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Publication numberUS2283300 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 19, 1942
Filing dateAug 10, 1939
Priority dateAug 10, 1939
Publication numberUS 2283300 A, US 2283300A, US-A-2283300, US2283300 A, US2283300A
InventorsVincent Perry Franklin
Original AssigneeVincent Perry Franklin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Air shotgun
US 2283300 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 19, 1942. P. F. VINCENT AIR SHOTGUN 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 10, 1939 &

ATTORNEYS May 19, 1942. P. F. VINCENT AIR SHOTGUN Filed Aug. 10, 1939 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 R./ 5. m m m WM m M m .m M w Q N E Q, 4 \/S P IL 6 x. Q Q Q Q Q RN Q ww Q 53332 a v w i rs Q w N Q v N Q 3 3 3 Q Q msw Patented May 19, 1942 cries AIR SHOTGUN Perry Franklin Vincent, Hillsdale, Mich.

Application August 10, 1939, Serial No. 289,419 Claims. -(01. 124-13) This invention relates "to improvements in air shot guns.

This invention relates to air guns and particularly to air guns such as shot guns having a large bore and an air reservoir for holding air under pressure for firing the gun.

In such guns, it is necessary to employ a hammer or equivalent mechanism for releasing the air pressure and this mechanism must be such that the gun can be cocked-manually. Heretofore it has been impossible with such guns to employ high pressures capable of producing muzzle velocities substantially the same as those of powder fired guns because the hammer mechanism has not been able, working against high pressures, either to open the valve or to open the valve wide enough to release sufficient air from the reservoir for firing the gun. This has been particularly true in practical guns 'where manual cocking is required.

I have found that it is possible to produce a practical air gun capable of utilizing extremely high pressures and capable of producing muzzle velocities substantially the same as those obtained in powder fired guns by employing a new and improved hammer mechanism capable of releasing extremely high pressure instantaneously and of releasing suflicient air to fire the gun while employing a spring for the hammer which is not too strong to permit manual cocking.

I make use of a very heavy hammer which is propelled by a compression spring which is not so strong that the gun cannot be cocked manually but which is sufiiciently strong to propel the heavy hammer against, the valve of theair reservoir to create a suflicient force to instantaneously open the valve against high pressures. The striking force is greatly increased by the use of the heavy hammer which is arranged to carry through, opening the're'lease valve its full width to instantaneously release suflicient air against the charge to give the desired velocity.

With such an arrangement,.it is possible to conserve a portion of the compressed air in the reservoir so that it is not necessary to pump up the air in the reservoir after every shot. One is .air gun; in which by simple adjustment of the hammer mechanism it is possible to obtain a wide range of muzzle velocities. The hammer mechanism is adjustable toward or away from the release valve so that even when the air pressure in the reservoir is at its highest point, it is possible to select the desired muzzle velocity by moving the hammer mechanism toward or away from the valve.

The objects of this invention are:

First, to produce a new and improved air gun. Second, to produce such an air gun in which extremely high pressures may be employed but in which the hammer operating spring need not be so strong that the gun cannot be cocked manually.

Third, to produce such an air gun in which the inertia or momentum of a heavy hammer propelled by a spring capable of manual compression for cooking is utilized to release the air in an air reservoir, even though extremely high pressures are involved.

Fourth, to produce such a gun of simple construction which may be made economically.

Fifth, to produce such a gun suitable for field 'or indoor target use. i

Sixth, to produce such a gun in which with a simple adjustment it is possible to vary muzzle velocities.

Seventh, to produce such a gun which will not mis-fire when extremely high pressures are employed and which will release suflicient air for firing the charge at all reasonable pressures.

' Eighth, to produce such a gun suitable for use with scatter loads and in'whi ch the scatter loads .are fired without leakage to produce effective velocities.

Ninth, to provide such a gun with an air reservoir of a size to hold sufiicient air for several shots, making it unnecessary to replenish the air supply after every shot.

Tenth, to produce such a gun suitable for use in shooting galleries and which may be connected to an air tank or other source of air pressure.

Other objects and advantages pertaining to details and economies of construction and operation will appear from the description to follow. Preferred embodiments of my invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. l is a side elevation of a gun embodying my invention. Y

Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the gun barrel and air reservoir assembly.

Fig. .3 isv a side elevation of the hammer assembly.

tion.

