward; and the latch of the lower unit can be similarly adjusted by screwing the nipple 82 upward.

In making such adjustments, balls 39 engaging in pockets 'Ig provide that the latch balls 3| wlil be forced downwardly by ring 30, as is apparent. Lock ring 4| serves to secure the adjustment of each latch.

The annular space g, Fig. 2, may be lled through the openings shown closed by the plugs 55 and 56. This chamber extends downward from the lower end of nipple 5 to the upper unit piston 49-54, there being suicient clearance for circulation of the lubricant between the nipples I0 and 22. Circulation slots 37a and 38a, in the upper and lower bases 3l and 38, Figs. 21 and 22, respectively, and circulation holes 34a, make further provision for circulation of the lubricant in the chamber g, in order that the latch return spring 35 and the clutch may operate in an oil bath. This lubricant also provides that the upper piston 49-54, upon its return movement, will travel upon a lubricated surface within the nipple 22.

The annular space g', Fig. 4, of the lower unit of the device, extends from the piston-coupling 46 downward to the lower piston 49-54. This chamber may be lled with a lubricant through the opening shown closed by plug 81. Circulation slots 31a and 38a, Figs. 21 and 22, the slots 1Aa, and the clearance shown between upper unslotted portion of shell 1A and nipple 82, provide that the lubricant may reach all parts of this chamber. The close movable flt between pistoncoupling 40 and latch chamber cap 12 prevents well uid from entering this chamber. Annular recess 12b may be filled with packing as shown. The passages 12a, communicating between the well fluid and the packing, allow the well fluid to hold the packing against the piston-coupling member 4D for the obvious purpose of further securing the chamber y against intrusion of well liquid.

Both latches are kept normally engaged by the expansive force of the coiled springs 35 and 9|.

The spring 35, Fig. 2, `supported by its base 36, secured within nipple 20 by welds 36a, engages under latch spring 4support 34. The spring 9|, Fig. 5, resting upon washer 92 and engaging under coupling 84, is supported by base 80 secured within nipple 1.1 by welds 80a. The spring arrester ring 86, threaded upon the nipple 85 and the washer 92, serve no other purpose than that they add to convenience in assembling and removing the return spring 9 I, installed around the upper end of nipple 85. The washer 92, which has a loose movable fit within the nipple 11, should have such inside diameter as will not permit it to pass over the ring 86. The central opening through base 80 should be of such diameter as will permit it to pass freely over ring 86. The spring 9|, like the spring 35, should, ordinarly, be assembled under two hundred pounds or more compression.

Care must be taken that both of these springs are of such length that they will compress far enough to allow the pistons 49-54 to take their full travel. Each spring may be nine feet, full length, compressed to seven feet installed. In taking the lower unit of the device apart, when the nipple 11 is unserewed from coupling 16, spring expands until washer 92 lands upon spring arrester ring 86, which holds this spring upon nipple 85 until ring 86 is removed. Nipple 85 and coupling 84 are secured together by weld 84a, also for convenience in assembling the device and taking it apart.

Within the upper unit of the device, the nipple II, proximate its lower end, has a valve fitted within its sleeve 25, as stated. The circular ring shaped ycups 6I, aided by grooves 25a, which grooves' may be filled with packing or used to accumulate mud rings when the valve parts wear, provide that the piston 49-54 of the upper unit will have the liquid in annular chamber e securely confined to expand the packer 2 of the unit when the drill stem forces the pistons downward, as will be explained.

The intake ports I Ia, normally sheathed within the sleeve nipple 25, become unsheathed when nipple II is forced downward. The fluid produced by the well formation under test then enters the drill stem through the intake ports IIa via ports 26a and annular space f. The distance between the ports I Ia and the lower end of nipple 25 should be such that the upper packer will not seal off against the well bore before these ports uncover. Manifestly, in determining this distance, the clearance between the packer andv the well bore and the effective area of the upper pis- Search dass@ ton 49-54 must be taken into proper account. If the distance between the intake ports and the lower end of nipple 25 be ve to seven inches, these ports will always uncover before the packer Will seal off, provided proper clearance Vis allowed between the packer and the well bore.

It will be noted that the piston carrier nipple 83, Fig. 5, in the lower unit of the device, has no intake ports, the purpose of this nipple being to provide passage through it for circulation fluid if it should become necessary to pump through it to clear the well of mud or other obstructions while the device is being lowered into or withdrawn from the well. The ring shaped U cups 6|, similar to the cups 50, and which may be of leather, fabric, or the like, and grooves 25a, which may be filled with packing or other substance, are employed in the lower unit to securely conne the liquid in annular chamber e for expanding the lower packer when the lower piston 49--54 is forced downward by the drill stem, as will be explained.

Two flare chambers are provided, one for each unit of the device. The lower flare chamber discharges a flare or tell tale fluid below the lower packer when the lower packer is being expanded. The upper flare chamber discharges its flare fluid above the upper packer when the upper packer is being expanded.

The color of each flare fluid should be different from each other and each should be different from the color of the well fluid. If then, when the device is set for a test, either packer, due to some abnormal well condition, should fail to effect a complete seal-off against the wall of the well bore, flare fluid will be found in the drill stern, and the packer which failed to make such seal off will be identified by the color of flare fluid found in the drill stem. If, as will seldom happen, both packers should fail to make such complete seal-of, both flare fluids will, of course, be found in the drill stem. The device may thus be relied upon to tell the whole truth about the test.

The upper flare chamber d is formed between the piston-nipple 5 and the flare chamber sleeve I4, the latter being threaded upon the piston member 5, and locked there by ring I5, which ring also has threaded engagement over the member 5. Sleeve I4 has a close leakproof sliding flt over cap I1, similar to the fit which the members 5 and I1 have between them. Tell tale fluid may be placed in the chamber d through the openings I4a, which may then be yieldably closed by rubber band I6. When the drill stem moves downward after the fish tail, mounted 0n the outer shell, lands on bottom the sleeve I4 telescopes over cap I 1. Flare fluid is then forced out of the chamber d through passages |40l and past the rubber ring I6, as is apparent. On the return of the drill stem, the rubber ring I6 collapses to allow well fluid to enter the chamber d, thus preventing a vacuum from being then formed in this chamber. The opening |11)` communicates between the chamber d and packing I8; thus providing that pressure of well liquid transmitting through or past the rubber ring I6 will compress the packing I8 against the piston member 5.

