US 2281951 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
I May 5, .1942.
K. SCHROEDER FURNACE WALL Filed Sept. '20, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet l K. SCI-IROEDER FURNACE WALL May 5, 1942.
Filed Sept. 20, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 I NVE TOR MNZE/ 1/ May 5, 1942. K. SCHROEDER FURNACE WALL Filed Sept. 20, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 May 5, 1942. K. SCHROEDER FURNACE VWALL I 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Sept. 20, 1938 M I V NTO BY I will I 21/1 Patented May 5, 1942 2,281,951 FURNACE WALL Karl Schroeder, Elmhurst, N. Y., assignor to American Arch Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application September 20, 1938, Serial No. 230,761
The present invention relates to furnace wall construction and has particular reference to that form of furnace wall construction in which walls are formed of courses of refractory blocks or tile and showing different parts of the wall in different stages of erection;
Fig. 3 is a view on larger scale showing in perspective certain parts of the metal supporting sectionally supported by an outer metal wall 5 structure; structure to provide a series" of horizontally ex- F 4 s v r l e i n n enlarged scale, tending inner refractory wall sections or belts taken on 11m? f 1; superimposed one above another and independ- Fig. 5 1s a section taken on the line 5-5 of ently expansible with respect to each other. 3
Among the several objects of the invention are a 6 1s a w mll r to Fi 5 h wms how to provide new and improved sectionally support- Certam Pa s of the wall are assembled; ed wall structure which is relatively simple and Figsand 3 are 5601110115 oW different rapid in its erection; which will readily permit forms of 9 of the mfital retammg members individual tile or groups of tile being removed ust ated 1n the preced1ng figures; J from the wall structure either inwardly or outa fi a dlfierem arrangee; hich rovides a relamen 0 511131301" 6 1 e? i l g v y l exi rrargemen t of metal sup- 10 is a view similar to Fig. 9 showing still porting structure, whereby to readily enable door a different we arrangement; and other openings of different size and configu- 11 517111 another we "i ration to be provided in the refractory wall; 12 1S a taken on the lme of which requires only comparatively small and light metal supporting members and a minimum 13 a 51mm to Showmg sun number of different kinds and shapes of such t l ht fi fi ger zlentfembodiyilng thei use of members; which requires aminimum total weight specjla m we an of metal supporting structure; which requires 3 14 1S a View taken on the 11118 4-44 of few and relatively simple and rugged shapes of refractory block or tile; which provides for a Referrmg P t particularly to E 1 to 6 relatively smooth and fiat exterior wall surface of drawmgi the n Structure lnustratefl when in assembled position, whereby to facili- 3O ggi gfl g i g fg gsg fsgggg g zfg gg' tate the insulation of the wall by the applicav tion of solid bats of insulating material dig fg gf gf g j gg ii fi gfg ifigz ig Teeny 9 the miter face f refractory W311; indicated at the corners of the furnace illusand which provides for minimum overall depth mated 9 wall inclusive 9 w supporting Structure and A series of vertically Spaced horizontally exinsulating material, 1f the latter is used, for a tending channels H are fixed t the vertical given p h o re ractory wall material between members II] by any suitable means such as boltthe furnace and the nearest metal supporting ing, riveting, or welding. The structure comstructure, prising the vertical and horizontal structural The manner in which the above enumerated shapes may be conveniently referred t n objects and other and more detailed objects are ally as Oute Supporting structure and as this attained, and the advantages to be derived from description prweeds it will be apparent that its use, will best be understood from a considera- Within the scope of the invention in Certain of tion of the following portion of this specification g :3 fi fij'i gfgf' i g ggg gfig g gzg in which, by way of example but without limita- 1 tion, structures suitable for carrying the invenm1 membershlz' tion into effect are described. Eacah ofdt e lorizontal members l2 serves to In the accompanying drawings forming a part p1 0V1 e in epen ent vertical support for one horhgveof. izontally extending belt or section of the refractory wall and each such section is supported ver- 1 1S a pel'spectlve Y of F partlany i tically and also retained against lateral displaceed furnace wall embodying the mventlon, v e ment with respect to the supporting structure Iron} 0f i l by means of a plurality of metal parts prefer- Fig. 2 18 a perspective view of the wall shown ably in the form of castings. i t ken from the exterior of the furnace These parts comprise a series. cnerally Z.-
