US 2281883 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 5, 1942. A. KOSIAN SPEED CONTROL FOR ENGINES 62 8 LUBB/CAT/O/V 0/1. N052 PBESUBE Filed Nov. 19, 1938 T0 FUEL m w W N m 8 0 M0 KM 4 5 M A FIG. 6
Patented May 5, 1942 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,281,883 s'P-niin eon-mot Fen ENGINES Arthur fiosian, liicagoffil. Application November 19, 193%, serial No. 241,451
This invention relates to a new and improved device for regulating the speed of internal 'co'rnbustion engines, particular Diesel engines.
An important object of this invention is to provide a simple yet efficient means for advancing the opening of the exhaust valves of such engines and at the same tiine reduce the -supply of fuel and thereby reduce the speed of the engine without afiecting the efficiency to any marked degree.
Another important object 'of this invent on is to provide a means in combination with the oil supply, for advancing the opening of the exhaust valve in Diesel and other engines and accordingly control the speed thereof.
Another and further important object of this invention is to provide means whereby it possible to slow down Diesel type of engines to any desired speed.
A still further important object of this invention is to provide efiective means for efiicien'tly operating Diesel engines at various speeds.
Other and further important objects of the invention will be apparent from the disclosures in the accompanying drawing and following specification. I
The invention, in a preferred form, is shown in the drawing and hereinafter more fullv described.
In the drawin'gi Figure 1 is a sectional view of the'deviee of this invention taken on the line l--l of Figure 2. Figure 2 is an end view of the "deviee' or this invention with parts removed and in particulai section as shown by the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is similar to Figure 2 but showing the device rotated to a position it might attain when in operation.
Figure 4 is the device as shown in Figure 2 with the top part removed. I
Figure 5 is a side View of the part shown in Figure 4. e
Figure 6 is a View of the device or this invention and its relative positioninQwith reference to other related parts of the engine.
Figure 7 shows the regular cam shaft and the auxiliary cam shaft used with this invention, op erating in conjunction with an exhaust valve of an internal combustion engine.
Figure 8 is a section of a part of the device as shown in Figure l, but with the operating shaft in a difierent position.
As shown in the drawing:
The reference numeral Ill indicates generally a cam shaft upon which cams l2 are positioned.
The device of this invention is connected to this an; shaft as' best shown in Figures 1 and 6. The deiiiee includes a gear wheel M which is driven from the regular source that generally drives such cam shafts. The relative angular positions between the gear 14 and the cam shaft l0 are changeable, and thus, it is possible to advance the opening or the exhaust valves when desired.
The device is enclosed in the crank case 16, broken away so as to show the important working pane. the opposite end of the device from which the cam shaft is attached is movably posmoned an operapmg plunger shaft [3 that entei's centrally of the device to a desired distance. This shaft 18 is controlled by a foot or hand pedal as hest in Figure 6, at 2B and is connected to the shaft is with a link 22. The foot pedal 2o operates a throttle or control for fuel injection (not s own). H on both sides of the gear hi are covering plates 24 and 26 io'rminga housing. The plate 24 has a nanged lement 28 protrudingout andaround the periphery of the central channel an a d, therefore hags a greater bearing surface for the plunger shaft l8. The element 28 is screw threaded one; outside and has a packing Washer 32 on its end held in position by a gland nu't e4.
The covering plate 26 has a relatively large cylindrical body stemming to its left. The element '38 is partially positioned on the element as and is thefirily part of the device which does not have the large central channel 38."
In operation, the oil of the'engine is pumped through the device. A flexible connection 4E comes from the oil pump (not shown) and is clamped on the entrance channel 42 with a clamp 4'4. The oil passes through the channel M5 in the link 2 2 and then through a central channel it -of the shaft l8. V
I The distance which the shaft l8 penetrates the bore 30, will determine the effective number of openings 86 to admit the incoming oil to chamber 30. The channel 48 has its exit at 53 in an annular recessed part 52 of the shaft l8. If this shaft stops, or is stopped so that the opening 58 and the recess 52 is opposite the short exit channel 54, the oil will not enter the main portion of the device, and into the central chamber 30, and hence, the engine will operate at its normal speed, there being no change of the position of the driving gear [4 or the cams l2. In this case, the oil will exit at 54 and flow down into the sump of a crankcase I6.