The lower flare chamber d within the nipple 11 has, for its lower end, the sleeve 8|, having its enlarged upper end secured between the ends of nipples 11 and 18, as appears in Fig. 5. The internal annular grooves 8Ia may be lled with packing or heavy graphite grease, or may be left open to entrap foreign particles which will form rings therein when wear develops between this member and its mating part 85a. The latter part has a close sliding fit within the sleeve 8|. Flare 4chamber piston 90, having grooves 90a corresponding in use and purpose to the grooves 81a, has a close sliding t within the nipple 1l. The coiled spring 93, always installed under some compression, normally urges the piston 90 upward against the stop ring 89, which ring is pressed into and secured within the nipple 'Il by welds 89a. The are chamber d is filled with a flare fluid diierent in color from the well liquid, as before stated. In the downward movement of the drill stem, which causes the packers to expand, as explained, the ring 8B, adapted to pass freely through ring 89, engages the piston 90. Flare uid is forced out through passages 11a, and past rubber band 88 as the piston 90 is forced downward.

It will be noted that there is normally a certain space between ring 86 and piston 90. This space, as is apparent, provides that the flare chamber piston 90 will have a somewhat shorter travel than the drill stem movement which actuates it. This is so as to avoid discharging an excessive amount of flare fluid. The upper flare chamber discharges during the entire drill stem movement, because the capacity of the chamber d is appreciably smaller than the chamber d.

When the drill stem is raised after the flare fluid has been forced out of chamber d', the spring 93 causes the piston 90 to return to its normal engagement under ring 89. The rubber band 88, not only expands to release the flare fluid as piston 90 moves downward, but also collapses to permit the entrance of well liquid into chamber d during the return movement of the piston.

If well liquid were not so admitted, the piston might not return, on account of the vacuum it would have to pull under it. It will be noted that the same downward movement of the drill stem which actuates the packer pistons also actuates both are chamber pistons.

The external diameters of each of the piston members and 110 and 49-54 being the same, there will be, during their downward stroke, no impingement upon the lubricant in the chambers g and g', as there would be if the members 5 and 40 were of greater diameter than the members 49-54. For the same reason, during their upward movement, there will be no tendency of the piston members 5 and 40 to pull a vacuum under them, as there would be if they were larger than the lower pistons 49-54.

The instrument case, or gadget box 68, Fig. 3, is secured within the nipple 28 by welds 28a, through which passages 28h communicate between the interior of thecase 68 and the well fluid exterior of nipple 28. Within this case, suitable instruments may be placed for the purpose of recording pressures and temperatures and changes therein while the device is being lowered into the well, while the test is on, and while the device is being withdrawn from the well. Such instruments being provided, many of which are available, the operator sees that his watch and the timing mechanism of the instruments agree. He keeps a record of the time when running the device in, when it is intaking, and when withdrawn. The operator then checks his instrument charts with his time record. This check should reveal the place in the well where all recording instrument data was made. The instruments may be placed into, or removed from, the case by means of the lid 61 and nuts 1U, engaging upon studs 1|, which are secured within the case 28 by welds lla. The gasket B9 aids in tightly closing the instrument box against all outside communication except through passages 28h.

Pumping through and rotating the drill stem, either or both, is sometimes made necessary by by the presence of mud or cavings in the well. The drill stem, at any and all times, may be pumped through, as well as rotated, whether the device is being lowered into the well or being withdrawn from it.

The check valve 62, Fig. 3, normally engages upon its seat |20l by the expansive force of spring 64, which engages under the valve support 63, upon which valve 62 rests. Valve cage I3, having threaded engagement upon piston I2, houses the aforementioned valve, spring, and valve support. The spring is adjustable by means of stud 66 acting upon the washer 65, as is apparent.

The drill stem should be empty when being run into the well for a formation test. Check valve 62 prevents well iluid from entering the drill stem through its lower end member I2. The pressure of well fluid aids spring 64 in urging the valve 62 upon its seat. This valve, being yieldable to pressure from above, will be forced oif of its seat 12a if fluid be pumped into the drill stem under enough pressure to overcome the sealing force. The fluid so pumped into the drill stem forces valve 62 and its support member 63 downward until the support uncovers slots 13a, at which time the valve is so far removed from its seat that neither valve nor seat will be damaged by abrasive substances usually present in drilling mud; this being the uid that will ordinarily be pumped through the drill stem, should such pumping become necessary. After passing through the slots I3a, the path of pump fluid will be through openings h by the gadget box, and thence through shell 1A, nipples 83 and 85, and out through passages la of the bit. The piston I2, having a close sliding fit within the nipple 26, prevents any of the pump fluid from taking the upward path through ports 26a.

If -the drill stem should be pumped through, the uid in it may be removed before an accurate formation test can be made. This pump fluid may be swabbed or bailed out, or clear water may be pumped into the drill stem, and then bailed or swabbed out, but ordinarily the drill stem will be drained by withdrawing it from the well.

The bit may be rotated at any time before it is landed with sufficient force to spring the upper latch, because, until then, the balls 39 of the upper unit, Fig. 2, are engaged within the pockets 'lg of the clutch shell 1; thus compelling the outer shell of the upper unit to rotate with the drill stem. The outer shell of the upper unit continues to form the inner string of the lower unit, as has been explained. The inner string of the lower unit is never rotatably disengaged from the outer shell of the lower unit, because the balls 39 of the lower unit never pass out of the slots 'lAc of the shell 1A; hence the force that rotates the outer shell of the upper unit must also rotate the outer shell of the lower unit, upon the lower end of which the bit is attached.

Discussing the operation of the preferred em,- bodiment of this invention, shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, it will be assumed that the device is being lowered into the well bore. When the bit lands on bottom, the weight of the drill stem will spring one latch, and then spring the other latch, it being immaterial which latch springs balls will again engage within the upper pockets 1e. This landing and raising operation may be repeated as often as necessary to be sure that the bit in fact has landed on true bottom, instead of upon cavings or upon a bridge. The bit being landed on bottom to the satisfaction of the operator, the drill stem is then rotated clockwise part of a turn. At the same time, the downwardly inclined surfaces 1h', Fig. 4, being less steep than the similar surface Ih of the upper unit, will glide over the balls 39 until slots 'lAc are in perpendicular alignment with the balls. The drill stem then settles until its downward movement is arrested by the impingement of lower piston 49--54 upon the fluid in chamber e'. This fluid, forced out through openings 24h, has then expanded the lower packer 2 into engagement with the wall of the well bore.

