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Publication numberUS2283285 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 19, 1942
Filing dateMay 25, 1939
Priority dateMay 25, 1938
Publication numberUS 2283285 A, US 2283285A, US-A-2283285, US2283285 A, US2283285A
InventorsPohlman Reimar
Original AssigneePohlman Reimar
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 2283285 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 19, 1942. R. POHLMAN v 2,283,285

MASSAGE Filed May 25, 1939 2 SheeLS-Shee' l 27m/erp Z-La Y' @ff/70) /{Mefp 335%Qaw ame( gli May 19, 1942. R. PoHLMAN- 2,283,285

MASSAGE Filed May 25, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented May "19, 1942 MASSAGE l Reimar Piohlman, Berlin, Germany Application May 25, 1939, Serial No. 275,763

In Germany May 25, 1938 (Cl. 12S- 24) 2 Claims.

massage has been carried out partly by hand and partly by the aid of apparatus, such as that known as a vacuum cup roller, which eiect massage by the local action of rubber sucking elements and produce a higher blood circulation. In all such cases the massage takes place on the surface of thesskin and its eiect is limited to the supercial parts of the body. Moreover, the massaging forces are spread over comparatively large areas, so that the force per unit area is comparatively small and in consequence not very edective. Massage eects which are not only concentrated, but which also penetrate deep to below the skin are not obtainable by known methods.

It has already been proposed to employ ultra sound for treatment of the human body. Sound, particularly ultra sound, as already known, is a. longitudinal vibratory movement of those parts of the medium which are excited by the sound wave. If one accordingly radiates the point of the human body to be massaged with ultra sound by placing an ultra sound generator in contact therewith, the ultra sound penetrates into the body and sets up vibrations in the tissue thereunder to a great depth. sufficiently great energy could not, however, be applied in this known Way, because during absorption the ultra sound energy is transformed into heat which becomes unbearable when attempts to use great energy are made.

In accordance with the present invention, however, the ultra sound generator of a massage apparatus, is built inside the striking apparatus of the kind used in known massage heads, and during treatment the ultra sound generator is not held stationary but is secured over the Apart to be treated. The operator can easily vary the -energy radiated per unit area by moving the Ament has the advantage that extraordinarily great ultra sound energies may be applied.

To enable particularly great local energydensity to be applied, the ultra sound generator can also be operated intermittently. This can be effected either by periodically de-tuning the exciting electric alternating voltage, or by means of an interrupter device built into the electric exciting apparatus. It is found that a person under treatment can receive without any untoward effect intermittently applied energy at strengths which he could not endure when applied continuously. The depth to which the action penetrates may be regulated by adjusting the frequency of the ultra sound radiation, low frequencies being elective at greater depth than high frequencies. Action at depths of from two centimetres up to twenty centimetres may be so obtained. It is essential that each part treated by the ultra sound should be set into violent vibration even at great depths, and thusI be subjected to strong compressive and tensile stresses, and that the effect should' not be limited to re- A gions near the surface as in the case of hand into the skin either by hard rubbing or by electrical means. The present method, however, works in a different manner and enables substantially greater quantities of the substances to be rubbed into the skin. This is due to the different eects from. those produced by the aforementioned methods, the skin Ipores being not only completely obturated, as in the case of rubbing in where the depth penetration is limited to regions close to the skin, but owing to the hard compressive'and tensile eifects of ultra sound waves, the pores of the treated part are enlarged, rendered elastic land the applied substance is emulsified at the same time in the expanded tissue by the sound pressure. This effect extends deeply into the tissue and thus greater quantitiesof the applied substances are caused to penetrate, whereas hitherto, the upper layers of the treated part become at once super-saturated with the substance.

This effect is considerably" enhanced by the diathermic action of the ultra sound waves. This leads to the conclusion that the local diathermic effects of the ultra sound radiation may also be utilised; in the rubbing in of substances this effectplays a role in such a way that most ointments, cosmetics and the like become more iluid penetrating powers. 'I'his effect cannot be obtained by applying the cosmetics or the like in a heated state in the i'lrst instance, because such substances will take the body temperature when they reach regions close beneath the skin sur- Y sonic massage head in which the oscillating generator is arranged Ain an insulating liquid;

Figure 2 shows schematically in longitudinal section another embodiment of a supersonic massage head in which the oscillating generator is arranged directly on the foil covering of the housing;

Figure 3 shows a supersonic massage head in longitudinal section in which a magnet striction transmitter serves as oscillating generator.

Figure 4 shows more precisely the formation of a supersonic massage head inwhich the oscillating generator is arranged in the same manner as in Figure 2.

Figures 5, 6, 7a, 7b, 8 and 9 are detail views of the arrangement in accordance with Figure 4.