shaped support castings I 4, shaped to hook over the top flange of a support channel l2 and to be retained against displacement therefrom by means of a downwardly projecting lip IS. The bottom flange of each casting provides a foot 18 for the support of a tile and above this foot the casting provides a recess 20 into which the outer portion of a support tile is adapted to project. The upper wall of the recess is inclined, as indicated at 22, upwardly toward the inner side of the wall when the casting is in its proper position. At the inner edge of the foot I8 an upwardly projecting ridge or foot 24 is provided. The vertical height of the recess 20 is related to the width of the channel members I2 so that when the support casting I4 is hung on the channel, the outer portion of the recess is accommodated in the space between the two flanges of the channel member. The upper face of each support casting is provided with a longitudinally extending lug or boss 26, and two smaller bosses 28 laterally spaced from the boss 26 and longitudinalty spaced from each other. Advantageously the bosses 28 are provided with inclined faces 30. The bottom flange or foot of the support casting is provided with U-shaped bosses 32 of like configuration longitudinally spaced from and with their open ends confronting each other. A further boss 34 is also advantageously provided on the outer face of the vertical web forming the rear wall of the recess 20, this boss being located adjacent to the foot portion of the casting.
The several support castings are hooked on the horizontal channel members as indicated in Fig. 1 and between certain of these support castings, which are placed in vertical alignment on different supporting channels, vertical retaining bars 36, which in the embodiment illustrated are of T-shaped cross-section, are inserted, these retaining bars being held against lateral displacement by the lugs on the castings between which they are situated. As will be observed from Fig. 3, the T bars are assembled with the flange of the T inwardly of the wall. The overall length of each T bar 36 is somewhat less than the distance between the confronting surfaces of the two support castings with which it is associated, but greater than the distance between the tops of the confronting lugs on the two castings.
As will be apparent from Fig. 3, the T bars may readily be inserted from the outside of the wall by first inserting the upper end of the bar between the two lugs 32 on the bottom of the upper casting and moving the bar upwardly between these lugs so as to permit the bottom of the bar to pass over the lugs 28 projecting up from the lower casting. The bar is then dropped into its final position with the T-shaped section of the bar retained at the bottom in the T-shaped recess formed between the lugs on the lower easting. When in this position the length of the bar is such that its top is still retained within the recess provided by the lugs 32 on the upper casting. To remove the the bar being lifted until its upper end strikes the lower face of the upper casting and the lower end clears the lugs 28 on the lower casting, after which the lower end of the bar can be swung outwardly and the upper end of the bar dropped out of the recesses provided by the lugs 22.
In order to permit the bar to be moved upwardly until its upper end is in contact with the bottom face of the support casting above it, the
bar the process is reversed, .9-
upper end of the web portion of the bar is advantageously notched as indicated at 38 to prevent interference between the web and the bottom flange of the channel member on which the upper support casting is hooked. By reference to Fig. 4 it will be observed that this flange underlies the outer part of the foot of the support casting.
The vertically arranged T bars serve to retain a series of horizontal runners 40 which adjacent to their ends are provided with hooks 42 adapted to embracingly engage the flange portions of adjacent T bars between which the horizontal runners are situated. These runners are in verti cally sliding engagement with the vertical T bars and as will readily be apparent, are inserted or removed from their engaged position with the T bars by tilting them to an inclined position in which the hooks 42 are out of engagement with the flanges of the T bars.
The parts comprising the vertical T bars and the horizontal runners may conveniently be regarded as retaining structure in contradistinction to the supporting structure provided by the support castings and the parts carrying the latter castings.