Fig. 4 is a side elevation of a portion of the air pump.

Fig. 5 is an elevational view plunger.

Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view through the working mechanism of the gun showing the relationship or the parts, showing the hammer in cocked position and the gun open to receives shell.

Fig. 7 is a top view 01 the action of the gun.

Fig. 8 is a perspective view of a shot shell suitable for use in the gun.

Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 11, showing the bolt of the gun closed.

Fig. 10 is a detail sectional view taken on the line I -l0 of Fig. 11. 1

Fig. 11 is a detail sectional view similar to Fig. 6 but showing the hammer in firing posiof the air pump Fig. 12 is a detail sectional view showing a modification of the invention with the gun connected to a suitable source or air supply for shooting galleries or the like.

My new and improved gun consists of a wood I3 which is provided at its end with a valve ll screw threaded into the pump chamber at l2, as shown in Fig. 6. The valve assembly consists of a valve seat l3 and a spring actuated valve l4 which is preferably simply a tire valve. The

pump assembly I0 is provided with a knurled nut l to engage screw threads ii on the end of the air reservoir 3.

Within the pump assembly I0 is inserted the plunger H which is provided with a suitable cup l3. The plunger slides in a removable sleeve [3 and is held in position at the pump by a suitable bayonet Joint 23. On the sleeve I3 is a spring catch 2| which engages the detent 22 on the pump assembly 13. It will be apparent that the voir and may be easily serviced.

Within the air reservoir 3, I provide a suitable poppet valve 23 which is provided with a portion 24 of resilient material such as synthetic rubber which engages the valve seat 25 to close the air reservoir. The valve 23 is provided with a stem 23 which extends axially of the port 3 and through the aperture 21. The stem is provided with a cross pin 28 which is engaged by a spring 29 which serves to seat the valve 23 SO that when it-is desired to fill the reservoir 3 with air by pumping, the valve 23 will be on its seat. The spring is of light weight since the air pressure in the air reservoir 3 holds the valve 23 on its seat as soon as the pressure is created in the reservoir 3. The rear end 30 of the air reservoir is tapered to receive a tapered sleeve 3| on the hammer assembly which is fastened to the rear end 30 of the air reservoir by means of screw 32.

Extending rearwardly from the sleeve 3| is a supporting bar 33 on which the sleeve 34 is mounted by means of brackets 35. The sleeve may be moved along the bar 33 and is held in adjusted position by means of bolts 33 which extend through slots 31 in the bar 33 which permit adJustment oi the sleeve along the bar. The hammer 33 which is in the form of a plunger, slides in the sleeve 34 which is flanged at 33 to form a stop for the hammer and is provided with a cap 43 at the other end to form a stop for firing spring 4| which surrounds the stem 42 of the hammer and bears against the shoulder 43 on the hammer.

The hammer is arranged to move along the line of the axis of the valve stem 23 and is positioned in released position to strike the end of the valve stem 23 to open the valve and to remain in contact with the stem when the valve i ope 4 The gun is a bolt action gun provided at the end of the barrel with a sleeve 44 in which the bolt 43 or breech block slides. The top of the sleeve is open at 43 to receive the shell I which is moved forward; into the chamber by a movement of the bolt 45 which is provided with a handle 41 which, as the shell I is forced into the chamber 3, is moved into a slot 43 as is customary to lock the bolt for flring.

At the end of the stem 42 of the hammer, I provide a plate 43 which serves a dual purpose. When it is desired to cock the gun, the handle 41 is moved to the upright position as indicated in Fig. 6 and is pulled backwardLv sliding in the slot 50 in sleeve 44. when the bolt is in this position, the lug 5| engages the plate 43 and pulls thehammer to the left as viewed in Fig. 6. The plate 43 when the hammer has been pulled to cocking position engages the catch 32 on lever 53 which is pivoted on the pin 54 of the hammer assembly and is urged upwardly by compression spring 53. It will be seen that when the hammer is moved to the cocked position, the catch 32 which slides in slot 56 in the plate 43 engages the plate to hold the hammer in cocked position from which it can be released by trigger 51 which is suitably connected to the catch 33 for releas ing the catch 32.