As shown in Figure 1, a glass receptacle indicated at I is sealed by a ground part 2, The` provision of a ground part permits easy removal of the internal equipment, and also enables to be taken into account the expansion of the liquid 2 9 during working. There are indicated at 3 conductors to the high frequency generator which delivers the required high frequency alternating voltage in the known manner. This alternating voltage is conducted to the electrodes 4 and 5. At 4 is a small air-filled chamber which is sealed in front by a thin metal foil 6. 'Ihe chamber rests behind upon a ceramic insulator I3 and prevents the escape of the ultra sound radiation backwards so that the insulator I3 is protected against destruction by the ultra sound radiation. The ultra sound Waves generated by a piezo quartz crystal I issue through the aperture 8 in the electrode 5 towards the front, by way of the surrounding medium 9, for example, xylol, and through the thin membrane I0, which is held by the retaining ring II and so into the human body indicated at I2. Should a substance as described above be rubbed in'the body, it is first applied upon the part of the body to be treated and is disposed between I2 and the membrane I0 as a contact substance. In this connection it is desirable that a layer of this contact substance, which is as thick as possible, is between the body part to be treated andthe massage head. In order that a sufiicient layer thickness is obtained and the contact substance is not pressed away eventually through the massage head itself from the place to be treated means may be provided which hold the membranes at a small distance from the surface to be treated. ,Rounded oi projections 29 arranged in the form of a crown around the foil may for example serve as such `means, which projections may be provided on .the screw nut I I or 34 respectively holding fixedly the foil.

' The example shown in Figure 2 works without liquid. At I3 are indicated ground steel plates which are disposed parallel to one another. At

2,283,285" when hot, when they have very much greater mented in place with their axes directed oppositely upon the thin steel foil I5, so that they os' cillate in equal cycle. At I6 is' indicated a housing. The conducting cable 3 is under the high frequency alternating voltage as in the previous case. The individual components of the o scillating body I3 and I4 are cemented together and the oscillating body itself is brought in contact with the body part to be massaged through the medium of a contact substance. Instead of the two quartz plates I4 illustrated, a plurality of thin quartz plates may also be incorporated between the steel plates I3 which are all cemented together in the way described above, so that in a, certain degree a condenser with quartz dielectric is produced. If one cements alternate plates with their electric axes disposed in opposite directions, respectively, then they contract and expand simultaneously, and constitute an oscillating body which achieves great amplitudes with comparatively small voltages.

The massage head may be built employing either the electro dynamic or the magneto-striction principle. In Figure 3, II is a slotted nickel I4. are two piezo quartz crystals which are Ce- 75 tube which is damped at I8 in an riron housing I9. On the one end is disposed a coil 2| tapped at 20, and on the other end is a coil 22 serving for direct current magnetisation. If one connects the leads 20,r 23 and 24 appropriately with an electron tube arrangement, high frequency oscillations are generated which excite the nickel tube II to strong longitudinal oscillations, which pass through the plate 25 into the body I2. 'Ihe magnetic ux circuit of the generated magnetic fields is closed through the iron housing I9 which is slotted to prevent eddy `currents and to obtain a cooling action. An insulating screw plug 26 leads to the connecting cable. 'Iliis arrangement also enables a contact substance to be used between 25 and I2. 'For longer use, a special cooling device can be provided.

Great losses may occur in transforming and transmitting the electric oscillating energy into ultra sound energy, and in transmitting the sound energy into the human body. 'Ihe transmission of the high frequency alternating voltage into the ultra sound massage head presents special di'iculties owing to the large partially capacitative and partially dielectric losses in the insulation ofthe connecting cable, also the required high insulation of the conducting cable substantially affects the mobility of the massage head. e

In known massage apparatus, which do not work with ultra sound, these diiculties do not occur, as it is only a question of the transmission of high frequency of 50400 cycles at small voltages, whilst in the case of massage apparatus in accordance with the invention, a frequency of approximately 5105-5106 cycles at a voltage up to 5,000 volts must be transmitted. The transmission of the generated ultra sound energy, with a minimum of losses, into the human body also causes diiiculties because in consequence of the small ultra sound amplitude, thin air layers, membranes and any boundary layers of various solid sound transmitting `mediums and cavitation of transmitting liquids weaken the intensity of radiation.

In accordance Vwith the invention, the aforesaid losses may be almost if not entirely prevented by the fact that the place where the energy transformation takes place, particularly the place where the transformation of the low tension high frequency energy into the high voltage high frequency energy takes place, and thev place where transformation of high frequency energy into ultra sound energy takesplace are as close as possible to the place at which the ultra sound energy is to be applied or radiated. As'

in the case of ultra sound massage generally, only a small energy may be brought into the human body if destructive effects are to be avoided. The prevention of the energy losses achieved by the arrangement in accordance with the invention signifies the possibility of employing very small andconvenient high frequency generators for the operation of ultra sound massage heads, which are, moreover, inexpensive in manufacture and in use.