Each of the refractory wall sections or belts supported by the metal wall structure comprises a bottom course of support tile 44 which in the embodiment now being described is generally L- shaped in vertical section to provide an inner portion 44a extending vertically below a horizontal portion 441), the outer end of which is shaped to fit intothe recess of a support casting. The support castings are spaced from each other horizontally in accordance with the length of the support tile and as shown in Fig. 1, each support casting preferably engages the ends of two adjacent support tile. Each of the support tile thus is loaded as a beam supported at its ends rather than as a beam supported at its center. The sides of the support tile are advantageously shouldered as indicated at 440 to provide a ship lap joint between horizontally adjacent tile. The
; support tile do not extend inwardly to the inner face of the wall but directly support a course of L tile 46 the inner portions 46a of which overhang the front faces of the support tile and the outer portions 46b of which extend over the top of the support tile. The L tile are also advantageously shouldered at their sides as indicated at 460 to provide a ship lap joint between adjacent tile.
A series of courses of supported tile, the number of such courses depending upon the height of the belt or section of the wall, are laid on the L tile, these supported tile 48 being of like configuration in the embodiment illustrated and each being provided on one of its faces with a groove 43a extending across the tile. These tile are also advantageously shouldered as at 481) to provide for ship lap joints between adjacent tile of the same course.
When laying up the several courses of tile 48, the first course is laid with the grooves 48a opening upwardly. Thereafter, one row of horizontal runners 40 are inserted in place between adjacent vertical T bars as previously described and allowed to slide down between these bars until they rest in the grooves 48a. The next course of tile 48 is then laid with the grooves 48a facing downwardly so that the upper parts of the runners project upwardly into these grooves. The next course is then laid with the grooves opening upwardly, the next series of horizontal runners placed in position, the following course laid with the grooves opening downwardly to engage the runners, and this procedure repeated until the desired number of courses are laid. From the arrangement described it will be observed that only one series of runners is required for each two courses of supported tile while at the same time each course of the supported tile is positively retained against lateral displacement away from the supporting framework. In the embodiment described, the runners 40 are provided with retaining portions that are diamond-shaped in cross-section to fit into V-shaped grooves in the tile. The shape of the retaining portion of the runners may, however, be varied as, for example, as shown in Fig. '7 where the runner 40' is illustrated as provided with a vertically extending flange portion 40a projecting above and below the web portion 4%. Still another form of runner is illustrated in Fig. 8 in which the retaining portion Mic is a downwardly projecting flange adapted to provide retaining engagement with only one course of tile. With the latter arrangement, alternate courses of tile, that is, the
courses lying above each series of runners, may
be unretained filler tile of ungrooved cross-section, which tile are held against lateral displacement by friction between their upper and lower surfaces and the courses of retained tile immediately above and below them.
The upper course of each belt or section is advantageously provided by a course of expansion tile 50, the outer portions of which project upwardly as at 59a to provide a vertical or inclined joint between the expansion tile and the depending portions 44a of the support tile of the superjacent course. The vertical spacing of the support castings is related to the height, of the several courses of tile in each belt or section so that a vertical clearance space is provided between the course of expansion tile of any one belt and the support and L tile of the superjacent course. This space is packed with any suitable plastic heat resistant material 52, the nature of which will permit independent expansion and &
contraction in vertical direction between the different independently supported belts without destroying the joint therebetween.
Advantageously the several courses of supported tile 48 and the courses of expansion tile i 5t are laid in staggered relation as shown in Fig. 1.
From Fig. 4 it will be observed that the upwardly projecting portion 50a of the expansion tile is below the level of the horizontal support for the superjacent section of the wall. Consequently, the expansion tile can be removed outwardly of the wall and with the expansion tile removed it will be apparent that succeeding courses of supported tile and also the course of support tile can also be removed from the exterior of the furnace, it being understood of course that the horizontal runners are detached from their engagement with the vertical T bars as the various courses are removed.
