US 2281801 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 5, 1942. .L H. REYNOLDS x-:TAL
METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR PUMPING WELLS '4 sneetssheet 1 Filed Dc. 20,1938
4 Sheets-Sheet 2.
Illlllll J; H. REYNOLDS ETAL METHOD QF AND MEANS FoRPMPm-f wELLs Filed Deo. 2o, 193e SWW close/0b ,Zegna/d5 f Arif/1h Sand/70%) Inl-IIIIIIII.
May` 5, 1942.`
J. H. REYNOLDS ET Ax.
METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR PUMP'ING WELLS May 5, 1942.-
Filed Dec. 20, 1938 4 SheetS-Sheeb 5 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 J. H. REYNOLDS ET AL METHOD 0F AND MEANS FOR PUMPING WELLS Filed Dec. 20, 1938 May 5, 1942.
Patented May 5, 1942 "UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD OF AND MEANS FOB PUMPING WELLS Joseph Il. Reynolds and Arthur Sandhofer,
Application December 20, 1938, Serial No. 245,801
. improved method for simultaneously lifting oil to 17 Claims.
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in methods of and means for pumping wells.
As is well known, well fluids contain a considerable amount of water which is lifted to the surface with the oil and although it is not desirable to lift such water, it has been substantially im- Y possible to separate the same in the well bore and, therefore, to recover the oil, the water must be brought to the surface. It has been the practice to separate the water at the surface and drain said water into a slush pit or other disposal. This method is satisfactory so long as the well is not producing large volumes of water but whenever water in a great volume is brought to the surface, disposal of this water becomes a problem. In some instances, the water which is separated at the surface is pumped back into the formation through an offset or other well which is located near the producing well. By returning the water to the formation in this manner, thesame is disposed of and also said water acts more or less as a repressuring medium to aid in maintaining the bottom hole pressure and in driving the well uids toward the producing well. However, in this method an offset or other well is necessary and, further, expensive pumping equipment for forcing the water back into the formation must be used.
It is one of the objects of this invention to provide an 'improved method of returning Water to a. well formation simultaneously with the removal of the Well fluids from said formation, whereby an offset well is not necessary to conduct the water to said formation and also whereby the production of the well iluidsvmay continue uninterrupted during such return of said water.
An important object of the invention is to provide an improved method of well pumping which includes, lifting the well fluids through the well bore, separating the oil from the water in said well fluids, and returning the water to the formation at a point below the producing strata, whereby the water is returned to the reservoir and aids in maintaining bottom hole pressure and in driving or moving the remaining well fluids to the well bore.
A particular object of the invention is to provide an improved method 4wherein the water and oil are separated in the well bore, after -which the oil is lifted to the surface while the water is returned to the reservoir, the latter two steps being accomplished simultaneously, whereby production of the oil may continue during the return 4of the water. y
Another object of the invention is to provide an the surface and returning water to the reservoir through the same well bore which includes packing oil .the bore below the producing strata and conducting the water to the reservoir below said packing, whereby Vthe returned water does not interfere with normal production of well fluids from the producing area.
A furtherobject of the invention is to provide an improved apparatus of the character described. wherein two pumps having a separator associated therewith are employed, with means for conducting the Well fluids from the formation to the separator to separate the oil and Water, after which the oil is lifted to the surface by one pump while the water is returned to the reservoir by the other pump; said pumps being arranged so as to be operable simultaneously by a single string of pump rods.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an improved pumping apparatus of the character described, having an air chamber associated with the water return line, whereby a substantially constant pressure of the water may be maintained and surging or pulsation is eliminated, which makes for a substantiallyeven flow of said water.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved apparatus employing a casing pump for lifting the well fluids to the surface and having an axial conductor extending therethrough, whereby water separated from the oil at the surface may be returned to the formation during the pumping operation. c
Still another object ofthe invention is to provide an improved well pumping apparatus, of the character described, which may be run into and anchored in the well casing and which may be i The invention will be'more readily understood A from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:
Figure 1 is a transverse, vertical, sectional View of a well bore showing the pumping apparatus,
constructed in accordance with the invention, mounted therein,
Figure 2 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of the upper portion oi the apparatus,
Figure 3 is a continuation of Figure 2 and illustrating the intermediate portion of the apparatus,
Figure 4 is a continuation of Figure 3 and showing the lower portion of said apparatus,
Figure 5 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 5 5 of Figure 2,
Figure 6 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 6-6 of Figure 2,
Figure 'l is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 'I-l of Figure 2,
Figure 8 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 2,
Figure 9 is-a partial isometric view of onel section of the oil and water separator.
Figure .10 is a view similar to Figure 2, and showing a slightly modified form of the device,
Figure 11 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line I I-I I of Figure 10,
Figure 12 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line I2--I2 of Figure 10, v
Figure 13 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line I3-I5 of Figure 10,
Figure 14 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of the upper portion of a modified form of the apparatus,
' Figure 15 is a continuation of Figure 14 show-4 ing the lower portion of this modifiedl form of construction,
Figure 16 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line I6-I6 of Figure 14,
Figure 1' is a horizontal, cross-sectional `view, taken on the line I1-I1 of Figure 14,
Figure 18 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line Ill- I8 of Figure 14, and
Figure 19 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of the lower portion of the Well bore, showing another method oi' providing a cement wall within which `the packer may be set.
