|Publication number||US2282315 A|
|Publication date||May 12, 1942|
|Filing date||Nov 12, 1938|
|Priority date||Nov 12, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2282315 A, US 2282315A, US-A-2282315, US2282315 A, US2282315A|
|Inventors||Adams Lytle S|
|Original Assignee||All American Aviat Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
L. S. ADAMS May 12, 1942.
CATAPULT Filed Nov. 12, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 l :Srwentor L9/fz@ fafa/Jaws s Gttornegs L. S. ADAMS May 12, 1942.
CATAPULT Fild NOV. l2, 1,958
3 sheets-sheet s rwentor .ZZfZ'e AfA/m15' l mm, www;
Patented May 12, 1942 CATAPULT Lytle S. Adams, Irwin, Pa., assignor to All American Aviation,
Delaware Inc., a corporation of Application November 12, 1938, Serial No. 240,201
'This invention relates to mechanical devices for projecting articles through the air, particularly in the aviation industry and in warfare, although the invention is not restricted to such uses.
The device depends for its motive force upon energy stored in rubber cords such as are used in the aviation industry for taking up the shock upon the airplane from the wheels in taking off and making landings, and one of the objects of my invention is to enable a number of such cords to be combined as desired for obtaining the amount of energy required for projecting different articles and for a variety of purposes.
Other objects of the invention are to provide for safeguarding the apparatus from the Violence of its action under full power, and to enable it to be `tripped automatically and reset manually by a single attendant, as hereinafter described.
The invention may be readily embodied in portable forms adapted to throwing grenades and bombs, launching depth charges, projecting torpedoes, and similar purposes, and for accelerating articles to be picked up by moving vehicles. In the accompanying drawings the invention is illustrated as applied to catapulting mail and express pouches for enabling them to be caught and carried away by aircraft flying overhead.
Referring to the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a catapult as arranged for projecting a pouch to be picked up by an airplane, a portion of the cover being removed to expose the Working parts within;
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the same with the en tire cover removed;
Fig. 3 is an end elevation looking at the discharge end of the apparatus shown in Figs. 1 and 2;
Fig. 4 is a plan o-f the head, trigger and snubbing mechanism, drawn to an enlarged scale;
Figs. 5 and 6 are side views of the trigger portion of the same, Fig. 5 being a section on the line 5 5 in Fig. 4, looking in the direction of the arrows, and Fig. 6 looking in the opposite direction;
Fig. 7 is a face view of the head; and
Fig. 8 is a perspective view of the complete catapult.
The catapult shown in the drawings comprises a cornucopia shape frame made of angle and channel irons and covered on the sides and top with sheet metal I I, the rear portion of the frame being normally closed by means of a hinged cover I2 fitted with a clasp I3 similar to those usedfor automobile hoods so as to permit it to be raised upon its hinged end I4` to give access to the working parts of the apparatus.
The side frame members I5 converge" at their `rear ends and are secured to angle connections I6 provided with alining bearings for a cross shaft I1, the ends of which are fixed inlugs I8 formed to'slide on the guides I9 which in` turn are supported in brackets 20 bolted to planks2| or other secure foundation. Springs 22 are arranged on the guides I9 between the brackets and lugs I8 to take up some of the shock on the frame when the catapult is discharged.
The front ends of the frame members I5 are adjustably supported on movable posts `23 by means of swivels 24 which can be clamped to the posts by hand screws 25 at any desired vertical position. The lower ends of the post 23 are hinged to the planks 2l or other foundation support so as to be free to oscillate lengthwise of the catapult to permit the entire frame and mechanism supported thereby to move back and forth, the two planks or side supports constituting a flexible articulated foundation for the rigid metal frame work which supports the working parts of the apparatus.
In the space between the front and rear ends of the side frame members I5 are cross members 25, 21 for supporting the catapult head 28 and snubbing mechanism, which are normally held in position for operation by means of a tube 29 secured to said cross members in such a way as to be adjustable in a vertical angle but held against longitudinal movement. In the device shown, the rear end of the tube 29 is provided with a thrust member or flange 30 having a rounded face to bear against the vertical flange or leg of the cross member 26 through which it passes, and near the forward end of the tube 29 is a collar 3l which works between the vertical struts 32 connecting the upper and lower cross members 21 to guide the tube in a vertical plane.
Below the forward end of the tube 29 and eX- tending forwardly in front of and below the normal position of the head 28, are a series of linger bars 33, supported at their rear ends Von the lower cross member 21 and at an intermediate point by the cross member 34 which is bent at the middle to conform approximately to the arc of a circle having its center at the normal center position of the catapult head, the finger bars being slightly splayed to conform to the flare of the frame. Thus the finger bars 33 form a longitudinal cage-like support for the pouch or article to be projected, .as indicated vin Fig. 1,
but flexible ensemble that will withstand severe e shocks without breaking or coming apart.