With the horizontal runners removed, the vertical T bars may then readily be removed also and such of the support castings as it may be desirable to remove may also be detached. Thus it will be seen that all or any part of the wall including the support and retaining castings as well as the refractory, may readily be removed from the exterior of the furnace for purposes of repairing or replacing any part of the wall structure.
In Fig. 1 it will be observed that the length of the horizontal runners is such that vertical T bars are required only between alternate pairs of support castings; It will be evident that the length of the horizontal runners may be varied so that a larger or smaller number of vertical T bars are required for any given horizontal length of wall section.
It will further be noted that in the embodiment illustrated the vertical T bars for the difierent wall sections or belts are arranged in vertical series. This arrangement obviously need not be adhered to since these bars may conveniently be arranged in staggered or other relation as desired. The fact that the support castings may be shifted horizontally along the horizontal channels and the vertical T bars arranged substan tially as desired in so far as their horizontal spacing from each other is concerned, provides a highly desirable degree of flexibility in wall construction which is particularly advantageous for portions of the walls adjacent to door openings or the like which it may be desirable to provide in the wall.
Referring now particularly to Fig. 2, it will be observed that the construction just described provides for simple and convenient application of insulating material substantially directly to the outer face of the refractory wall, in the form of solid sections, usually referred to in the art as bats, the insulation, when in this form, being very much easier to apply in the first instance than lnsulation in loose dry form or in plastic form, and also being very much more readily removable and replaceable than other forms of insulation.
The manner in'which bats of insulating mate-. rial may be applied conveniently to the present construction is clearly illustrated in Fig. 2 wherein a series of such bats 54 are shown, each covering a section of the Wall between horizontally adjacent supporting members and between vertically adjacent T bars. The outwardly extending webs of the T bars provide convenient means for holding the bats in place, these webs being advantageously provided with holes 58 through which strands of retaining wire 58 are laced to hold the insulating material in place.
As will further be observed from Fig. 2, even with insulation in place, the supported wall structure lies entirely inwardly of the inner flanges of the vertical buck stays l0 and if desired, metal casing plates may readily be secured to the outer faces of the inner flanges of the buck stays.
In addition to the insulation, further insulating effect is readily obtainable by applying a sheet metal casing to the outer faces of the vertical buck stays, such casing structure conveniently being in the form of rectangular plates 60 clamped between the outer flanges of the stays perforated batten strips 62 bolted to a series of studs 64 inserted into the vertical support members and into horizontal clamping strips 68 which are in turn bolted or otherwise secured at their ends to adjacent vertical supports. With the casing secured to the outer faces of the support members, dead air spaces of insulating na ture are provided outside the supported wall structure, these spaces advantageously being closed at the top by a channel beam 1!] secured across the upper ends of the vertical supports 10.
The nature of the supporting structure lends itself readily to the employment of different kinds,
and'arrangements of refractory blocks, some of which are illustrated in Figs. 9 to 13.
The arrangement shown in Fig. 9 is suitable for use in a furnace construction where dismantling of the refractory wall structure from the outside of the furnace is not required. In this form of construction the inner part of the support tile 82 is of plain rectangular vertical cross-section and the several courses of supported tile 48 are laid directly thereon. At the top of each belt or course an expansion tile 84 is provided which is of generally rectangular cross-section and has a groove 84a in its upper face. In addition to this expansion tile, a second and smaller expansion tile 86 is provided which extends upwardly in front of the support tile 82 of the superjacent section. The lower surface of tile 85 is formed with a tongue 86a which engages the groove 84a. The expansion joint between the two sections is divided into two vertically offset portions 88a and 8%. In this arrangement the use of special L-shaped tile is made unnecessary.