In the drawings, the numeral I designates av well bore which extends through the oil sands or producing formation F and which has its lower end terminating at a point below said producing formation. That portion of the bore I0 which is below the producing formation F has an annular wall of cement II formed therein and this wall may be formed in any suitable manner., A plurality of radially extending passages l2 are drilled so as to extend outwardly from the lower end of the bore I0 and, as is clearly shown in Figure 1, the inner ends of these passages communicate with the bore, whereby a :dow from said bore into said passages may occur.
In forming the radial passages I2, 'an angular drill of the usual construction may be employed, said drill boring through the cement wall II. Any desired number of passages I2 may be provided below the oil sand or producing formation F.l v
A bottom hole packer I3 is located `within 4the lower end of the bore I0 and includes an elastic packing element I4 which is conned between the usual confining thimbles or collars I5. The lower collar is made integral with a supporting mandrel I which is slidable with relation to the upper collar. A perforated section of pipe I6, which forms a well screen, has its upper end threaded into the lower thimble I5 (Figure 4), while its lower end rests on the bottom of the well bore. The section of pipe I6 forms a screen and also serves to support the lower thimble I5 of the packer i3. Obviously, with the lower thimble held stationary, the upper thimble may be moved downwardly with relation thereto, which movement will apply a longitudinal pressure to the elastic packing element Il, whereby the same is movedradially outwardly into engagement with the cement wall II so as to pack of! therein. A seating nipple I1 has its lowerend threaded into the upper` confining thimble I5of the packer and this nipple is provided with an annular tapered seat I8 `located internally thereof at its upper end. The bore Il of the nipple communicates with the tubular mandrel I5 of the packer and with the bore of the perforated pipe section I6, whereby a i'low through these parts may occur.
'I'he well bore I0 above the oil sand or producing formation F has the usual well casing I5 mounted therein and this casing is cemented in place at its lower end. The pump assembly, which will be hereinafter described, is arranged to be run into the well through the casing and is arranged to be supported on the seating nipple I'I which extends upwardly from the well packer I3. The weight of the pump assembly resting on the nipple serves to distort the elastic packing element into packing position.
The pump assembly includes an upper working barrel A and a lower working barrel B, which barrels are connected together by an oil and waterseparator C. A slip assembly D is connected to the lower end of the lower working barrelB and an elongate tubular conductor or pipe 20 has its upper end secured to the lower end of the slip assembly. The lower end of the pipe 20 carries a tapered collar 2i (Figure 4) which is adapted to engage the tapered seat I8 of the nipple Il, whereby the assembly is supported in said nipple.'
The upper end of the pipe or conductor 2u is threaded into the axial bore 22 of a slip supporting collar 23. A plurality of gripping slips 24 are supported by the collar 23, said slips being fastened to said collar by means of elongate, flexible elements 25, which are preferably con'- structed of spring steel and which have their upper ends secured to the slips, with their lower ends fastened to the exterior of the collar 23. The bore 22 of the collar 23 is enlarged at its upper end and receives the lower end of a cylinder 26 which is disposed between the slip supporting elements 25. The upper end of the cylinder 26 is open and a piston 21 is movable vertically within said cylinder, the piston carrying suitable packing rings 28 which contacts the bore of said cylinder. The piston 2 is tubular and is formed with an upwardly extending tubular piston rod 29, which rod has its upper end threaded into the axial bore 30 of a tapered slip head 3|. As is clearly shown in Figure 3, the tapered slip head 3| is disposed between the slips 24 which have their rear surfaces riding on the tapered surface of the head.
With the above arrangement, it will be manifest that the slip head 3l is capable of a vertical movement with relation to thev gripping slips 24. Whenthe piston 2l is in the upper portion of the cylinder 26, the slips 24 are at the lower end of the slip head and are, therefore, in a retracted position, being held so by the inherent resiliency of the spring elements 25 which support said slips. When it is desired to set the slip,
the collar 23 is held stationary due to the engagement of the tapered collar 2| within the seating nipple I'I and, since said collar carries the slips 24, said slips are also held stationary. The slip y the parts 'connected to said cylinder.
head 3|f may then be moved downwardly, such the well casing I9. When the slips engage said casing, upward movement of the pump assembly well casing.
Upward movement ofthe piston 21 within its cylinder is prevented by a stop ring 26 which is threaded into the upper end of the cylinder. This ring not only serves to prevent displacement of the piston from the cylinder, but also acts to connect the head 3i with the cylinder and Therefore, when it is desired to release the gripping slips 24, it is only necessary to move the slip head 3| upwardly which causes the lower or smaller end of said head to move between the slips, whereby said slips may move radiallyinwardly to a retracted position. As soon as the upper end ofthe piston 2l' lstrikes the ring 2B', continued upward movement of the slip head will raise the pipe 20 and disengage the tapered collar 2l from the seating nipple I1. Obviously, continued upward movement of the head will remove the slips and their associate parts from the well casing.
