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Publication numberUS2281181 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 28, 1942
Filing dateAug 31, 1940
Priority dateAug 31, 1940
Publication numberUS 2281181 A, US 2281181A, US-A-2281181, US2281181 A, US2281181A
InventorsClement S Clarke
Original AssigneeClement S Clarke
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Respiratory mask
US 2281181 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 28, 1942. V c. s. CLARKE RESPIRATORY MASK,

Filed Aug. 31, '1940 I 3 Shee'ts-Sheet 1 FIG. 2.

FIG. 1.

ll'lmerfi' E1. Clarke BY i M I ATTORNEYS.

April 28, 1.942. c. Q s. {CLARKE RESPIRATORY MASK Filed Aug. 31. 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 m T N E V m ATTORNEYS.

p 2 1942- c. s. CLARKE 2,281,181 RESPIRATORY MAS-K- Filed Aug. 31, 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG 10,


11121112111 E1. Clarke Patented Apra 28, 1942 STATES RESPIRATORY MASK Clement S. Clarke, Shreveport, La.

Application August. 31, 1940, Serial No. 355,057

The invention relates to equipment for conditioning respiratory air and to air conditioning respiratory masks, to protect against respiratory infection and to be used by anyone having a respiratory disease to protect against the spreading of the disease. p

Infections of the respiratory organs or tract of man are assumedly acquired by inhaling an infecting substance, such as bacteria, germs, virus or pollen, through the nose or mouth. It is known that the skin of man is the first line of defense against disease and that various types of bacteria, germs, virus and pollen that successfully attack the mucous membrane of the respiratory system are killed? or rendered innocuous if they come in contact with the human skin, which is moist and self-disinfecting. The skin of man has a hair growth that also acts asa filter for harmful substances. It can readily be seen that if air is passed along the surface of the skin, the hair as well as the moist' skin will tend to filter out or render innocuous any material substances not in the form of, a gas.

The mucous membrane generates on its surface a fluid which appears to be destined to moisten the respiratory air and to also act as an adherent substance for harmful matter in the 'air. It is my opinion that moist respiratory air is a means of eliminating or retarding respiratory infection.

Dehydrated air breathed in tends to cause a chapping and irritation of the mucous membrane. If dehydrated air is conducted over the surface of the human skin, it will pick up moisture therefrom and become moist air.

Drafts of cold air, or subjecting the human body to a severe decrease of temperature appears to be a partial cause of the acquisition of ailments such as colds and pneumonia. The temperature of the air brought into the respiratory tract appears to have a direct effect upon the heat regulating mechanism of the human body and cold air tends to increase the respiratory action causing more air to .be breathed in so that the oxygen therefrom may be utilized to generate a greater amount of body heat. Physical body evolution has not had time to adjust itself to man's clothing so that cold air brought into the respiratory tract tends to cause an unbalancing of the heat regulating mechanism of the body.

' If'theair that man breathes is brought into physical contact with the heated skin surf-ace priorto introduction into the respiratory system, the resulting preheating of the air will tend to prohibit an unwarranted interference with the metabolism.

In the past numerous masks have been made entailing various principles of construction and used for various purposes, but no device of which I am aware has been so designed as to bring atmospheric air into direct contact with the skin prior or subsequent to introduction into the respiratory system.

The primary object of the present invention is to provide a mask to be used for the prevention or isolation of common colds, and which may also be used for the isolation, elimination or prevention of any other type of respiratory infection or irritation.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a mask particularly useful in retarding or eliminating the breathing of pollen, dust and other particles found in the atmospheric air that tend to upset or infectthe respiratory tract.

- A further object'is to provide a mask for the protection of the eyes and the skin of the face against exposure to cold atmospheric weather.

The invention also aims to provide an attachment for conditioning the respiratory air of a wearer including respiratory air conducting means interposed between the respiratory system of the wearer and the outside atmosphere and so arranged as to bring the respiratory air following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, and in which drawings: Figures 1 and 2 are views in side elevation and front elevation, respectively, of a preferred form of mask.

Figure 3 is a central vertical sectional view of the mask shown in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure 4 is a cross sectional detail view subp stantially on the line iiil of Figure 3.