In Fig. 10 still another arrangement is illustrated in which the top course of supported tile 48 is carried to aheight just below an L-shaped support tile 44 of the kind illustrated in Fig. 4 and the space inwardly of the latter tile filled by two courses of small rectangular expansion tile 90. In this case the expansion joint between two adjacent sections is broken as in the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 9 and the use of expansion tile of special shape is obviated.
In Figs. 11 and 12 slightly different arrangements of the courses of supported tile are illustrated which permit use of a symmetrical and somewhat simpler shape of tile for these courses while at the same time providingbroken joints between the inner and outer faces of the wall. The supported tile in this instance are grooved at 48a similarly to the tile described in connection with Fig. l but differ from the tile shown in that modification by being inwardly notched at both sides as indicated at 48d. When the tile are laid'in courses with the grooves 48a of adja-' cent courses facing each other, they are retained against lateral displacement in the same manner as in Fig. 1 and the spaces provided by the confronting notched portions at the outer sides of the brick are filled by short vertically disposed filler brick 92 of plain rectangular shape which are set vertically in the spaces between vertically adjacent horizontal runners. From Fig. 12 it will be observed that this arrangement provides broken joints between horizontally adjacent tile 48 while the brick 92 and the horizontal runners provide for broken joints between all of the several courses of supported tile.
In Figs. 13 and 14 an arrangement is shown which is similar to that illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12 but modified to employ special high tem perature resistance facing blocks of material such as carborundum or the like. In this embodiment the supported tile are notched as at 48c at one of their inner corners, the notches being undercut so that when the tile arelaid as shown at Fig. 14, they provide dove-tail ,recesses between horizontally adjacent tile which serve to hold against lateral displacement a series of high temperature resistant facing blocks 94. As in the embodiment shown in Fig. 11, vertical filler bricks 92 are employed at the rear face of the wall, but as will be observed from Fig. 14, the supported tile 48 require only one notch 48d at one outer corner of the tile since the breaking of the joints between horizontally adjacent tile is effected alternately'by the facing blocks 94 and the vertical bricks 92 at face ofthe wall.
It will be apparent that the various shapes and arrangements of the supported tile of each wall section may readily be combined in different ways with the different specific shapes and arrangements of support and expansion tile to suit the particular requirements of each installation.
Many changes and variations in the structures hereinbefore described by way of example may evidently be made without departing from the principles of theinvention, the scope of which is to be understood as embracing all forms of construction falling within the purview of the appended claims when they are construed as broadly as is consistent with the state of the prior art.
What is claimed is:
1. A furnace wall comprising horizontally extending vertically spaced supporting members, a series of support castings detachably secured to said horizontal members, a series of vertically extending retaining'members detachably carried by and extending between vertically spaced pairs of said support castings, courses of support tile engaging said support castings and carried thereby, and a series of courses of supported tile carried by each course of said supporting tile, at least certain of said courses of supported tile being grooved adjacent to their outer faces and horizontal runners detachably engaging adjacent vertical retaining members and having portions seated in said grooves to retain the supported tile against displacement laterally of the wall. I
2. A furnace wall comprising outer supporting structure-including a plurality of horizontally extending vertically spaced supporting members, a series of supporting castings hung on said supporting members and slidably engaging the same to permit desired horizontal spacing between said hanger castings, vertical retaining bars detachably secured between certain vertically aligned pairs of said castings, a course of supporting tile engaging said castings and supported thereby, a series of courses of supported t-ile supported by each of said courses of supporting tile, said supporting tile being grooved adjacent to their outer faces, and a series of horizontal runners detachably engaging horizontally adjacent vertical retaining bars and having portions engaging the grooves in at least certain courses of said supported tile to retain the latter against displacement laterally of the wall.