To similarly expand the upper packer, the drill stem is again rotated clockwise part of a turn, gliding the downwardly inclined surfaces 1h upon the balls 39 until the slots 1c are in perpendicular alignment with the balls. The drill stem then again settles, expanding the upper packer in the same manner as was explained for expansion of the lower packer. The full effective weight of the drill stem is then employed to hold both packers expanded. When the second (upper) packer expands, the downward movement of nipple Il places the intake ports Ha in the annular space f, at which time well fluid between the expanded packers enters the drill stem via the intake ports I la, and inlet ports 26a. The test is then on. Piston I2 and check valve 62, at the same time, prevent uid from below the lower packer from entering nipple Il.

It will be noted that there is no vertical movement of either packer after it has reached the place where it is to be expanded. When the bit lands on bottom, the outer shell of the lower device remains stationary while the inner string moves to cause expansion of the lower packer. During this movement, the upper packer settles with the drill stem, but at that time, the upper packer has not yet been expanded. Before the upper packer is expanded, the inner string of the lower unit of the device has been stopped from further settling by impingement of the lower piston 49-54 upon the fluid in chamber e. Here it should be borne in mind that the inner string of the lower unit of the device continues upward to form the outer shell of the upper unit, as has been explained. The upper packer, therefore, has completed its downward movement before it is expanded. The fact that no movement takes place against the adjacent wall as either packer is being expanded, or after it has been expanded, makes it evident that the wear on this type of packer will be slight.

The lower packer will be the first to be expanded, because the inclined surfaces 1h of the lower shell 1A, Fig. 4, is steeper than the corresponding surfaces 1h of the upper shell 1, Fig. 2,

Search as has been stated. If the upper inclined surfaces 1h, are each at twenty degrees to the horizontal and the lower inclined surfaces 1h are each at ten degrees to the horizontal, it is apparent that the clockwise turning force of the drill stem which causes the slots lAc, Fig. 4, and the slots 1c, Fig. 2, to become aligned with the balls 39, will act to produce such alignment in the lower unit first; and that approximately twice the rotary force that will cause such alignment of the slots and balls of the lower unit must be applied before a similar alignment will take place in the upper unit.

The test may extend for any period of time; ten to forty minutes usually being ample.

As soon as the upper packer is expanded, the drill stem may be rotated, as in drilling; the rotation taking place upon thrust bearing 46-41-48. The gland 44, urged downward upon packing 45 by spring 43, prevents the bearing from leaking. The ring 42, having threaded engagement over nipple 8, serves to hold the spring under adjustable compression.

At conclusion of the test, the drill stem is withdrawn from the well. As soon as the bit is raised from bottom of the well, the latches reengage, and all parts resume their normal positions shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5. The return springs 35 and 9|, aided by the weight of the independently movable outer shells, accomplish the return of all parts to their normal positions.

The shell 1, coacting with the balls 39, forms a clutch which becomes disengaged as soon as the upper packer is expanded. This expansion results in shell 'I being rotatably free of the balls. The shell may then be rotated with the drill stem, because, as previously explained, the annular space 11' is then opposite the balls.

When all parts are being returned to their normal positions after the bit has been raised off of bottom of the well, the ribs 1d, of the clutch, Fig. 2, will not, through any slight inaccuracy of construction, impinge upon the balls 39, because one of the ribs 'Ik is somewhat longer than the other ribs, as appears. The sharpened, wedge-like upper end of this longer rib llc acts as a pilot to guide all ribs between the balls. Continuing in their return movement, when the sloping surfaces 'lf engage the balls, the latter are thereby guided into their pockets lg.

The basic elements of the device are two expansible packers operated by two pistons, with means for intaking well fluid into the drill stem when the packers are expanded; and means of shutting off such admission when the drill stem is raised from bottom of the well. If any, or all, of the other mechanism be omitted from the construction, the device nevertheless will still function as a well testing means. The other features of construction, as explained, however, will cause the device to function more efficiently than if they be omitted.

It is evident that the effective area of the pistons used to expand the packers, the maximum travel provided for these pistons, the diameter of the packers, thickness of the packer walls, length of the packers, and the clearance between the packers and the wall of the well bore, are all factors to be considered in designing the packer and piston assemblies for different diameters of well bores. For many wells, as now drilled, the pistons may ordinarily have an effective area of eight to sixteen square inches and a maximum travel of fourteen to thirty inches. The packer Walls should preferably be somewhat thicker than the clearance between the packers and the wall of the well bore. If, for example, the latter clearance be one inch, the packer wall should not be less than one and one-half to two and onehalf inches thick and, of course, may be thicker, if diameters will permit. Ordinarily, no difficulty will be experienced in running the device into a well if the diameter of the well bore be one inch to one and one-half inches greater than the diameter of the packers. For use in a 9%" diameter well bore, for example, the distance between the steel rings 2b may be ten to eighteen inches, and the tapered ends 2c may be each six to eight inches long.

Obviously the device may be used to discover and measure leaks in well casing, as well as to test the uncased formation.

The device may also be used to force liquid cement through openings in casing and/or into uncased formations by merely setting and expanding the packers as explained; and then pumping the cement into the drill pipe. However, before making such use of the device, the piston I2, Fig. 3, must be replaced with a plug to close the lower end of nipple Figs. 13, 14, and 15, illustrate the first modified form of the invention, composed of upper and lower units joined together by the swaged nipple H0, the outer shell of the upper unit extending downward to form the inner string of Y the lower unit, as in the preferred form of the invention, shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5.

Parts and portions of parts which bear the same reference characters in all forms of the invention will be understood to correspond in use and purpose.

The outer shell of the upper unit, Fig. 13, consists of upper flare chamber nipple 94, combination coupling 95, packer nipple 9T, sleeve nipple A, nipple IOI, coupling |02, nipple |01, coupling |09, and swaged nipple I l0.

The outer shell of the lower unit of the device, Figs. 14 and 15, consists of sleeve nipple I I I, combination nipple ||2, packer nipple |I4, piston landing nipple II5, internally upset nipple IIB, coupling I I'I, lower are chamber nipple I I9, coupling |22, threadedly engaged upon swaged nipple |23, and welded thereto at |22a; coupling |25, nipple |26, coupling '|9, and bit I.

