US 2283047 A
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y 2, H. B. COLESTOCK 2,283,047
FLUID MACHINE AND HAMMER Filed Mirch 8, 1940 mm vroa 1-. r f/ariyfiaz'yea 60/050 v 55 BY 3 ATJ'ORNEY I Patented May 12, 1942 warren stares earnest ossice FLUID MACHINE AND HAMMER Harry Barnes Golestock, St. Paul, Minn. Application March 8, 1940, Serial No. 322,923
' act alternately to energize the hammer piston on the operating tool and operative only through pulsated remote controlled pressure fluid. It relates best to a type wherein a pneumatic pressure and suction driver or pump supplies both the pressure and suction.
A still further object is to provide an improved valveless remote controlled pressure fluid hammer of extreme simplicity and ruggedness that with a gained efliciency of power through a suction reiniorcement for said compressed power, affords the construction of a .unit that can deliver work with dispatch and dexterity even through its small size.
These .and other objects and advantages of this invention will however hereinafter more fully appear. In the accompanying drawing there is shown, for the purpose of illustration, a method which this invention may assume in practice. In the drawing,
Figure 1 is a vertical side view of the pulsating remote controlled power hammer partially broken to represent a cross section-through the operative parts.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic sectional view of the powered pneumatic pump supplying the pulsations for the power hammer through its compression and suction strokes. V
Figure 3 is a cross sectional view looking downward on the line of 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a partial cross section showing the hammer piston at its top position and taken on the line of '44 of Figure 3.
As this invention relates to aerodynamic machines of the kind in which an air pump or driver supplies both the compressed air and suction, it necessarily relies in interconnecting tubing to the machine tool hammer. The connecting tubing of all machines of this kind heretofore known are of the type that have but one tube connecting said power unit and power hammer and wherein a succession of compression phases are generated which correspond to the succession of the compression stroke phases in the driver. That is to say, the air which in the compression phase is iorced toward the tool affords the tool the power for the power stroke after which it is expelled.
This has been a serious inconvenience and loss of power because, the power spent through the discharge to atmospheric pressure creates a back pressure and therefore a direct power loss. The driving arrangement for this pneumatic pulsating hammer, according to this invention, fully obviates the former hazards and inconvenience, and
entirely eliminates the possibility of dangerous high air pressures generally carried within the flexible tube between the compressor and the power hammer. In short, in my discovery, the pulsative motive power generatediand transmitted to the hammer is a balanced pressure fluid, a given pressure balanced by a given suction.
This invention distinguishes itself in the fact that the driver piston is actuated in both directions thereby creating a suction and compression on one stroke and reversing the phases on the return stroke so that the compressed air is assisted by a balanced partial vacuum in each hammer piston stroke with no direct air discharge to the atmosphere.
In referring to the drawing A represents the pulsating hammer of which B is the piston cylinder, C the piston, D the handle and E the remote control switch. The pneumatic pump or driver, diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 2 is operative from an electric motor propelled by an electric force upon the closure of the power circuit by the actuation of the remote control switch. This pneumatic pump or driver is operative by a direct a connected shaft 1 to which is secured the crank 2 operating the connecting rod 3., Through the cross head link connection 4 a piston rod 5 connected to a piston 6 is reciprocated within the pump or driver chamber 8. The piston 6 is provided with the usual expanding piston ring 1 to insure better compression and suction. The piston 6 traveling within the piston chamber 8 has its piston rod guided by a piston rod guide 9 through which the piston rod 5 travels.
The'pump or drivers piston chamber 8 is provided at both its lower and upper ends with air ports H and I2 into which are secured screw connections 13 and I l respectively connecting to flexible tubes 15 and it. These tubes l5 and [6 are in turn connected by tube connections I! and Hi to their respective ports in the power hammer A.
The lower or hammer end of the handle D is provided at its lower extremity with ports X and Y and is likewise further provided with a series of borings i9, 20, 2| and 22 into which the several cylinders of the pulsating hammer are secured as will be hereinafter more fully described. The handle D of the pulsating hammer A is further provided with two side flanges F and G which are in turn fitted with holes 23 through which assembling rods 24 secure the pulsating hammer cylinder assembly to the handle proper.
The inner hammer cylinder B is inwardly provided with a series of ports 25 through an air cushion pillow block H having a pillow extension 26 which is provided with an orifice 21 for the releasement of the trapped air from within the pocket 28 within the upper face of the piston hammer C. The pillow extension pocket 28 cooperates with the air arresting pillow extension 26 of the cylinder end pillow block H, thus cushioning the return stroke of the hammer piston C. The hammer piston C is further provided at its other extremity with a boss 3| which beats the piston Cs pulsations upon the tool 32. The inner cylinder B is further provided with a second series of piston ports 33 near the power stroke limits of the hammer piston ,0 leading to a perinheral port chamber P.