Immediately above the slip head 3l an air chamber 32 is provided and, if desired, this chamber may be made integral with said head.
l An upwardly extending tubular sleeve 33 is pref-j erably made integral with the 'chamber and the upper end ci this sleeve is connected by suitable screw threads tothe lower end of the working barrel B. The lower end of the bore of the which extends axially through the air chamber 32 and which has its lower end terminating just above the slip head 3|. Since the sleeve 33 is connected to the lower working barrel B, it will be manifest that a flowmay occur from the bore of the barrel B through the sleeve 33 and then downwardly through the conductor 34, through the slip head 3|, piston 21 and finally through the pipe 20 to the bore of the seating nipple Il. From the seating nipple, the ow continues downwardly through the well packer I3 and nally escapes through the perforated section of pipe I6 which is located below the packer. A standing valve 34 is mounted in the upper portion of the sleeve 33 and this valve is 0I the usual construction including a valve seat 35 and a spring pressed ball 36.
50 l ed on the' mandrel immediately above and in The lowermost sepaand enter the bore of said plunger.
which said duid may pass downwardly through the lower portion of the assembly, as has been explained, and escape outwardly through the perforated section of pipe I5.
The upper end of the plunger 38 has a cou- -pling sleeve 44 connected thereto and this sleeve is formed with a plurality of elongate, radial slots 45 which establish communication between the bore of the barrel B and the bore of the pump plunger 38. With this arrangement, vupon the upstroke of` the plunger 38, any fluid above said plunger may flow downwardly through the slots This uid will act downwardly on the travelling valve 40, unseating theball 42, whereby said fluid may ow into the lower end of `the barrel B below said plunger. Upon the next downstroke, the :duid which has by-passed the plunger in this manner on the upstroke, is forced downwardly past the standing valve 34 as has been explained.
The upper end of the plunger 38 is connected, through the sleeve 44, with the lower end of a tubular pump rod 46 which extends axially and upwardly through the separator C, as will be hereinafter explained. The lower end of the bore of said pump rod 43 is closed by a transverse partition 41, whereby any uid which might enter the tubular rod cannot pass downwardly through the plunger 38 in the barrel B. Manifestly, when the rod 6 is reciprocated, the lower plunger 38V is reciprocated within the ioarrel B to pump the fluid downwardly to the perforated pipe at the lower end ofthe well bore Il).
The upper end of the working barrel E is connected by means of a coupling collar d8 with the lower end of a tubular mandrel de, which mandrel serves'as the support lfor the separator C.
. The -inner diameter of themandrel di), as well in superposed relation on the mandrel 43.` As is clearly shown in Figure 2, a supporting ring 52 is threaded onto the lower end of the mandrel 49 and a flange supporting ring 53 is also threadcontact with the ring 52.
rator element or collar 5I is provided with a The ball is normally v held on its seat by the spring 36' and both ball and spring are .confined within the usual valve Vcage 31. Manifestly, when the ball 35 is seated,
a iiow cannot occur upwardly' past the valve. When the pressure above the ball is sufiicient to unseat' said ball under tension of the spring 36', a downward flowfoffiluid past the valve is permitted.
A tubular pump plunger 33 having the usual cups 39 on its outer surface is mounted to re ciprocate -within' the lower workingbarrel LB. 'I'he lower end of the plunger is provided with an ordinary travelling valve 40 which includes a valve seat 4I, springpressed ball 42 and valve cage 43.. As is clearly shown in Figure 3, the ball 40 is adapted to seat on the downstroke,` whereby -any iluid below the plunger 3B is forced downwardly to unseat the standing valve l34', after transverse partition 54 which is located nearer its lower end, as clearly shown in Figure 9. 'Ihe partition is formed with an axial opening 55 and tition 54 and three of such conductors have beenv illustrated (Figures 'Iv and 8).
Each conductor 56 is open at its upper and lower end whereby a vertical ow therethrough is permitted. The upper ends of the conductors 56 terminate in a plane above-the upper end of the side wall of the element, whereby when thev element is in position on the mandrel the conductors 56 have.
their upper ends extending abovethe upper end v of'said side wall-of the element. Itis preferableI desired number of the elements .di
that the conductors be arcuate -in cross-section lso that their inner surfaces will substantially conform to the curved or cylindrical outer sur'- face of the mandrel $3. f
As explained, the lowerrnost element l of the separator C is supported onthe flanged ring 53.
The next above element of the separator is conf structed in the same manner as the first element and has the underside of itspartition resting' on the upper -end of the vertical conductor. 'lhe projection oi the conductors 5t above the side wall of the element is such that when the next above element is supported on' said con'- ductors, the lower peripheral edge of said next above conductor is spaced slightly from the upper peripheral edge of the wall of the lower clement; The conductors of adjacentv elements or collars iii are alined vertically so that .they
form la continuous vertical passage through the elements, as is clearly shown in Figure 2. Any 'may be mounted one above the other on the mandrel i9 and in Figure' l four of such elements have been shown. The vertical conductors 5S of thel uppermost elements' in the series support a flanged cap member 5l which has its lower end spaced from the -upper end of said upper element. The various elements of the separator. C are clamped in position on the mandrel @.9 by means of a lockingring 58 which is threaded onto the upper end of the mandrel, said ring being tightened 'suiilclently to prevent rotation of the var'-,
cannot occur. g Thel upper end of the tubular pump rod iti .l
the well above Athe packer iii. This well fluid passes upwardly through the casing around the lower working barrel and iinally enters the cham- -tering the chamber, the water, being heavier than `the oil, will settle downwardly onto the partitions 5d of the elements 5i, while the oil will rise upwardly below the partition of the next above element 5l. This oil may enter the conductor at through radial inlet ports tu which are formed in the upper ends of said conductors. Thus, the oil may enter the vertical passages formed bythe conductors t@ and may flow upwardly therethrough and escape through the vertical ports 59 in the locking ring 58.. The water which settles downwardly onto the partitions 5d 'may escape from the separating chamber through radial ports ti which are formed in the mandrel adjacent said partitions. Thus, the
l water may ilow into the bore of the mandrel and then downwardly through the floor space 50 formed between the working barrel B and' the pump rod et. This water may then enter the slots l5 at the upper end of the pump plunger 38 and said plunger will serve, lwhen reciprocated, to pump this water back to the formation below the packer i3.