The inner string of the upper unit of the device consists of coupling-piston |21, nipple |28, combination nipple |29, and nipple |30.

The inner string of the lower unit of the device consists of piston-coupling |3I, nipple |32, threadedly joined to the above coupling and locked by ring |33, having wrench slots I33a, piston-coupling |34, and nipple |35.

The lower end of member I3I has a piston t within the nipple |I|. This flt is made leakproof by packing |05, which is held against member |3| by pressure of well fluid which contacts this packing through openings l Ia.

The upper packer 2, having a loose fit over nipple 91, has its upper tapered end 2c received within the shield 98 secured upon nipple 91 by weld 98a. The lower tapered end of the packer is received within the shield member 99, having circular recess 99a communicating with passages 99h. Two oppositely disposed openings closed by plugs |00 within bosses 99e (see Fig. 20) provide that the annular spaces e and e may be filled with a fiuid, which uid will then be prevented from escaping by said plugs. The locking ring 60, packing 59, openings 24h, grooves 23h, 24a, and 58a, serve the same purpose for both packers employed in this modified form of the invention as they served in the preferred form. Likewise, both packers are the same throughout, as shown in the preferred form.

The lower packer, also referred to by the numeral 2, installed with a loose fit over nipple ||4, is identical in construction and means for securing it in the position shown as the packer described for the upper unit. It is apparent that the annular space e may be filled with a fluid via passages 99h, circular recess 99a, and openings shown closed by plugs |00, as was stated for the packer of the upper unit.

It will be understood that both packers are employed to isolate the formation being tested from all other formations above and below them, as was explained for the preferred form of the invention.

The piston which causes expansion of the upper packer has its base |4I pressed over and Welded upon nipple |28 by welds I4Ia and I 4Ib'.

The upper and lower cups 50, spaced apart by rings |43, are assembled with central cup spacer |42, having peripheral grooves |4211; the cups and spacers being secured in the position shown by piston assembly clamp 54. The grooves |4|c and I42a may be filled with packing or used to entrap foreign substances. This piston I4I--54 has a close sliding fit within its mating member 91.

The landing shoe |44, Fig. 13, will engage upon the upper end of sleeve nipple 25A before the cups reach the ports 24h, for the reason that the cups would be damaged in passing these ports if, in operation, the packer should expand far enough to permit such piston travel. The small clearance e between weld I4 Ia and the member 95 is provided in order that valve I29a, formed exterior of the member |29, will safely engage its seat upon lower end of sleeve nipple 25A, as shown.

The piston coupling |34, Fig. 14, having threaded engagement between nipples |32 and |35, has mounted upon it cups 50, spacer rings |43, central cup spacer |42, and piston assembly clamp 54, forming the piston which expands the lower packer. The grooves |34a and |4211l of this piston may be filled, as stated in connection with the upper piston, with packing or allowed to entrap foreign substances. This piston |34-54 has a close sliding fit within its mating member I4. If this piston should travel its full stroke before the lower packer is expanded, the lower end of piston member |34, which extends downward below `clamp ring 54, will land upon the upper extension I I5a, ybefore the cups would reach and be damaged by contacting the openings 24h.

A ring shaped disc or fracture plate |03, Fig. 13, for the upper unit of this modification, engages upon the circular shoulder |30a of the nipple |30. The expansive force of spring |39 normally determines the force of this engagement, which force, for example, may be two hundred pounds.

This fracture plate, preferably of cast iron or some other fragile metal, may have threaded engagement within the nipple IOI and may be locked in place by the clamp ring |04, also having threaded engagement within the nipple |0I. Another similar disc or fracture plate I I8, Fig. 15, engages under the circular shoulder |35a of nipple |35. This disc may have threaded engagement within the nipple IIS, and may be locked in place, as shown, by lock ring II8a. The force with which the nipple |35 normally engages this disc is determined by the expansive force of spring |45, Fig. 14. This force, for example, may be likewise two hundred pounds. The chamber lc', occupied by spring |45, may be lled with a lubricant through the opening closed by plug II3. No breather holes are necessary for this chamber because piston members |3I and |34 are of the same diameter and move in unison.

It will be noted that the sleeve member |06, Fig. 13, secured within the nipple by welds I06a, has 4a close movable t over the nipple |30, and that the sleeve member |08 secured in place by welds |08a also has a close movable t over the nipple |30. These two sleeves serve to confine between them, and within nipples |0| and |01, the broken fragments of the upper fracture plate |03. The breather holes |01a provide for the slight inequality of displacement in the annular -chamber between the lower end of member |06 and the upper end of member |08 caused by the nipple |30 in its movements after breaking plate 03. The sleeve member |20 secured in place by welds I20a has a close movable fit over the nipple |35. This sleeve member, .and that portion of nipple I|9 above it, serves as a receptacle for the broken fragments of lower fracture plate IIB, which fragments, if not so confined, would lodge upon the piston |36 and upon the up stroke of the piston, would score its cylinder wall within nipple I I9.

Each broken fracture plate may be removed and replaced with a new one in an obvious manner. The welds I02a, Fig. 13, and II1a, Fig. 15, provide that the couplings |02 and II1, respectively, will unscrew from their upper connections for convenience in replacing the fracture plates.

The upper fracture plate |03 should be somewhat thicker than the lower plate Il, so that the lower plate Will break first when the bit lands on bottom of the well, thereby permitting the lower piston I34-54 to expand the lower packer. The breather passages II9a provide for the slight inequality of displacement in the annular chamber between the lower end of nipple II and the upper end of member |20, caused by nipple |35 in its movements after breaking plate H8. As the drill stem is lowered still further, the upper plate will be broken, thereby permitting the upper piston |4I-54 to expand the upper packer. The lower disc may be of such strength that it will be broken by, say, one-half the weight of the drill stem; and the upper disc may be of such strength that it will be broken by two-thirds or three-fourths the weight of the drill stern. It is important, however, that the weaker disc be strong enough to overcome whatever resistance from well fluid or mud may be encountered in lowering the device to bottom of the well.