The piston cylinder B is further provided in its periphery with a pressure balance weep hole W leading from the inner chamber to the outer port chamber P. The port chamber P is formed by the cylindrical chamber B being enclosed by an outer cylinder so as to form one continuous circular port connecting the piston ports 33 with the chamber X.
Inserted in the tool end of the piston chamber B is the bushing 34 which in turn is provided with a bore 35 of such size, as will freely yet snugly admit the insertion of a tool 32, thereby making this assembled unit the other cylinder end closure.
The inner and outer cylindrical piston walls are in assembly supported upon a locking yoke 36 which in turn is provided with side flanges F and G through which the locking bolts 24 are passed and which, when assembled, are secured in place by the locking nuts 38.
In operation, the pneumatic pulsating pump illustrated in Figure 2 is connected to the pulsating hammer through a series of tube connections l and I6 which respectively lead from the chambers II and I2 to the chambers X and Y respectively in the pulsating hammer. When the electric trigger switch E in the hammer handle D of the pulsating hammer A is pressed inward, it forms the electrical contact for the electric motor. The motor, not shown in the drawing, being directly connected to the shaft I which through crank connection 2, the connecting rod 3, the cross head 4, and the piston rod 5 will cause the piston 6 to travel upward, trapping the air Within the said piston chamber 8, then pushing the trapped air out through the chamber l2 through its intermediate connections l4 into the tube [6 and thence into the chamber Y where it enters the piston chamber B through the ports 25 forcing the piston C downward as best illustrated in Figure l.
The upstroke of the pneumatic pulsating pump piston 6 creates a partial vacuum in the lower piston chamber to the lower piston side, likewise creating a partial vacuum within the chamber H and its intermediate connection l3. The partial vacuum extends through the tube l5 to the chamber X which is directly connected to the port chamber P and which opens to the inner chamber B on the boss side of the hammer piston C, thus aiding the compressed power by sucking the hammer piston 0 into the position shown in Figure 1. 7
Upon the reverse stroke of the pump or driver piston 6, the entire phase of compression and suction is likewise reversed and thus the hammer piston is retracted into a new striking position. Upon the upstroke of the hammer piston C, the air within the pocket 28 becomes trapped by the pillow extension 26 and obviates or cushions a return blow of the hammer piston C allowing the tr'apped air to weep out through the weep hole 2 Should there at any time at the end of a power stroke during the operation of the hammer arise a moment of unbalanced fluid pressure and suction, there is provided a fluid balance weep hole W open and operable only when there are no active forces playing upon the hammer piston for its operation at the end of a power stroke and thus balancing the fluid pressure and suction to a degree of smooth operating.
1. A hammering device comprising a cylinder, a piston slidable within said cylinder, flexible fluid supply conduits communicating with said cylinder at opposite ends of said piston, one end of said cylinder having an opening therein to receive a tool to be hammered, a boss projecting from the other end of the cylinder, a recess in said piston into which said boss extends, an exhaust port relatively small with respect to said supply conduits through said boss for air trapped within said recess by said boss to cushion movement of the piston in one direction.
2. A hammering device comprising a cylinder, a hammering piston slidable within said cylinder between extreme positions, flexible fluid supply conduits communicating with said cylinder at opposite ends of said piston when the same is in said extreme positions, one end of said cylinder having an opening therein to receive a tool to be hammered, the other end of said cylinder having a boss projecting therefrom, a recess in said piston to accommodate said boss, air passage means in communication with one of said flexible fluid supply conduits through said other end of said cylinderadjacent said boss, and said boss having restricted fluid passage means therethrough communicating with said one fluid supply conduit, to restrict the air flow from between said boss and said recess in said piston.
3. A hammering device comprising a cylinder, a piston slidable therein, one end of said cylinder having an opening therein to receive a tool to be hammered, a fluid supply conduit communicating with said one end of said cylinder, a boss projecting from the other end of said cylinder, a recess in said piston to accommodate said boss, said boss and said other cylinder end having passages therethrough, and a second fluid supply conduit communicating with said passages.
4. A hammering device comprising a cylinder, a piston slidable in said cylinder, a pair of flexible fluid supply conduits communicating with said cylinder at opposite ends of said piston, one end of said cylinder having an opening therein to receive a tool to be hammered, piston cushioning means at the other end of said cylinder, said cylinder having a fluid opening therethrough connecting one end of said cylinder with the fluid supply conduit communicating with the other end of said cylinder when said piston is in one extreme position of its movement.
5. A hammering device comprising a cylinder,
apiston slidable therein, flexible fluid supply conconnecting the other end of said cylinder with duits communicating with said cylinder at oppothe supply conduit extending to said one end of site ends of said piston and one end of said cylinsaid cylinder to equalize pressure on both sides der having an opening therein to receive a tool to of said piston at one point of the stroke of said be hammered, and said cylinder having an open- '5 piston.
ing in the wall thereof closed by said piston HARRY BARNES COLESTOCK. throughout the greater part of its movement