The lock ring 58 which fastens the elements of the separator C'in position on the mandrel 49, has the. lower end of an annular housing 62 working barrel A connected thereto. The pump Aure 2, thechambercommunicates with the vertical ports 59 in the ring 58 and, therefore, the oil which has been separated from the water in the separator C and which passes. upwardly through the ports 59 may flow into the chamber 65.
,An annular seating member '6 6 ismounted vwithin the housing' t2 and surrounds the pump rod d, said member being supported on the upper end of the packing sleeve 63. This seating member is provided with a plurality of vertical ports nl? which extend entirely therethroughv andthe upper ends of these ports are adapted` .to be closed by a valve ring t8 which is movable relative to the upper end of the seating member. The upward movement of the. valve ring @t is limitedby'an annular flanged member d@ which is mounted within the upper end of the housing 62 above said ring.
The valve ring i8 and the seating member el provide a standing valve and, obviously, a ow from below the valve ring will unseat said ring' and permit fluid to pass upwardly through the ports 6l and into the lower end of the upper working barrel A. When the valve ring et is engaging the upper end of the seating member, the ports 5l are closed and the flow from the working barrel A downwardly into the chamber @il which is attached to the lower plunger 3&3, is secured to a tubular plunger l@ which is slidable vertically inthe upper working barrel A. Im mediately below its connection with the plunger lt, the pump rod is provided with a plurality of radial openings or slots l i', whereby communication between the bore of the rod and the boreloi the working barrel A is established. v The upper end of the plunger l@ has a valve seat 'il .arranged to be engaged'by a ball valve l2 which is confined within a valve cage it inthe usual manner. The upper end of the valve cage is connected to a tubular pump rod M which extends .upwardly to the surface of the well and ,i
'Y which is reciprocated in any desired manner (not `'threaded thereto. This housing is reduced at its upper end and has the lower. end of the upper' shown). A suitablepacking 'i5 surrounds the rod llt and -is conned in a packing chamber it Y formed atthe upper end of the working barrel A. The packing le is preferably of the pressure seal type and is retained in the packing chamber by the usual threaded packing gland il.
It will be manifestl that when the pump rod 'it is reciprocated the upper plunger l@ will be reciprocated within the upper working barrel A and since this upper plunger is connected to the lower plunger 3b by means of the pump rod de, said lower plunger will also be reciprocated in its working barrel B. As the upper plunger iii moves upwardly in the workingbarrel'm the oil is drawn from the chamber 65 and upwardly through the port 6l in the seatingmember 66,
said ring being unseated by the suction. `The 1 oil will flow upwardly into theV working barrel A, then through the slot IIl in the upper end oi' the rod 46 and into the bore of the plunger 10. Upon the -downstroke of said' plunger, the nuid which has entered the valve rod and the bore of the plunger 10, will unseat the ball 'l2 and flow upwardly into the pump rod 14 above the plunger 10. Upon the next subsequent upstroke of,
the plunger 10, the iluid thereabove is lifted upwardly through the rod 14. ,l
In operation, the lower end of the bore III of the well is ilrst cemented so as to provide the concrete sleeve or wall II, as has been explained. 'Ihe radially extending passages I2 are then formed by means of an angular drill or other suitable apparatus, whereby the formation below the producing area F communicates with the lower end of the bore I through said passages. 'I'he packer assembly I3, which carries the perforated section of pipe I6 is then lowered into the well by any suitable means `and the' length of the section I6 is such that the packer Il will be located just below the producing area F when the lower end of the pipe I E rests on bottom. It is pointed out that in some instances, it may not be desirable to provide the elongate cement wall II and in such case a cement collar II may be mounted within the bore opposite the point at which the packing element I4 of the packer I3 is to be set. This construction is shown in Figure 19 and in order to firmly hold the cement collar II in place radial passages I2 may be formed opposite the point at which the collar is supported. These passages I2 will receive the cement and will act as a tie or a positive holding means for preventing displacement of the collar II In this case, the collar II provides a surface against which the packing element I4 may seal. In either event, it will be manifest that when the packing element I4 is distorted the lower end of the well bore I0 .is packed oif from the producing area or' oil'sand F.