In order that the transformation of high frequency energy into ultra sound energy shall take place as close as possible to the part to be treated, the ultra sound generator, particularly such as an oscillating quartz or an electrodynamic magcontact of the massage head, or of the metal membrane `closing the massage head, respectively, With the earthed patient through a resistance, the high potential of the high frequency generator may beso modified that only at this moment oscillations with substantial amplitude occur or particularly if one Works with high frequency,

the quartz may be so elastically mounted onthe massage head that it is shifted by contact of the massage head with the body towards an electrode plate, so that the capacitative coupling of the quartz is increased, and that oscillations with corresponding amplitude will result. A

Figure 4 shows a massage head in which the oscillating quartz 3| is cemented to an electrode 32 serving as a damping load during idle running neto-striction generator, contacts directly with\ the surface of the body to be treated. Ultra sound apparatus, specially for medical and biological examinations, have already been proposed which are fixed to a stand and are mounted near to the place to be treated, and allow a as close as possible to the place to be treated and so reduce losses in the connecting leads as much vas possible, the high frequency tranformer may in accordance with the invention be built within the ultra sound massage head itself, so that the transformation does not take .place in the high frequency generator, but in the massage head.

A low tension cable is then used to connect the massage head with the high frequency generator, the dielectric and capacitative loses insuchcable being small. Apart from this, there is another advantage that also the modifications of tuning due to the alteration of capacity consequent upon movement of the exible cable are reduced.

If the oscillating quartz crystal is in direct contact with the body to be treated during the treatment, the quartz will oscillate in a completely undamped condition when running idle, that is to say, when the massage head is lifted temand which electrode may consist, for example, of an aluminum alloy or of a steeel; To the other side the quartz is cemented a foil, for example, a

spring which is compressed from two diametrically opposed points. The spring device 36 is separated from the core 40 by an insulator. This ring 36 consists of a thin steel band and is bent into an ellipse as a result' of the compression. The ring is attached to the insulator located between spring device 36 and core 40, in order that the spring device 36 is electrically insulated from the grounded transformer core 30. One of the conductors 30 passes from coil 4I to the insulated spring device 36, while the other conductor leads to ring 34 or'membrane 33. The spring device is adapted to provide a good contact with damping plate 32 and furthermore, it should prevent the cement which softens as a result of the heat, from becoming detached between 3l and 32. Conductor 30 is soldered to the spring device 36'. For transforming the low tension high frequency energy from the cable into high voltage high frequency energy, a transformer is disposed in the massage head itself which consists of a core Ml of high frequency iron, of a `secondary winding 4| and a primary winding B2; the primary winding mayconstitute either a part or the whole of the inductanoe of the oscillating circuit which is readily possible in the case of high frequencies;

, otherwise the massage head has to be inconporarilv from the body, and this will lead to its there may be oil as a radiation load behind the quartz.

Alternately, such load may be omitted and means may be provided to ensure that the full operating voltage is applied to the oscillatory quartz only when the massage head is in contact with the body to be treated. For example, by

a radiation load, a fluid radiation load, for ex-r ample. oil. may be employed also at the rear of the quartz, as shown .in Figure 5. 'In this embodiment the quartz 3! is again cemented to the foil 33 which is tensioned by the ring 36 in the same Way as in the example shown in Figure 4.

Owing to the heat resulting from the absorbed ultra sound radiation, the liquid has a tendency to expand in the massage head during working. In view of this a valve is provided in the arrangement illustrated in Figure 1. In an apparatus resting upon and secured to a support, which apparatus is locally rigidly mounted, thadischarged liquid may be collected easily in the rising pipes or the like. In a message head whichr is moved during`treatment and which operates in any position, such outlet valves may be very inconvenient; in particular there may be a danger of clothes and linen being soiled by escaping oil and that upon subsequent cooling of the massage apparatus when the oil is again contracted, air bubbles may penetrate into the interior which may cause electric discharge by arcing, and of other'troubles. In order .to allow the oil to expand without risk of its escaping from the mas- 'prevent this air bubble reaching the quartz at 36 which might result in the destruction of the quartz, a protecting ring 31 is provided which is so formed, preferably of conical shape, that the air bubble 38 ycannot reach the opening` of the ring ,31 whatever the position of the massage head. Thus gases which are released in the space between the protecting ring and quartz by cavitation escape through the opening of the ring 31 from this space when the message head is in a vertical or approximately vertical position and may be united -with the air bubble 38; but no gases may return to this space. In order to prevent failure of the cementing of the quartz due to heat evolved during working, a spring device 36 lpressing the quartz against the membrane 33 may be provided here as in the case of Figure 4.