Well fluid from the formation being tested enters the drill stem through intake ports I Ia, Fig. 13, when the upper packer is expanded, at which time these ports are down in the annular space f, into which well uid enters through inlet ports lta. When the drill stem is raised at conclusion of the test, the force of spring |39, aided by the weight of the independently movable parts, causes the intake ports Ia to resume their sheathed position, as shown.

When these ports are open, well fluid cannot enter the drill stem from below on account of check valve |46, which is normally urged to the closed position upon its seat under opening |4812 by spring |41, compressed between the arms |46a of the valve support |4617 and the bottom of cage |48, having lower opening |48a. This cage is secured within nipple IIO by weld |48c. The well uid aids spring I 41 to hold valve |46 securely closed while the device is in the well. It will be noted, however, that this valve does not prevent the drill stem from being pumped through, because it is yieldable to pressure from above.

The upper are chamber k within nipple 94, Fig. 13, extends from the lower end of couplingpiston |21 to the upper end of piston base |4I; The packing |31, contacting member |21, is held tightly against it by pressure of well fluid entering through openings 94a. 'I'he openings 95a provide that the flare chamber fluid, which is not expelled on the downward movement of member |21, may follow the piston |4I-54 on its downward stroke. The piston members |21 being of larger diameter than the next lower piston I4I-54, and both pistons having a close sliding fit within their mating cylinder members, it is evident that some of the flare chamber fluid will be forced out through openings 94h and past the rubber band |2| when these pistons travel downward. On the up stroke of these pistons, some well liquid, equal to that expelled on the down stroke, will be drawn into the flare chamber through or past the rubber band I2I. This Well liquid may be drained out of the are chamber through the opening closed by plugs 96 and |49 when the device is withdrawn from the well at conclusion of each test; after which the flare chamber, of course, may be refilled and again closed by the same plugs.

The spring base |40 lands upon the shoulder 95h inward of the passages 95a, and has ample clearance with the member 95 to allow free passage of the flare fluid (not expeller) The spring |39, installed under some compression, is held between the base |40 and spring adjusting ring |38, which ring has threaded engagement upon the nipple |28, as appears in Fig. 13. This ring may be used to adjust the compression of the spring, as is apparent, the holes I38a being for a special wrench.

'I'he fiare chamber of the lower unit within the nipple I I9 is located between the sleeve member I 24, having internal annular grooves I 24e, and piston |36, having external annular grooves I36a. The piston has threaded engagement upon the nipple |35 and has a close movable fit within the nipple Il9. The sleeve member |24 may be secured in place by welds |24a and I'24b. The lower end of nipple |35 has a close movable fit within the central opening through this sleeve. The openings I are breather passages for well fluid to enter above the piston on its downward stroke and through which passages the same fluid will be lled with are fluid through openings II9b, which openings may be then closed by rubber band I2 I, the latter yielding to permit expulsion of the are fluid as the piston I 36 is forced downward. This rubber band yields again, or is ruptured by pressure of well liquid,

when piston |36 returns to its normal position.

The nature of the flare fluid for each flare chamber should be such as will identify it from the other, and from the well fluid, as was explained for the preferred form of the'invention.

In operation, for testing a formation, the rst modified form of the invention, illustrated in Figs. 13, 14 and 15, is lowered to bottom of the well.

When the bit lands on bottom, the fracture plate ||8 of the lower unit is broken by part of the weight of the drill stem. This causes the lower piston |34-54 to force the liquid under it into the lower packer, which expands it into sealing-olf engagement with the wall of the well bore. When the drill stem settles far enough to cause expansion of the lower packer after the lower fracture plate has been broken by part of the weight, as stated, more weight of the drill pipe is imparted to the upper fracture plate` which is, in turn, then also broken. The drill pipe is allowed to continue settling until the upper piston |4|54 has caused the upper packer to expand into sealing off engagement with the wall of the well bore. In this latter operation, the intake ports Il'a are opened, as has been explained.

The movement of the drill stem which expands the lower packer forces the flare chamber piston |36 downward, and expels flare fluid below the lower packer, as explained. Likewise, the drill stem movement which expands the upper packer causes the piston member |21 to expel flare fluid above the upper packer. If either packer should fail to effect a complete seal-off against migration of well fluid into the Well bore between the packers, the are iiuid found in the drill stem at conclusion of the test will show which packer failed to hold tight. These packers will never fail to seal off if they are placed f in a normal section of the well bore, but unknown abnormalities may exist in the bore; and so much depends upon the accuracy of such tests, that all means should be employed to make them accurate. The are fluid, by its presence or absence in the drill stem, makes the test wholly reliable.

The device, shown for the first modified form of the invention, may be pumped through to remove mud or other obstructions from the Well, the same as stated for the preferred form, but is not so well adapted, as is the preferred form, to be rotated while being run into or being withdrawn from the well, or While the test is being made.

The latches shown in the preferred form, are replaced by the fracture plates in this form. These fracture plates also render it unnecessary to turn the drill pipe, as in the preferred form,

in order to initiate the movement which expands the packers.

The construction and proper use of the instrument case 68 was explained for the preferred form of the invention, to which reference is here made for this rst modified form.

If the device shown in Figs. 13, 14, and be employed as a cementing means, the opening through combination nipple |29 should be closed.

In the second modified form of the invention, shown in Figs. 17, 18, and 19, it will be noted that two packers, similar to the packers shown in the preceding forms of the invention, are employed to isolate the formation being tested from the formations above and below the packers, as in the preceding forms. It will also be noted that the device consists of an upper and lower unit, each unit having an outer shell and an inner string; the outer shell of the upper unit continuing to form the inner string of the lower unit, as in both preceding forms.

The outer shell of the upper unit is constructed of upper latch housing assembly nipple 15|, Fig. 17, upper latch sleeve |52, nipple |53, threadedly joined to combination nipple |56, adjustably locked together by ring |54; packer nipple |51,

sleeve nip-ple |58, nipple |59, coupling |60, and swaged nipple 6 The outer shell of the lower unit is constructed of latch housing assembly nipple |62, Fig. 18, latch sleeve upper section |93, latch sleeve lower section |64, lcombination nipple |61, having adjustable threaded engagement within nipple |62, locked by ring packer nipple |68, sleeve member |69, nipple |16, coupling |12, nipple |13, coupling 19, and bit The inner string of the upper unit is constructed of upper piston-coupling |14, Fig. 17, intake nipple |15, having wrench slots 6a, and intake ports l la; and check valve assembly C, like the similar assembly shown in Fig. 3, except that the piston in this assembly has cups 50 secured by locking ring 53a.