After the packer I3 has been lowered into the bottom of the -well bore I0, the pump assembly is then lowered through the well casing I9 until the tapered collar 2I at the lower end of. this assembly enters the seating nipple I l. When said collar engages the seat I8 of said nipple, as shown in Figure 4, the entire weight of the pump assembly is placed on the packer I3, with the result that the packing element I4 is distorted radially outwardly into sealing position with the cement wall II. As soon as this occurs the oil sands F from which the well fluids are produced, are` sealed oi from the lower end of the bore I 0. After the packer has been set, the
upper portion of the pump assembly is further lowered, with the result that the slip head 3| and all of the parts thereabove move downwardly with relation to the gripping slips 24, said slips being held stationary since they are directly connected with -the collar 2| which is'seated in the nipple I1. The slip head 3l may move downwhich said fluid will normally rise, depends on the particular condition of the well. In some` cases, the fluid may rise above the upper working barrel A, whereas in other fluids they may rise only above the separator. In all cases, it is necessary that the standing liquid level of the well be above the separator and the disposition of the separator may be controlled by varying the length of the pipe section 2li which connects the slip assembly B with the seating collar 2|. Obviously, by varying .the length of this pipe the disposition or location of the separator with relation tothe producing formation may be varied.
Asthe well fluids rise upwardly in the casing. they enter theseparatins chambers oi' the separator C, as has been explained, and in such chambers, the water is settled out of the oli. This water iiows through the ports BI in the mandrel 4t of the separator and passes downwardly into the lower working barrel B. At the same time, the oil passes through the ports 66 and into the vertical conductors in the separater. This oil flows upwardly into the chamber below the standing valve 88 of the upper working barrel A. When the valve ring 6l is unseated, the oil may then enter the lower end of the working barrel and flow through the slots 1I in the valve rod 46 and into the bore ofsald valve rod, as well as into the bore of the upper .pump plunger 1B.
The pump rod 14 which is attached to the upper plunger 16 is reciprocated from the surwardly due to the piston 21 which is carried thereby being slidable within the cylinder 26 1ocated between the slip elements 24, as has been explained. As the slip head 3| moves downwardly, the gripping slips 24 are expanded radially whereby the gripping teeth on their outer surfaces move into engagement with the bore of the well casing I9. Thus, the slips are moved to a set or gripping position and the pump assembly is secured axially within the well casing.
The well fluid from the oil sands or producing formation F will rise upwardly in the wellv casing around the pump assembly and the level to face of the well in any suitable manner and as this rod reciprocates the upper plunger lli, as
. well as the lower plunger 38, are reciprocated in their respective working barrels A and B. As the upper plunger moves downwardly, the oil which has been drawn into Vthe bore of the pump rod 46 and the plunger 1I, rises upwardly past the valve I2 and into the bore of the upper pump rod 14. At the same time, thel lower plunger 38 is moving downwardly in its bore and any water which is below said plunger is forced downwardly to unseat the standing valve 34 and pass downwardly through the slip assembly D and water which is pumped back into the formation,
not only serves as a repressuring medium to maintain the bottom hole pressure of the well, but also serves to drive or force the well fluid toward the bore of the well above the packer I3.
Upon the upstroke of the valve rod 14 the plungers 10 and 3l are raised in their respective working barrels. Upward movement, of the plunger Il lifts the fluid thereabove towards the surface of the well and at the same time creates a suction therebelow which draws additional oil into the working barrel below the plunger 10. Upward movement of the lower plunger 38 causes the water which has entered ythe upper end of the working barrel B to flow through the slot 45 and into the 'bore of said plunger 38. This water will unseat the valve 40 and will flow into the working barrel B below said plunger, whereby upon the next downstroke this water is forced downwardly to the perforated ,section of pipe Ii, as has been explained.
of the well bore.
An important feature of the invention is the provision of the air chamber 32 which is located just below the standing valve 3d and lust above the slip head 3i. This chamber serves to provide a more or less constant pressure, wherebs7 surging `or pulsating of the water being pumped into the formation is prevented. It will be manifest that upon the downstroke of the plunger, the water is forced under pressure downwardly through the conductor 3ft which extends axially of the air chamber 32. 'Ihe pressure ofthe water will tend to compress the air in the chamber @il during such downstrohe of the plunger d8. Upon the upstroke of the plunger du, there is no pressure or force against the water in the conductor leading to the perforated section of pipe and during the upstroke or the plungerl the air in the chamber t?. tends to expand, whereby a continuous pressure is exerted against the water below the air chamber. In this manner, the pulsations due to the sudden change of the stroke of the plunger be, are more or less overcome and-a substantially even flow of water into the formation is had.
The packer it may be located at any point between the oil sands or producing formation if and the bottom of the well bore i@ but it 1s preferable that the same be located immediately below said producing formation. It 1s pointed out that although it is desirable to form a cement wall or collar within the well bore and against which'the packer may be set, this is not essential and in a particularly hard formation, said packer `could be distorted against the wall Further, it is noted that although an angular drill has been found suitable for forming the passages i2, such passages could be formed in any suitable manner; also, in some instances, the passages may not be necessary and could be entirely eliminated in which case the water would be directed into the formation adjacent the wall of the well bore. Although the separator has been illustrated and described as located between the pumps, it is obvious that said separator may be mounted at any desired point in the assembly.