In order to improve the sound transmission to the human body and to easily adapt the massage apparatus to various requirements, transmitting members may be provided, which may be mounted, as illustrated in Figures 7a, '7b and 8, upon the massage head by means of the arms 45, for instance through a bayonet joint.

The transmitting member illustrated in Figure 7a consists of a block 43 of a good sound conducting material, for example, of glass or aluminium. .Assuming the device to be applied to human tissue in which the velocity of sound is approximately 1f500 metres per second. and that the velocity of sound in the material of the transmitter member is 5,000 metres per second, there will be a sound optical refractive index n, i. e.,

equal to 3.3 and the focal distance f of the transmitter'member acting in the manner of a lens, i. e.,

' where r is the radius of curvature and is equal to 11.5 centimetres, of 5 centimetres will be obtained. By'corresponding selection of the radius of curvature r the rultra sound radiation may be focussed to any desired depth. In Figure 7b is illustrated another transmitter member, the body of which consists also of a good sound conducting material and which is so formed that the ultra sound radiation is strongly concentrated upon the surface of the body to be treated. In order to obtain an increased effect, it is ad- Vantageous to tune the transmitter members as regards their length in regard to the' frequency. Transmitter members for ultra sound generators are already known. However, these known transmitter members cannot be brought into di- ,rect contact with the quartz employed and consequently there is a double reflection of the ultra sound radiation, and in consequence great losses by reflection. Moreover, known transmitter members do not have any focussing effect and they are not tuned as regards their length to the natural frequency of the quartz.

Owing to the good energy transmission, great heating of the surface of the body to be treated takes place. In order to compensate for this, the transmitter members may be provided as illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 with cooling means, in orderto cool through the cooling thereof the surface of the body to be treated. 'I'he arrangement illustrated in Figure 8, which may be mounted upon the message head, has transmitter members in accordance with Figures '1a and 7b attached thereto by means of a bayonet joint and the member 43 may be surrounded with a water cooling space 44. The member 43 may be tuned in regard to the frequency and effects through the direct mountingupon the quartz 3| an excellent low loss sound conductor. In the case of the transmitter member shown in Figure 9 the entire space 46 is traversed by the cooling liquid. In this way a very intensive cooling is obtained. This arrangement in some circumstances, however, has the disadvantage that cavitation may occur in the case of water containing air, and in consequence the energy transmission will be adversely affected:

In Figure 5 is illustrated a further form of the ultrasound generator in which to avoid the necessity of employing energy absorbing damping load, the quartz 3| is stuck to a springy elastic membrane 33, lso that in applying the massage head to the surface of the body to be treated, the quartz is shifted towards the electrode 41. 'In this way, the capacitative coupling is increased and the energy transmitted is accordingly greater. I/n this arrangement quartz can never oscillate undamped when running idle, as the latter is only excited to oscillations when damping already exists due to the pressure upon the head of the electrode, whilst when this contact damping is removed, the oscilflation of the quartz and the voltage'amplitude drops automatically so low that splintering of the quartz is avoided. At the same time, however, energy losses caused by the damping load during working are avoided.

A particularly favourable transmission of the energy upon the place of the body to be treated is obtained if thefrequency of the ultra sound radiation is so' chosen that the radiation up to the depth of penetration required to be reached, is just absorbed. As the detailed measurements by the inventor about the ultra sound absorption in human texture have established, thelpenetrating depth for which the radiating intensity lowers is about 4.9 cms. at 800 kilocycles, 1.5 cms. at 2400 kilocycles and so on. For treatment of deep parts, for example, in the case of sciatica and the like, it has been found extraordinarily favourable to em ploy a low frequency; for treatment of skin diseases andv the like, a high frequency. In order to beableto change over from higher to lower fre- .harmonic frequency of the quartz or other ultra -sound generator.

In this way it is possible read- 1ly to employ the same apparatus for deep or surface action.

I claim: K

1. A massage apparatus comprising a. housing, a diaphragm closing an aperture in the front of said housing, means disposed within said housing to impart to said diaphragm vibrations of supersonic frequency and a block of vibration-transmitting material disposed in front of said diaphragm to transfer the vibrations from the diaphragm to the body being massaged, said block being provided with a hollow opening therethrough whereby a cooling liquid can be circulated therethrough to produce the tension of the block when the apparatus is in use.

2. A massage apparatus comprising a housing, a diaphragm closing an aperture in the front of said housing, means disposed within said housing to impart to said diaphragm vibrations of supersonic frequency and a block of vibration-transmitting material in lens form disposed in front of said diaphragm to transfer the vibrations from the l0 diaphragm to the body being massaged.


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U.S. Classification601/2, 310/335, 29/DIG.460, 367/163, 367/166, 310/327, 366/127, 310/317
International ClassificationA61H23/02, A61B18/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S29/046, A61H23/0245, A61B2018/00023
European ClassificationA61H23/02P