The inner string of the lower unit is constructed of piston-coupling |11, Fig. 18, nipple |19, also having wrench slots 6a; piston base |19, nipple |89, piston |8|, and nipple |82.

The two expansible packers and their end shields, indicated generally at P, Fig. 17, and P', Fig. 18, respectively, are the same in construction and purpose as the upper and lower packers, respectively for the rst modified form of the invention shown in Figs. 13 and 14.

The two pistons and their several parts, and means for mounting them upon the members which cause them to be actuated, indicate-d generally at Pa, Fig. 17, and Pa', Fig. 18, respectively, are the same in construction and purpose as the pistons lill-|44 and |34-54, shown in Figs. 13 and 14, except that the parts |19 and |84 are slightly diierent in construction from the similar parts |34 and 54, respectively, in Fig. 14. The iluid employed to expand the packer in Fig. 17 is confined in chamber c under the piston Pa by cups, 50, and packing or other substance, in grooves |58a, which cups and packing engage the nipple |15, having a close movable t within sleeve nipple |58.

Cups 6|, Fig. 18, and grooves |69a, which grooves may be filled with packing, or other substance, serve to conne within chamber e the uid used to expand the lower packer, as is apparent, the nipple |89 closely engaging cups 6| and having a close movable t within the central opening through sleeve |69.

The upper latch, shown in Fig. 17, is different from the upper latch, shown in Fig. 2, for the preferred form of the inventiton, in that the spring |89 takes the place and serves the purpose of both springs 33 and 35 in Fig. 2. This spring is supported by base ring |16, secured within nipple |53 by welds |16a. Ball ring floor 32, balls 3|, engaging within grooves |1a-|9a, and ball rider ring 39 are the same in construction and operation as shown for the preferred form of the invention, Fig. 2. The sleeve |52, which may be case hardened, is held in place, as shown, by the threaded engagement between nipples |5| and |53. This latch may be adjusted by means of the threaded engagement between nipple |53 and combination nipple |56, in a manner similar to that described for adjusting the latch in the preferred embodiment of the invention. This adjustment may be secured by lock ring |54. This latch should be adjusted to be sprung by more weight of the drill stem than is required to spring the lower latch.

The lower latch spring |86, within chamber y", Fig. 18, serves the purpose of both spring 33, Fig. 4, and 9|, Fig. 5. This spring is supported at its lower end by ring |85, threadedly engaged within the sleeve |54, by which threaded vengagement the ring may be used to also adjust the compression of this spring. The sleeves |63 and |54 are secured within nipple |62 by assembling ring |88, having threaded engagement within the latter nipple.

The ball floor ring 32, balls 3|, engaging within grooves Hat-Wa, and ball rider ring 35 are the same in construction and operation as shown for the preferred form of the invention, Figs, 2 and 4, and the same as again shown in Fig. 17, for the upper unit of this modiiied form. This latch should be adjusted to be sprung by less weight of the drill stem than is required to spring the upper latch. The lower end of piston-coupling member lll has a close sliding fit within the nipple |62 and within sleeve |63, in which sleeve it completes its travel, on the downward stroke.

Packing |37 is caused to securely contact the piston end of member |11 by pressure oi well duid entering through ports |52a, in order to prevent leakage of well fluid into the lower latch chamber. It is apparent that this chamber may be lled with fluid or drained through the opening shown closed by plug |66. The quantity of fluid in chamber y" will remain constant and ride between the piston members |11 and Pa', there being no tendency of this chamber to breathe because both pistons are of the same diameter.

The intake means, comprising the nipple |15, having ports Ma, normally shielded within the sleeve nipple |53y are actuated to communicate with inlet openings |5911 through annular space f in the same manner and serve the same purpose as the similar means shown in the two preceding forms of the invention.

The check valve assembly, Fig. 17, indicated generally at C, is the same in construction and purpose as the similar mechanism shown in each of the preceding forms of the invention.

It is understood that all references to positions and directions such as upper and lower, upward and downward, above and below,

apply to the tool as illustrated in the accompany- Vfarms of the invention. Manifestly the flare fluid serves also as a lubricant for the upper latch.

Piston-coupling |711 has its lower end closely, but movably, engaged within the nipple ISI. On the down stroke of this piston, it has a similar lit within sleeve |52, in which it completes its travel. Packing |50, urged inward by the pressure of well fluid entering through ports l5la, serves to make thisengagement leakproof against the entrance of well fluid into the latch and ilare chamber below, as is apparent. This flare chamber may be lled or drained through the opening closed by plug |55.

The lower flare chamber has its fluid discharged through openings llb, yieldably closed by rubber band I'H, when piston IBI, having grooves |B la, is forced downward when the lower packer is expanded, as was explained for the similar operation in both preceding forms of the invention. The breather openings I'la allow well fluid to enter nipple |10 above the piston on its downward stroke, and to be expelled through them on the upward stroke of this piston, as was explained for ports |l9a, Fig- 15. The lower end of the lower flare chamber is formed by base |83, secured within nipple |19 by welds |8312. The central opening through this base, having annular grooves w3c, receives the lower end of nipple |62, through which opening this nipple has a close movable iit.

It will be noted that pistan Pa, Fig. 17, contacts the lower internal shoulder of member |56, and that there is no poppet valve member on the lower end of nipple |15, the construction shown in Fig, 17 differing in these two respects from that shown in Fig. 13. It will also be noted that the piston landing shoe Mld, Fig. 17, and the landing shoe |84, Fig, 18, are each of such length that the cups, or packing, of these pistons will not reach the ports Zlib before the downward maximum travel or each piston is completed, the maximum downward travel of piston Pa being determined by member ild landing upon the upper end of sleeve |58, and the maximum downward travel of piston Pa being determined by the landing of shoe |86 upon the upper end of sleeve member |59.

The instrument case, in nipple |6l, Fig. 18, indicated generally at G, is the same in construction, operation, and purpose as the similar unit shown in both preceding forms of the invention; this member, and several others, being repeated to avoid the confusion which might be caused by numerous breaks in the drawings and references to other constructions.