In Figures 10 to 13, a slightly modified form of the invention is shown. In this form, the separator C as well as all of the parts therebelow are constructed in exactly the same manner as has f been explained. In placeof the annular housing 62, an elongate sleeve or collar 18 is secured to the upper end of the separator mandrel 49 and the lower end of this sleeve 'clamps against the upper collar or element 51 of the separator. An annular groove 'I9 is formed in the lower edge of the collar 'I8 and this groove communicates with the vertical passages formed by 'the conductors 56 of the separator, whereby the oil which flows from the separator enters this groove. A plurality of outlet ports 80 lead from the groove 19 and have their upper ends open to the bore of the well casing I9. With this arrangement, the separated oil enters the casing I9 instead of entering the bhamber as which is formed m the housing 62, herelnbefore described.
The pump rod 46 which extends upwardly from n the lower plunger 38 extends through the elongate collar I8 and has its upper end connected with a plunger 'l0'. which plunger is similar to the upper plunger 1 0 of the first form. A suitable packing chamber 0I is formed within the collar and receives packing rings 02 which surround the pump rod 46 and pack olf therearound. A suitable packing nut 83 maintains the rings 82 within '75 the packing chamber. rline upper end of the collar i8 is directly connected to the lower end of the working barrel A.
It will be obvious that theseparated oil rises in the well casing le on the outside of the work ing barrel A. The upper end of the working barrel A is left open, the packing lo shown in Figure 2, being eliminated,` whereby the oil which rises in the casing may dow downwardly through the upper end of said working barrel. i
The pump plunger 'to' is similar in construction to the plunger lo and is provided with a cap member ed which is threaded onto its upper end. The cap member is reduced at its upper end to form an upwardly extending collarl and ver tical inlet ports "do extend through the offset formed in said cap member. n valve ring ill is confined within an annular space do formed withs in the cap member and this ring is adapted to seat so as to close the opeu'mgs et. Located within the reduced collar d is e. valve seat u@ having a ball valve Se arranged to engage the same. y
II he operation of this form with respect to the lower pump plunger @d and the separator C is exactly the same. As the upper pump plunger l@ moves upwardly, the ball e@ is seated, whereby any uid in the pump rod l'fi is lifted. During such upstroke of the plunger lo', the valvering di is lowered or unseated, whereby the ports it `are opened and thus the oil from the upper end of the working barrel A may flow into the bore of the plunger iii as well as into the lower end of the working barrel d through the slot li in the valve rod d. Upon the downstroke of the plunger lu, the valve ring el is seated, while the ball il@ is unseated and thus the fluid which has been drawn into the lower end of the working barrel and into bore of the pump rod le may pass upwardly into the pump rod lil. Upon the next succeeding upstrolre, this oil or fluid is lifted while additional oil is drawn into the lower end of the working barrel by the unseating o the valve ring di. In this form, the housing t2 and its associate parts, as well as the packing l at the upper end of the working barrel A, may be eliminated, which makes for a cheaper construction. The operation of the two forms is substantially the same and in both instances, the oil is lifted to the surface, while the water is returned to the formation below the oil sands.
In the forms hereinbefore described, the well fluids are separated in the separator C, that is, 4.the water is separated from the oil. The oil is then pumped upwardly to the surface at the same time that the water is pumped downwardly back into the formation. In many instances, it
vmight not be desirable to separate the water and nected by means of a coupling collar |00 to a" perforated section of tubing I0l (Figure l5). The upper end of the perforated section IOI is connected by a coupling collar I02 with a tubular mandrel |03. This mandrel isA formed with an external annular shoulder. |04 on which is normally supported a slip head Ill. Gripping slips |33 are slidable on the exterior surface of the head I 03 and are supported by links II'I which have their lower ends secured to a slip carrying sleeve |03, which sleeve surrounds the mandrel and the perforated section III. Suitable friction springs |09 are secured to the sleeve |03 and are curved so as to have their outer surfaces frictionally engaging the bore of the -well casing I3.
A packing element has its lower end-confined within the upper end of the slip head and surrounds the tubular mandrel |33. The upper end of the packing element is confined within a cap member III which is l'threaded onto the upper end of the mandrel. The gripping slips operate in the usual manner being normally supported at the lower end of the slip head |33 which head normally rests on the shoulder |04. The sleeve |00 is heldin a lowered position with relation to the mandrel by means of an ordinary J-slot ||2 and a pin I|3, the latter being formed onl the collar |02 which connects the mandrel to the perforated section IOI. When it is desired to set the slip, the mandrel is rocated so as to aline the pin with the vertical portion of the J-slot II2, after which the mandrei may be lowered with relation to the sleeve. During such lowering the slips |00 are held in a stationary position by means of the friction springs |09 and as the mandrel and slip head |03 is lowered with relation to said slips, the slips are expanded radially into gripping position with the well casing. Continued lowering of the mandrel and the upper confining cap I|| will distort the packing element ||0 outwardly into sealing position with the wall of the. well casing. This is the usual construction of setting a well packer.