Around the circumference of the face plate 36 inside its outer edge are spaced a series of U bolts 40 riveted through the rear face of the plate and straddling the outer ring 31, with their closed ends projecting through the front face to provide a series of loops into which the rear ends of the rubber cords 4| may be hooked by means of the S-hooks 42 with which the latter are fitted. The forward ends of the cords 4| are provided with similar hooks for engaging in the front cord supports 43, hinged one on each side tothe vertical side bars 44 of the frame at its forward end. The hinges between the cord supports and frame side bars permit the supports to swing around their vertical axes from their normal positions The keeper is provided with a roller A65 which nts into a slight notch in the face of the trigger latch near its extremity to assist in holding the keeper and trigger in latched position, as shown in Fig. 4, in which position the catapult head is securely vheld in place on the end of the tube 29.
The keeper may be released by a jerk on the article, as shown in full lines in Fig. 4. Upon Vfacing inwards towards the catapult head prior to discharge to follow the line of flight upon discharge, and may face outwards at the comple-- tion thereof.
In the device illustrated there are twenty U- loops 40 and each cord support 43 is provided with ten holes, to receive the `S- hooks on the front ends of the cords 4 i, but only ten cords are shown in use. The number of cords may be varied from two or four to twenty, depending upon the force needed for the particular object to be projected, and the size of the cords may be changed also to adapt the device to different loads and distance requirements, these cords being procurable in several sizes and lengths,
The catapult head is ,secured to the snubbing device by means of a cable 46 which is attached to an eye 41 on the hub 35 (see Fig. 6) and eX- tends through a slot 48 in the lower side of the tubev 29 to the rear end thereof, where it is conpulling the cord 69, the operating end of the lever 66 will move away from the keeper 63 and carry the link 68 along withit, dislodging the` roller 65 from its seat, and freeing the trigger 60, which swings out of the tube to release the head 28, as shown in broken lines in Fig. 4. As the head and keeper'move away, the pin connection 10 pulls out of the jaws 1I on the end of the keeper, leaving the link 68 pinned to the releasinglever 66. f,
During the setting of the head, while stretching the rubber cords and placing the article to be projected in operative position, the link 69 is swung around on its pin connection 10 to project into the adjacent slot in the tube 29, as shown in ydot land dash lines in Fig. 4, where it is pinned 'hole in the end of the link; and when everything nected to a solid plunger 49, having a loose sliding 't in the tube. the tube 29 presses the plunger 49 towards the rear end of the tube, the front end of the spring seating against a washer 5l which abuts against the inner end of a tubular liner 52 secured in the front end of the tube 29 to strengthen it, as
shown in Fig. 4. The rear end of the tube 29 is closed by a diaphragm 53 having an aperture 54 to check the :dow of air into and out of the space in the tube between it and the plunger 49, thus Y acting4 as a recoil ybuffer to prevent the plunger Yfrom slammingagainst the diaphragm after each discharge of the catapult. There is' sufficient slack in the cable 46 to .permit the head 28 to be thrown to about the front end ofthe frame before checking it, this slack being coiled on the finger bars Y33 behind the head in its normal position as shown in Fig. 1. The trigger mechanism comprises a trigger leverp'ivoted to lugs or ears 6i on the exterior` A compression spring inY setting of the device the releasing lever 'is out of operative connection with the keeper, and the trigger is positively locked in position to hold the catapult head against movement.
If the load to be projected does not weigh more than one man can lift, a vsingle attendant can place the load in the catapult, draw back the energy storing cords one at a time'and hook them in place on the face of the head or on the cord supports 43, set the trigger mechanism, and the apparatus is ready for action.
In the form of apparatus illustrated, which is shown as arranged for accelerating a pouch to be picked up in the air by a passing aircraft, the lifting cable or line 15 attached to the pouch is provided at its other end with a loop or Aother means for engagement with ya trailing cable, grapple, hook or other device carried by the aircraft, and when contact is made therewith,-the sudden jerk on the cable 15 is transmitted to the releasing lever 66 by means of a light cord 16 connecting the cable and cord 69,y which parts after serving its purpose of actuating the releasing mechanism. The cord 16 may be adjusted to operate the releasing mechanism before all the slack is taken out of the cable 15, so that the bagvv What I claim as my invention is as follows:
l. A catapult having a rigid frame comprising side members extending from end to end thereof, a base having relatively movable parts underlying said side members, a vertically adjustable mounting for one end of the frame and a pivot for the other end both supported on said base, said adjustable mounting comprising two supporting rods, one on each side of the frame, each hinged to said base at one end and provided with an adjustable clamp for engaging the adjacent frame side member, whereby the angle of inclination of the frame to the horizontal can be readily changed as desired by changing the position of said clamps with respect to said rods irrespective of the position of said base.