The piston and check valve assembly, indicated generally at C, Fig. 17, provides means for excluding well duid from the drill stem until the intake ports ||a are opened. This construction also provides that the drill stem may be pumped through at any time while it is being run into or being withdrawn from the well, and that, if so pumped through, the fluid will be discharged through the bit, as has been explained for the two preceding forms of the invention.

The spring |89, Fig. 17, which, for example, may be installed under six hundred pounds of compression, will hold the upper unit of the device normally elongated to its maximum length. The spring |86, Fig. 18, which may be installed under four hundred pounds of compression, will similarly hold the lower unit of the device normally elongated to its maximum length.

It will be noted, from the preceding paragraph, that the upper latch spring should be installed under more compression than the lower latch spring. This is so, because the latches in the Second modied form of the invention take the place, in purpose, of the fracture plates |63 and H8 in the rst modified form of the invention. The lower latch may be adjusted to spring, and thereby initiate the movement that causes the lower packer to expand when, for example, one half the weight of the drill stem has been let down upon it.

The upper latch may be adjusted to spring, and thereby initiate the movement that causes the upper packer to expand when, for example, two-thirds of three-fourths of the weight of the j drill stem has been let down upon it. Obviously,

not be forced downward in the well bore after it has engaged the wall. This would, of course, happen if the upper latch should spring rst. The manner of adjusting this type of latch was discussed in relation to the preferred form of this invention, to which reference is here made.

In operation, the device shown in Figs. 17, 18, and 19 may be employed for the same purposes, and in the same manner, as described for the preferred embodiment of the invention, except that it, like the first modification, is not so well adapted as is the preferred embodiment, to be rotated, while being run into or being withdrawn from the well, or while the test is being made.

If the device shown in Figs. 17, 18, and 19 is to be employed as a cementing means, manifestly the piston I2 should be replaced by a plug closing the lower end of nipple |15.

The foregoing specification, drawings, and appended claims are intended to set forth the invention, with the understanding that many minor changes can be made in constructi-on and arrangement of parts within the scope and purpose thereof.

What is claimed is:

1. A well testing tool including a pair of outer shellsJ a packer on each shell, an operating pipe extending into said shells, a latch means for each of said packers disposed between said pipe and shell to latch the pipe against movement, a reservoir in each of said shells, a pair of means releasable in sequence by manipulation of said pipe upon release of said latches to force liquid from one reservoir into the lower of said packers and then from the other reservoir into the upper of said packers.

2. A well testing tool including a pair of outer shells, a packer on each shell, an operating pipe extending into said shells, a latch means for each of said packers disposed between said pipe and shell to latch the pipe against movement, a reservoir in each of said shells, a pair of means releasable in sequence by manipulation of said pipe upon release of said latches to force liquid from one reservoir into the lower of said packers and then from the other reservoir into the upper of said packers, and additional means to open Ysaid tool to the well bore between said packers after setting thereof.

3. A well testing tool including a pair of outer shells, a packer on each shell, an operating pipe extending into said shells, a latch means for each of said packers disposed between said pipe and shell to latch the pipe against movement, a reservoir in each of said shells, a pair of means releasable in sequence by manipulation of said pipe upon release of said latches to force liquid from one reservoir into the lower of said packers and then from the other reservoir into the upper of said packers, additional means to open said tool to the well bore between said packers after setting thereof, and means also operable by said pipe to discharge telltale material below the lower packer and above the upper packer so that if any such material is present in the sample itis an indication that the packers have leaked.

4. A testing tool or casing leak detector including an operating string of pipe, a shell about the lower end thereof, a packer on said shell, a latch between said pipe and shell normally pre- Venting relative movement thereof, means operable upon release of said latch and settling of said pipe into the shell to set said packer, a second shell also on said pipe and spaced above said rst shell, a packer on said second shell, a

latch for said second shell, and additional means operable upon release of said last latch and settling of said pipe to set said second packer.

5. A testing tool or casing leak detector including an operating string of pipe, a shell about the lower end thereof, a packer on said shell, a latch between said pipe and shell normally preventing relative movement thereof, means operable upon release of said latch and settling of said pipe into the shell to set said packer, a second shell also on said pipe and spaced above said first shell, a packer on said second shell, a latch for said second shell, additional means operable upon release of said last latch and settling of said pipe to set said second packer, and ports to be opened on setting of said second packer to admit fluid from the well between said packers.

6. A tester of the character described including a pipe, a pair of hydraulically expansible packers thereon, a reservoir adjacent each packer containing liquid to expand the packer, means to independently force liquid from each reservoir into each packer, and means to open said tester to admit well fluid to the tester after the packers are set.

'7. A tester of the character described including a pipe, a pair of hydraulically expansible packers thereon, means to independently force liquid into each packer, means to admit well fluid to the pipe after the packers are set, and clutch means connecting said pipe and packers and releasable on setting of the packers so that said pipe may be rotated independently of the packers.

8. A tester of the character described including a pipe, a pair of hydraulically expansible packers thereon, means to independently force liquid into each packer, means to open said tester to admit well fluid to the tester after the packers are set, and additional means on said tester operable upon opening the tester to discharge telltale material above and below the area being tested.

9. A well tool of the character described to locate leaks, take samples of formation fluid, or to introduce cement into a ywell bore including an operating string of pipe, means on said pipe to carry a pair of spaced packers, a latch connecting said pipe to said means, and means operable by turning and longitudinal movement of said pipe relative to said packers to unlatch said pipe for movement to set said packers so as to isolate a section of the well bore, to open the tool for the inlet of fluid or the discharge of material and to also release said latch relative to said first means and the set packers so that the pipe may rotate.

10. A tool of the character described comprising an operating string of pipe, a shell thereon, an hydraulic packer on said shell, frangible means normally preventing setting of said packer, an extension on said shelly a lower shell about said extension. a hydraulic packer on said lower shell, frangible means normally prevent-ing setting of said lower packer, both of said frangible means being adapted to be broken by lowering some of the weight of said string of pipe thereon.

11. A tool of the character described comprising an operating string of pipe, a shell thereon, an hydraulic packer on said shell, frangible means normally preventing setting of said packer, an extension on said shell, a lower shell about said extension, a hydraulic packer on said lower shell, frangible means normally preventing setting of said lower packer, both of said frangible means being adapted to be broken by lowering some of the weight of said stringof pipe thereon, said upper frangible means being the stronger so that said lower packer will be rst set.