A nipple II4'is formed with an annular depending fiange ||5 which is threaded onto the upper end of the confining cap` l I I. This nipple o is provided with an axial bore I|6 which receives the upper end of a tubular conductor 'I'he conductor has a diameter less than the diameter of the mandrel |03 and the perforated section IOI and extends axially through these elements. The extreme lower end of the conductor ||6 is provided with a plurality of packing rings 8 which seal oiif-the annular space between said conductor and the perforated section |0|. With this arrangemenmand with the packing element ||0 in its set position, it will be manifest that vwell uids rising upwardly in the casing from the producing sand will enter the perforations in the section I0| and will flow upwardly through the annular space between the mandrel |03 and the tubular conductor II'I. These well fluids will then flow into the space above the confining cap I I I which has the upper end of its bore reduced at to form a chamber into which these fluids may flow.
The upper end of the nipple ||4 is formed with an annular inclined seat IIS and a plurality of vertical ports establish communication between this seat and the chamber formed above the cap I I I, whereby the well fluid may flow upwardly through the ports |20.
A pump assembly P is adapted to be seated within the nipple4 ||4 and this assembly includes a working barrel |2| which has an enlarged collar |22 secured thereto. The underside of the collar |22 is tapered complementary to the seat IIS, whereby said collar may engagesaidseat. The collar is formed with inclined ports |23 which register with the vertical ports |20 in the nipple ||4 and the upper ends of these ports |23 are surrounded by a at valveseat |26. A valve ring |23 is arranged to engage the seat |24 to close the ports |23 and a confining ring |26 which is located within the collar |22 above the ring acts to limit the upward movement of said ring. Manifestw, when the ring |23 is unseated the well fluids lwhich have entered the mandrel |03 and which have flowed upwardly through the ports |20 and |23, may pass said valve ring and enter the lower end of the working barrel I2I. Of course, when thevalve ring is seated, the ports |23 are closed and a downward fiow of fluid from the working barrel into the mandrel |03 is prevented. This valve ring |23 acts as a standing valve for the pump assembly P.
A tubular conductor |21 has its lower end connected in the enlarged collar |22 and it extends upwardly and axially therefrom. A pump plunger |23 surrounds the tubular conductor |21 and is provided with a bore I 23 which has a diameter largerthan the external diameter of said conductor, whereby an annular vertical fiow passage |30 is provided between the conductor and the plunger. vertical ports III at its upper end and these ports communicate with the annular passage |30, whereby well fluids flowing upwardly through the plunger may pass upwardly through said ports. The ports are adapted to be closed by a valve ring |32 which overlies the upper ends of said ports. The plunger is connected by means of a coupling member |33 and coupling collarv |34, with the well tubing |35, which tubing extends upwardly to the surface of the well. The coupling member |33 has a packing chamber |36 within which suitable packing rings |31 are confined. The tubular conductor |21 which extends through the plunger |23 has its upper end terminating within the tubing or tubular pump rod |35. The Aupper end ofthe working barrel |2| is closed by a flanged cap |38 which has a plurality of ports |39 therein, whereby the upper end of 'the working barrel communicates with the bore of the well casing. The upper end of said working barrel is held in .axial alinement within the well casing by radial lugs |40 formed on the flanged cap Iw.
'I'he operation of this `f'orm is obvious. The tubing or tubular pump rod |35 is reciprocated, whereby the plunger |20 is reciprocated within its working barrel |2I. The well fluid from the producing formation which has risen in the well casing enters the perforated section |0| and flows upwardly to the annular space between the tubu lar conductor I and the mandrel |03. From the mandrel, this fluid flows through the ports |20 and |23 and upon the upstroke of the plunger |28, lifts the valve ring |25 and enters the lower end of the working barrel I2|. Upon the downstroke of the plunger, this fluid flows upwardly through the annular passage between the plunger |28 and the. tubular conductor |21 and then escapes through the ports |3I, unseating the valve ring |32.v This flow passes upwardly through the upper end of the working barrel |2I and outwardly into the casing through the ports |39. Upon the next subsequent upstroke of the plunger, the fluid above said plunger is lifted through the well casing. The well fluids are taken to the surface of the well where the water may be separated from the oil in any suitable manner. The water is then returned by pumping or otherwise through the 'well tubing or the tubular pump rod |35. This water flows downwardly through said rod, then The plunger is formed with through the conductor |27. then through the conductor ll'fl and finally through the pipe tti and then to the perforated section It, as has been er plained. In this form, the well fluids are lifted to the surface, the oil is separated from the water and the water is returned to the formation below the producing area..
'Ihe foregoing description of the *invention is explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as well as in the details of the illustrated construction may be made, with= in the scope of the appended claims, without de= parting from the spirit of the invention. A
. What we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
l. An apparatus for producing well duim from a well bore including. a well packer adapted to be set in a well bore below the producing strata to seal olf said strata from the formation therebelow, a water and oil separator above the packer for separating the water from the well uids which rise upwardly in the well bore, means corri1 municating with the separator for conducting the separated water downwardly through the welll packer and to the formation therebelow, a weli pump in said means for pumping the water unn aasaeoi in its upper end to allow oil to enter said conductor, the water which is separated from the oil settling onto the partition around the base of the upstanding conductors.
5. .an apparatus for producing well fluids from a well bore and for disposing of the water pro duced therewith including, a flow line, means within said fiow line for lifting the well fluids to the surface, means within the well bore for separating the water from the remaining well fluids, and means for returning the water through the same well bore to the formation below the producing strata simultaneously with the production of additional weil uids.