2. In a catapult of the kind described in claim 1 wherein the supporting rods are hinged to swing in planes parallel to the longitudinal axis of the device, spring recoil means associated with the pivoted end of the frame, between it and the adjacent parts of said base.
3. A catapult having a frame, a vertically adjustable mounting for one end of the frame, a
pivot mounting for the other end of the frame,
a disc-like head for engaging an article to be projected, trigger mechanism for releasably holding said head near the pivot end of the frame, and a plurality of rubber cords each independently secured at one end to said head near its perimeter and at the other end to said frame near its vertically adjustable end, whereby the angle of discharge flight of said article to the horizontal and number of cords supplying energy thereto can be adjusted to suit the desired range.
4. A resilient head for a catapult comprising a metal center part, a peripheral ring, metal connections radially disposed between said center part and ring, and vulcanized rubberized fabric embracing said metal parts and ring and having sufficient stiiness to form a support for the article to be projected.
5. A resilient head for la catapult comprising a metal center part, a peripheral ring, metal connections between said center part and ring, and
vulcanized rubberized fabric embracing said metal parts and ring and having suicient stiffness to form a support for the article to be projected, said center part having a hub projecting from its rear side for supporting said head in position to be releasably engaged by a trigger mechanism.
6. A resilient head for a catapult comprising a metal center part having a hub for receiving a supporting and guiding member, a peripheral ring, metal connections between said center part and ring, and vulcanized rubberized fabric embracing said metal parts and ring and having sufcient stiffness to form a support for the article to be projected, said ring supporting a circular series of attaching members projecting from said head to receive the ends of individual energy applying members.
7. A catapult having a frame with an open front end, a guide member connected to the rear end of said frame, said guide member being unrestrained at its front end and free to pivot about its rear end in a vertical plane extending centrally of the frame, a resilient head having a hub adapted to seat on the free end of said guide Lil) member, trigger mechanism between said hub and guide member for retaining said head against movement, energy storing cords connected to said head and to the front end o1" said frame near its sides, and means for altering the vertical height of the points of connection of the front ends of said cords to the frame.
8. A catapult having a frame with an open front end, a retaining and guide member connected at its rear end to the rear end of said frame and with its iront end exposed, a resilient head having a hub adapted to seat on the exposed end of said guide member, trigger mechanism between said hub and guide member for retaining said head against movement, energy storing cords connected to said head and to the front end of said frame near its sides, and means for supporting an article to be projected in front of said head, said article support having fingers projecting between said cords to avoid contact therewith.
9. A catapult having a frame with an open front end, a guide member connected to the rear end of said frame, spring means associated with said guide member and an air check for snubbing the recoil action thereof, a resilient head having a hub adapted to seat on the free end of said guide member, a iieXible cable connecting said spring means and head, trigger mechanism between said hub and guide member for retaining said head against movement, energy storing cords connected to said head and to the front end of said frame near its sides, and means for releasing said trigger mechanism to permit said head to be projected by said cords as far as said flexible cable will permit.
10. A catapult having a frame providing a support for a trigger mechanism at one end and a plurality of attaching points for energy storing cords at the other end, a circular head adapted to be restrained by said trigger mechanism, said head being provided with circumferentially spaced means for securing a plurality of energy storing cords thereto, energy storing cords stretched between said attaching points and securing means in spaced non-interfering relation, means below said head for supporting an article to be projected, said article supporting means comprising spaced bars having portions projecting between said energy storing cords out of contact therewith and free from interference therewith during the discharge movement of said head.
11. A catapult having a rigid frame articulated to separate base members providing a ilexible foundation structure, said structure comprising in addition to said frame and base members a vertically adjustable mounting for one end of the frame movably supported upon said base members and a pivoted support for the other end of the frame carried by said base members whereby the angle of inclination of the frame to the horizontal can be readily changed as desired, and recoil means for the pivoted end of said frame including a pair of longitudinal slideways mounted one on each of said base members and independent of each other, respectively, slides on said ways, springs between said slides and the ends of said ways, and a pivot member carried by said slides to which said frame is pivotally connected.
LYTLE S. ADAMS.
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|U.S. Classification||124/17, 124/38|