12. A tool of the character described including a string of pipe, a packer shell thereon, spring latch means between the pipe and shell releasable by longitudinal movement of said pipe, an extension on said shell, a lower packer shell about said extension, a spring latch therefor, inlet ports to said string of pipe through said rst shell, said pipe and extension being movable on release of said latches to set said packers and open said ports.

13. A tool of the character described comprising an operating string of pipe, a shell thereon, a hydraulic packer on said shell, frangible means normally preventing setting of said packer, an extension of said shell, a lower shell about said extension, a hydraulic packer on said lower shell, frangible means normally preventing setting of said lower packer, both of said frangible means being adapted to be broken by lowering weight of said string of pipe thereon, said upper frangible means being the stronger so that said lower packer will be rst set, said last latch being iirst releasable.

14. A method of testing drilled wells having fluid therein to determine the productivity or nature of the formation at any speciiic elevation which comprises, lowering a string of pipe into the well bore, releasing and setting a pair of spaced seals above and below a specic elevation and maintaining the two seals at the same sealing pressure, opening the string of pipe to admit fluid from the elevation between the spaced seals, discharging a telltale covlg'ilig/m/aterial a ve arlljoelowsthe seals so igliarnin` event the seals are not mairrtinedtraces of the material will be admitted with the sample, rotating the pipe to agitate the fluid in the well while the sample is being admitted, and thereafter releasing the seals, closing the pipe to entrap the sample, and removing the pipe from the well.

15. A combination well testing and cementing device including an operating string of pipe, two shells surrounding said pipe and adapted to have limited telescopic movement thereover, two adjustable latching means connecting said shells and pipe, said latches being releasable by weight of said pipe to free the pipe for movement relative to said shells, each of said latches having a spring controlling the force of the latch engagement, the upper of said latches having another spring coacting with the pipe to produce reengagement of both latches, two cylindrical hydraulic packers mounted one on each of said shells, two pistons actuated by the pipe and moving telescopically within the shell to force fluid to expand the packers into engagement with the well bore or casing, intake ports in said pipe and shells normally out of communication with each other and adapted to be placed in communication with each other to admit into the pipe a sample of well fluid after the upper latch has been sprung and both packers have been expanded, two chambers, one above the upper packer and the other below the lower packer, each chamber containing a telltale substance of diierent color from the other adapted to be discharged into the well bore when the packers are expanded, an instrument case in the shell between the packers, two clutch couplings, one above the upper packer and the other between the packers, the upper clutch coupling reir lipari@ being adapted to release the pipe for limited telescopic movement within the shell and rotation relative thereto, and the lower clutch coupling being adapted to release the pipe for telescopic movement only within the shell, a thrust bearing in the pipe above the upper packer, a check valve within the pipe below the intake ports, said valve being adapted to be opened by pressure from above, a pipe or shell between the packers to properly space them, and a drill bit upon the lower end of the shell.

16. A combination well testing and cementing device including an operating string of pipe, two shells surrounding said pipe and adapted to have limited telescopic movement thereover, two fracture plates adapted to be broken by force of the pipe after the pipe or drill bit lands upon bottom of the well, thereby freeing the pipe to operate the pistons, the upper of said plates being the stronger, so that the lower packer will be set rst, two cylindrical hydraulic packers mounted one on each of said shells, two pistons actuated by the pipe and moving telescopically within the shell to force fluid to expand the packers into engagement with the well bore or casing, intake ports in said pipe and shells normally out of communication with each other and adapted to be placed in communication with each other to admit into the pipe a sample of well uid after the upper latch has been sprung and both packers have been expanded, two chambers, one above the upper packer and the other below the lower packer, each chamber containing a telltale substance of different color from the other adapted to be discharged into the well bore when the packers are expanded, an instrument case in the shell between the packers, two clutch couplings, one above the upper packer and the other between the packers, the upper clutch coupling being adapted to release the pipe for limited telescopic movement within the shell and rotation relative thereto, and the lower clutch coupling being adapted to release the pipe for telescopic movement only within the shell, a thrust bearing in the pipe above the upper packer, a check valve within the pipe below the intake ports, said valve being adapted to be opened by pressure from above, a pipe or shell between the packers to properly space them, and a drill bit upon the lower end of the shell.

17. A combination well testing and cementing device including an operating string of pipe, two shells surrounding said pipe and adapted to have limited telescopic movement thereover, two adjustable latching means connecting said shells and pipe, said latches being releasable by weight of said pipe to free the pipe for movement relative to said shells, each of said latches having a spring controlling the force of the latch and adapted to co-act with the pipe in causing reengaging of the latch, two cylindrical hydraulic packers mounted one on each of said shells, two pistons actuated by the pipe and moving telescopically within the shell to force fluid to expand the packers into engagement with the well bore or casing, intake ports in said pipe and shells normally out o'f communication with each other and adapted to be placed in communication with yeach other to admit into the pipe a sample of well uid after the upper latch has been sprung and both packers have been expanded, two chambers, one above the upper packer and the other below the lower packer, each chamber containing a telltale substance of different color from the other adapted to be discharged into the well bore when the packers are expanded, an instrument case in the shell between the packers, two clutch couplings, one above the upper packer and the other between the packers, the upper clutch coupling being adapted to release the pipe for limited telescopic movement within the shell and rotation relative thereto, and the lower clutch coupling being adapted to release the pipe for telescopic movement only within the shell, a thrust bearing in the pipe above the upper packer, a check valve Within the pipe below the intake ports, said valve being adapted to be opened by pressure from above, a pipe or shell between the packers to properly space them, and a drill bit upon the lower end of the shell.

18. A combination well testing and cementing device including an operating string of pipe, two shells surrounding said pipe and adapted to have limited telescopic movement thereover, two cylindrical hydraulic packers mounted one on each of said shells, two pistons actuated by the pipe to force uid to expand the packers, intake ports in said pipe and shells normally out of communication with each other and adapted to have communication in order to admit well fluid into the pipe, and a pipe or shell between the packers to space them.

ALEXANDER BOYNTON.

Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification166/250.8, 166/264, 166/113, 166/240, 175/233, 166/148, 166/147, 73/152.36, 175/325.2, 73/152.28
International ClassificationE21B33/12, E21B49/08, E21B33/124, E21B49/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/1243, E21B49/088
European ClassificationE21B33/124B, E21B49/08T2