6. .An apparatus for producing well fluids from a weil bore and for disposing of the water produced therewith including, a ow line, means within said iiow line for lifting the well fluids to the surface, means for separating the water from the remaining well fluids, `and pumping means connected in the now line for returning the water to the formation below the producing strata simultaneously with the production of additional well fduids.
der pressure into the formation, and a well pump above the separator and communicating there= with for Vlifting the well fluids which have been separatedfrom the water to the surface. 2. An apparatus for producing well uids from a well bore including, a well packer adapted to be set in a well bore below the producing strata to seal od said strata from the formation therebelow, a water and oil separator above the packer for separating the water from the well uids which rise upwardly in the well bore, a conductor communicating with the separator for conducting the separated water downwardly through the well packer and to the formation therebelow, a well pump is said conductor for pumping the water under pressure into the formation, means connected in said conductor below the pump for maintaining a substantially constant pressure on the water being pumped to prevent surging, and means above the separator and communicating therewith for lifting the weli fluids which have been separated from the water to the surface of the well.
3. An apparatus for producing well fluids from a well bore including, a well packer adapted to be set in a well bore belowy the producing strata to seal off said strata from the formation therebelow, a water and oil separator above the packer for separating Athe water from the well fluids which rise upwardly in the well bore, a conductor communicating with the separator for conducting the separated water downwardly through the well packer and to the formation therebelow, a vwell pump in said conductor for pumping the water under pressure into the formation, an air chamber connected in the conductor below the 7. An apparatus for producing well uids and for disposing of water produced therewith including, a well packer adapted to be set in a. well bore below the producing strata to seal on said strata from the formation therebelow, a new line leading upwardly from the producing strata, a second now line leading from the formation below the producing strata, a. well pump within the irst fiow line for` lifting well fluids therethrough, a second well pump in the second dow line for pumping water downwardly therethrough, and means for simultaneously actuating said pumps from the surface.
8. An apparatus for producing well fluids and I for disposing of water produced therewith inpump and communicating with the bore of said conductor for maintaining a substantially constant pressure on the water being pumped to prevent surging, and means above the separator and communicating therewith for lifting the well uids which have been separated from the water to. the surface of the well.
4. As a sub-combination in a well pumping apparatus, va separator vadapted to be connected to the pump barrel and composed of a plurality of superposed annular elements, each element hav ing a transverse partition provided with upa-:tanding conductors, each conductor having an oil inlet cluding, a well packer adapted to be set in a. well bore below the producing strata to seal olf said strata from the formation therebelow, a flow line leading upwardly from the producing strata, a second flow line leading from the formation below the producing strata, means within the well bore for separating the water from the well iiuids, means for conducting the separated well uids to the first flow line and for conducting the separated water to the second flow line, and well pumps within the flow lines for lifting the well uids to the surface and for returning the water to the formation below the producing strata through said lines.
9. An apparatus for producing well fluids and fordisposing of water produced therewith including, a well packer adapted to be set in a well bore below the producing strata to seal off said strata from the formation therebelow, a flow line leading upwardly from the producing strata, a second iiow line leading from the formation be'- low the producing strata, means within the well bore for separating the water from the well fluids, means for conducting the separated well uids to the first flow line and Afor conducting the separated water to the second ow line, well pumps within the flow lines for lifting the well fluids to the surface and for returning the water to the formation below the producing strata through said lines, and means for simultaneously actuating said pumps.
l0. The method of producing well uids from a well bore, which consists in conducting into.
the separated water through the same bore to the formation below the producing strata and lifting the water-freed well fluids to the sur face.
11. The method of producing well fluids from awel1 bore, which consists in packing off in the bore the producing strata from the formation therebelow,A conducting the cognate fluids from the producing strata upwardly in the bore, separating within and below the top of the well bore the water from said fluids; returning the separated water through the same bore directly to the formation below the producing strata and lifting the water-freed well fluids to the surface.
12. The method of producing well fluids from a well bore, which consists in packing off in the bore the producing strata from the formation therebelow, conducting the cognate fluids from the producing strata upwardly in the bore, separating Within and below the top of the well bore the water from said fluids, returning the l separated water under pressure through the same bore directly to the formation below the producing strata and simultaneously lifting to the surface the remaining fluids which have been freed of the water in the well bore.
13. The method of producing well fluids from a well bore, which consists in conducting the cognate fluids from the producing strata upwardlyV which comprises producing oil and water into a well, separating said oil and water within said well, injecting said separated water directly into a sub-surface formation and conveying said separated oil to the surface.
15. A method of producing oil from a Vsub-sur- I face formation containing both oil and water` being in fluid communication with a porous for-4 mation above said packer and in fluid communication with a porous formation below said packer, a separator, means for conveying oil and water entering said well above said packer to said separator and means associated with said separator for conveying the separated water through said packer and into said porous formation be- `low said packer. 4
17. Apparatus for producing oil from a for-v mation containing both oil and water comprising a weil, a packer in said well, said well being perforate both above and below said packer opposite at least one porous formation, a pump located above said packer, a separator connected with said pump, a second pump for conveying oil from said separator to the surface and'means for conveying water separated in said separator through said packer and thence to the porous formation located below said packer.
JOSEPH H. REYNOLDS. ARTHUR sANDHoFnR.