As the plunger shaft I8 is pushed further in beyond the opening 54, the oil travels through the channels 56 and 58 and enters the chambers 60 and 62 respectively. Openings 'I2-'!4 are formed to open into the cut-out portions 60-452 of the element 64 which is held in firm position on the plate 24 as likewise are the other parts of the device 36 by bolts 66. Vanes 68 and ID are permanently positioned in the rotor or geared element l4, and when these are pushed around by the incoming oil, the gear M is given a relative rotation with respect to element 6 1. The vanes will be moved only far enough to give the oil an exit. There is always sufiicient space behind the rear faces of the vanes and beyond the exits of the channels 56 and 58 for entrance of oil. In other words, oil from these channels can always find its way into spaces behind the vanes 68 and '10 so as to eifect relative rotation of the members l4 and 64. This exit depends again on how far the shaft 18 is pushed into its chamber 30 and the number of openings 86 exposed to release oil into chamber 38. As best shown in Figure 4, with the gear and associated parts removed, the cover plate 26 has two series of holes 12 and 74. These holes are connected by channels 16 of different depths in the element 36 as best shown in Figure 5. Each of the openings 86 on the outside of 3B are filled with plugs except the lower two, namely 2'8 and 89, which are left open to allow the oil to exit directly to the outside when the plunger shaft l8 has entered its full length. The channels 16 are connected with channels 82 and 84 shown in Figure 4 that have their exits 86 in the central chamber 30 as shown in Figure l. The openings 86 can all or part be closed by the further entrance of the shaft l8. Figure 8 shows the shaft closing all but two of the openings 86. As each one of these openings 86 is closed to the passage of the oil, the gear and vanes move up to another channel to allow the oil to pass through. Each time the rotor or gear l4 changes'its relative angular position with the cam shaft ID, the time the exhaust valve opens is changed. The oil passes out the openings 86 through the channel 88, and exits at 9!] and thence back to the crank case. If, however, the shaft [8 is pushed in all the way, the oil exits directly to the outside through the unplugged openings 18 and 80. Figure 3 shows the gear .in its relative position with adjacent parts when the shaft I8 is in as far as shown in Figure 8.
Figure 7 shows the regular engine cam shaft 92, and also the relative position of the auxiliary cam shaft I of the invention. These cams are shown operating an exhaustvalve 94. Shown in conjunction with the exhaust valve rod is a tappet for operation with two cam shafts, namely l0 and 92. The cam shaft 92 is the regular operating cam shaft and has full control of the opening and closing of the exhaust valve, except when the cam shaft H) is advanced to cause a sooner opening of the exhaust valve 94. The closing'of the exhaust valve 94 is never effected by the advance of the cam shaft Ill. The element 96 is a box-shaped part of the tappet where the regular cam shaft 92 operates.
Diesel engines operate most efficiently at a constant speed. To reduce the speed of this type engine assuming the load remains constant, the fuel that is injected into the cylinders is reduced, but no allowance for the slower revolution is usually made. The device of this invention, when fuel is reduced, simultaneously advances the opening of the exhaust valves, and it has been shown that it is now possible to advance the opening of the exhaust valves to any desired degree with an according reduction of the fuel and vice versa and thus have the engine operate just as efiiciently at slower and variable speeds. The fuel injected into the cylinders is reduced proportionately to the amount the exhaust valve openings are advanced, this occurring automatically as shown by the throttle connection in Figure 6.
Another adjustment comprises a nut 9'! which is mounted on the screw-threaded rear portion of the shaft [8 so that it can be moved forwardly or rearwardly along this shaft, thereby controlling the extent or distance to which the rod 18 may enter the bore 30. Obviously, if this rod were allowed to move too far into the bore, a too great opening of the exhaust valves would result, thereby resulting in the undesired stoppage of the motor. Adjustment of this nut 91 allows of a setting whereby throttling down to a desired point may be easily efiected, and the adjusting nut 97 is then locked in position by means of a lock nut 98.
This invention, therefore, is a very important step in the further development of the Diesel type engine and will make it more adaptable to many other types of work than heretofore thought possible.
I am aware that many changes may be made and numerous details of construction varied throughout a wide rangewithout departing from the principles of this invention, and I, therefore, do not purpose limiting the patent granted hereon otherwise than as necessitated by the prior art.
I claim as my invention:
In an internal combustion engine having valves and a cam shaft. means for adjusting the timing of the exhaust valves, said means comprising an additional cam shaft operating on the exhaust valves only, driving means for said cam shaft including a gear mounted thereon and shiftable in a rotatable manner with respect thereto, means for manually controlling the rotatable driving relation of the gear to the cam shaft. said means comprising a housing formed by the gear and parts mounted on the shaft, a central cylindrical bore in the housing, a series of channels in the housing associated with the bore, hydraulic means for shifting the position of the gear in accordance with the adjustment of the manual control means, said hydraulic means including a hollow plunger shiftable within the bore to selectively control the channel openings and thereby the hydraulic means to regulate the driving relation of the gear on the shaft, and means for forcing oil as the hydraulic fluid through the plunger into the hydraulic means and through the selected opening of the series. ARTHUR KOSIAN.