Figures 5 and 6 are views in side elevation and frontelevation, respectively of a modified formv of mask.

Figure 7 is a central vertical sectional view of the mask shown in Figures 5 and 6.

Figure 8 is a fragmentary central vertical sectional view of a mask and showing a modified detail of construction.

Figure 9 is a cross sectional detail view substantially on the line 9-5 of Figure 8.

Figure 10 is a view partly in side elevation and partlyin central vertical section of a helmet type of mask.

Figures 11 and 12 are views in front elevation and rear elevation, respectively, of the mask shown in Figure 10.

In the drawings, which for the purpose of illustration show preferred and modified forms of-the invention, and wherein similar reference characters denote corresponding parts throughout the several views, the letters A, B and C designate masks of preferred and modified forms.

These masks may be made of any suitable transparent, semi-opaque or opaque material that is impervious to air, such as plastic material mom or more pieces, and this material may be pliable to permit bending or adjustment to fit the contours of the wearer's face, and which material will retain its adjusted form against unintentional or casual distortion.

In the example shown in Figures 1-4 of the drawings, the mask A is shaped and proportioned to cover the lower half of the face including the hose and mouth. Bounding the inside of the mask is an intra-marginal strip i5 including a bight portion I6 extending forwardly, when the mask is in its position of use, overthe nose of the wearer and a bight portion ll extending material 26 which acts as a cushion. The mask B which not only covers the mouth and nose but also extends up over the forehead is particularly adapted for surgical operative work.

Referring now to Figures 10-12 of the drawings, the mask C, it will be noted, covers the entire head of the wearer with the lower portion of the mask adapted to encircle the wearer's neck and to rest on the shoulders. This type of mask is suitable for winter sports or beach wear as it affords complete protection for the skin of the face and the hair of the head. This particular mask 0 is made of transparent material which may be tinted any suitable color to eliminate undesirable rays of the sun. Any suit-' able provision may be made in its construction to enable a person to don and doif the mask. In

downwardly about the wearers chin. The mask B is similar to the mask A except that it is adapted to cover the entire face and-forehead and its inside is bounded by an intra-marginal strip i 8 including a bight portion I9 extending upwardly, when the mask is in its position of use, over the head of the wearer, and a bight portion 20 extending downwardly about the wearers chin. These strips I5 and I8 serve to space the masks A and B from the wearer's face and they are each provided along their contacting surfaces with a series of semi-cylindrical herringbone indentures or grooves 2| extending transversely of the strips. The grooves in the bight portions IS, IS of the masks A and B constitute air exhaust means and they are disposed at a higher elevation in the position of use of the masks than the grooves in the bight portions i1, 20 respectively, and which constitute air intake means. Since these grooves 2| are relatively shallow, any air passing therealong will be brought into direct contact with the wearers skin against-which thestrip IE or i8 rests. I

so as to change the direction of air flow therealong in order to cause a turbulence which will bring allof the air in direct contact with the skin, but it will be understood that straight indentures or grooves 22 may be employed as shown in Figures 8 and 9.

If the masks A and B are made from a pliable material that, when bent and adjusted to 'flt the contour of the face, will not retain its new form, a narrow external metal band 23 may be placed intra-marginally of the outside surface thereof, as shown, and this band will be of pliable material which will retain its form and the form of the mask against unintentional or casual distortion.

Connected to the masks A and B, at points thereon forwardly of the ears of the wearer in the position of use of the masks, as by ball and socket joints 24 are suitable spring wire ear hooks 25, similar to those used on spectacles, the wire being pliable for adjustment purposes and retaining its resiliency in adjusted form. That portion which partially encircles the upper section of the ear may be covered with. a soft the example shown, the rear lower section 30 thereof is made of elastic material, such as rubber, so that easy entrance or exit may be had. Provided in that area of the mask lying, in its position of use, subjacent the wearers chin are apertures 3| constituting respiratory air inlet means, and in the dome area of the mask, similar apertures 32 are provided, which constitute respiratory air exhaust means.