3. A furnace wall comprising outer supporting structure including a series of horizontally extending vertically spaced channel members opening inwardly of the wall, a series of supthe outer portinghanger castings hung on each of said channel members, said hanger castings being shaped to'provide tile retaining recesses ex tending into space between the flanges of said channel members, a course of support tile carried by each series of hanger castings, said support tile having outer portions projecting into said recesses and inner portions projecting inwardly of the wall from said hanger castings, vertical retaining bars detachably secured between certain pairs of vertically aligned hanger castings, a series of courses of supported tile supported by each course of supporting tile, and horizontally extending runners detachably engaging said vertical retaining members and extending between adjacent retaining members, said runners having portions projecting inwardly of the wall and engaging the tile of at least several courses of supported tile to retain them against displacement laterally of the wall.
4. In a furnace wall construction, a metal supporting structure including a series of horizontally extending vertically spaced channel members, a series of supporting hanger castings hung on said channel members and providing recesses for engagement with and support of courses of supporting tile, vertical retaining bars extending between certain vertically aligned pairs of hanger castings and retained against displacement therefrom by engagement with retaining lugs formed on the upper and lower faces of said castings and horizontal runners extending between adjacent vertical retaining members and detachably engaging the same in vertically sliding relation, said horizontal runners having inwardly projecting portions adapted to engage and be supported by certain courses of tile carried by said hanger castings.
5. In a furnace wall construction, means for supporting and retaining a horizontally extending section or belt of refractory wall comprising two horizontally extending vertically spaced supporting members, a series of supporting hanger castings hung on each of said members and horizontally spaced from each other, each of said hanger castings having a tile receiving and supporting recess and being provided on its upper and lower faces with retaining lugs, a series of vertical retaining bars of T-shaped cross-section detachably retained by the retaining lugs of certain pairs of vertically aligned hanger castings, the flanges of said retaining bars being disposed inwardly of the wall, and a series of horizontal runners extending between adjacent vertical retaining bars and detachably engaging the latter in vertically sliding relation, said runners having portions extending inwardly of the wall to engage and be vertically supported by tile supported by the hanger castings on the lower one of said horil zontally extending members.
6. A furnace wall including courses of tile, horizontally extending vertically spaced supporting members and vertically extending horizontal- 1y spaced retaining members closely adjacent to said course of tile for supporting and retaining the same, the horizontal supporting members and the vertical retaining members being disposed in the same vertical plane so as to bound rectangular spaces, the outer faces of said tile being substantially fiat, and rectangular blocks of insulating material disposed in the rectangular spaces defined by said supporting and retaining members.
'7. A furnace wall including courses of tile, horizontally extending vertically spaced supporting members and vertically extending horizontally spaced retaining members closely adjacent to said course of tile for supporting and retaining the same, the horizontal supporting members and the vertical retaining member being disposed in the same vertical plane so as to bound rectangular spaces, means extending inwardly from said supporting members and from said retaining members for engaging said tile inwardly of the outer faces of the tile, said outer faces being substantially flat, and fiat blocks of insulating material disposed in the rectangular spaces defined by said supporting and retaining members.
8. A furnace wall includingbourses of tile, horizontally extending vertically spaced supporting members and vertically extending horizontally spaced retaining members closely adjacent to said course of tile for supporting and retaining the same, the horizontal supporting members and the vertical retaining members being disposed in the same vertical plane so as to bound rectangular spaces, the outer faces of said tile being substantially flat, flat blocks of insulating material disposed in vertical position in the rectangular spaces defined by said supporting and retaining members, and means extending between a plurality of said members and outside said blocks for holding said blocks in position.
9. A hanger for use in a furnace wall including a hook-shaped upper portion, a vertically extending intermediate portion disposed substantially centrally with respect to the upper portion, a lower supporting portion extending substantially horizontally from the lower end of said intermediate portion, and lugs extending upwardly from said upper portion and downwardly from said lower portion, said lugs being positioned to removably hold tile retaining members extending above and below said hanger.
10. In a furnace wall, a plurality of tiles placed side by side, the adjacent sides of two adjacent tiles being formed with undercut notches providing a dove-tail recess, and a high temperature resisting block formed with a dove-tail projection near the center thereof received in said recess, said block spanning said two adjacent tiles.