It will be noted that each mask is provided with air inlet and exhaust means at the top and bottom portions, whereby convection air currents may pass across the wearers face, and which air currents will carry off any excess heat from the skin covered by the masks so that the masks are internally air conditioned and may be comfortably worn in hot weather. On the other hand, any cold air entering through the openings at the bottom of the masks will come in contact with the skin where it will pick up heat and any excess air not breathed in will be exhausted at the top of the mask through convection. Thus there will always be present within the confines of the mask an abundant amount of fresh temperate air for respiratory breathing and by permitting the passage of the air from the intake to the exhaust ducts,'the exhaled air will not tend to contaminate the intake air to be breathed.

Various changes may be made in the forms of invention herein shown and described without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the following claims.

50... prefer to make the grooves of herringbone shape I'claim:

1. An'air conditioning face mask formed of 'Sair'. proof sh'eetimaterial adapted to cover azportionof; the wearers skin, the inside of said mask being bounded by an intra-marginal strip having an exterior surface adapted to fit snugly against the wearers skin to dispose the inside of the mask in spaced relation to the wearer's skin whereby to form an air chamber communicating with the respiratory system of the wearer, the exterior surface of said strip being provided with transverse shallow grooves constituting means by which air traveling therealong is brought into direct contact with the skin of the wearer.

2. A structure as specified in claim 1, said grooves being of diagonal herringbone shape whereby to deflect and turbulate the air as it travels along said grooves so as to bring all portions of the air into direct contact with er's skin.

3. An air conditioning face mask as specified in claim 1, said sheet material and said strip being pliable to fit the facial contours of the wearer, and tending to retain any set form the wearagainst accidental or casual distortion.

4. An air conditioning face mask asspecifled in claim 1, said sheet material and said. strip being piieblejto fit the facial contours of the wear. er, the outside of said mask being bounded by in claim 1, said mask being adopted to cover the lower portion of the weerers isce including the mouth and nose, said strip including two angulerly disposed bight portions one of which ex tends iorwsrdly over the nose lend hes grooves therein as aforesaid, and the other or which extends'downwardly about the wearer's chin and is provided with grooves therein as aforesaid.

6. An air conditioning face mask as specified in claim 1, said mask being adapted to cover the wearer's face including the chin, mouth, nose,

eyes and forehead, said strip including bight portions, one of which extends over the top of the head of the wearer and is provided with the aforesaid grooves therein, and the other of which extends downwardly about the wearer's chin and is provided with grooves therein as aforesaid.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2498668 *Sep 2, 1947Feb 28, 1950James Fitzsimmons LeslieMask
US2954027 *Aug 26, 1958Sep 27, 1960Marasco Paul BFace mask
US3490447 *Jan 3, 1967Jan 20, 1970Jackson Richard RobertSurgical mask
US3991753 *Jan 15, 1975Nov 16, 1976Viesca Y Viesca GabrielDevice for preventing an individual from inhaling germs, foreign bodies, or the like
US4440163 *Jul 30, 1982Apr 3, 1984Gabriel SpergelEmergency escape breathing apparatus
US4699139 *Sep 30, 1985Oct 13, 1987Marshall Marie FNasal cannula assembly with patient comfort pad
US4832017 *Mar 27, 1987May 23, 1989Dragerwerk AktiengesellschaftBreathing mask
US4922921 *Nov 17, 1986May 8, 1990Donoghue Laurence BDevice for testing one's breath
US4949733 *Jul 21, 1988Aug 21, 1990Sampson Robert DNasal oxygen cannula pad
US5706803 *Jun 6, 1995Jan 13, 1998Bayer; Robert T.Disposable face mask and method of manufacture
US5735270 *Oct 22, 1996Apr 7, 1998Bayer; Robert T.Disposable face mask
US8997743 *Aug 19, 2004Apr 7, 2015Fisher & Paykel Healthcare LimitedBreathable respiratory mask
US20050056286 *Aug 19, 2004Mar 17, 2005Huddart Brett JohnBreathable respiratory mask
WO1985004334A1 *Mar 22, 1984Oct 10, 1985Gabriel SpergelEmergency escape breathing apparatus
U.S. Classification128/204.15, 128/201.23, 128/206.12, 128/206.13
International ClassificationA41D13/11
Cooperative ClassificationA41D13/1161
European ClassificationA41D13/11C