Below the bolt and to conceal the hammer assembly, I provide a plate 33 which is slotted as at 33 to permit movement or the lug 3| and the upper end of the plate 43 on operation of the bolt. It will be apparent that after the gun has been cocked and the bolt is shoved forward to force the shell I into the chamber 3, the lug 5| moves through the slot on forward movement of the bolt and upon turning of the bolt a quarter turn to lock it, the lug 3! moves through the portion 3| of the slot in the plate 33.

The barrel assembly which carries. the air reservoir 3 and the hammer assembly 4 and the pump assembly I3 flt into the stock I and the whole unit is held in place by means of a screw 32.

The shell I is a shot shell which fits tightly in the chamber 3. The end 33 is closed while the end 64 is open. A wad 63 spaced from-the closed end serves to confine scatter shot 36 which is also confined by the front wad 61. A lateral port in the shell i registers with the port 3 when the shell is in position for firing in the chamber 3. In order to assure proper register between the passage 3 and the port 33 which opens between the wad 63 and the closed end 63 of the shell, I provide an eccentrically disposed extending flange 33 which makes it impossible to insert the shell in the gun any way except with the extending flange 33 pointing upwardly, because the opening 43 in the sleeve 44 and theshape oi the sleeve are such that the eccentric flange 68 will not fit within the sleeve 44 but must extend upwardly as shown in Fig. 6. By employing the shell with the closed end 83 and the lateral port, I insure against air leakage and make sure that the full force of the air is exerted in propelling the shot load from the gun when the gun is fired and I do not have the dimculty of leakage since it is easy to make the shell 1 fit tightly in the chamber and it is easy to seal the open rear end of the barrel by having the flange Ill butt against the opening where it is held b the bolt which is locked firmly in position by movement of the handle 41 in the slot 48 which has an inclined portion H which serves as a cam to force the bolt tightly home.

In the operation of my gun, I use extremely high pressures running up to 700 pounds per square inch in the air reservoir 3. In order to release this pressure to fire the gun, I have to use a relatively heavy hammer because it is not possible to use a spring 4| strong enough to open the valve without making it impossible to manually cock the gun. I have to make use of the momentum of the relatively heavy hammer and thus obtain the release of the air pressure by the opening of the valve 23 on impact of the hammer 38 against the end of the valve stem 26.

In my gun, I employ a hammer weighing four ounces and a spring which exerts a force of 90 pounds when cocked and pounds when uncocked. The hammer travels about one inch and in this length of travel, the spring creates enough kinetic energy of motion or momentum in the hammer to open the valve 23 instantaneously so that the full force of the air pressure is exerted in firing the gun which will create muzzle velocities the same as in a powder fired arm.

In the preferred form of the gun, the valve weighs approximately .65 ounce. The head of the valve is .605 inch in diameter and the stem is .21 inch in diameter. The port 8 is .39 inch and the passage 9 is .31 inch in diameter. These dimensions may, of course, vary somewhat.

When the gun is pumped up to full pressure of 700 pounds per square inch, or even at lower pressures, the spring 4| is not capable of holding the valve open against the pressure in the air reservoir 3. The force of the spring and the momentum of the hammer, however, as it moves from cocked to uncooked position to strike the valve stem is sufiicient to instantaneously open the valve 23 to fire the gun.

I may vary the position of the sleeve 34 along the bar 33, so that it is possible to vary the muzzle velocity of the gun. By moving .the sleeve 34 to the right as viewed in Fig. 6, it is possible to open the valve 23 to an extent such that practically all of the pressure in the reservoir 3 is released. By moving the sleeve 34 to the left, it is possible to so control the operation of the gun that the hammer upon striking the stem 26 will open the valve 23 sufllciently to release a portion only of the air inthe reservoir 3 before the necessity of pumping the gun for each few shots and making it possible to employ the gun in shooting galleries at-a great saving of cost to the proprietor of the gallery who eliminates the necessity for supplying powder loaded cartridges.

The terms and expressions which have been employed here are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described, or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. The combination of a shot shell comprising a case closed at one end, a wad therein spaced from the closed end, shot between said wad and the other end of said shell, said shell having a lateral port between the closed end and said wad, and an air gun having a chamber into which said shell fits having a port opening laterally into said chamber and in register with the port in said shell when the shell is in position in the chamber, and eccentrically disposed means on said shell, and means on said gun for engaging said eccentrically disposed means to position said shell so that said ports are in register when the shell is in position in the chamber and a breech block to engage said shell and hold it in said chamber.

2. The combination of a shot shell comprising a case closed at one end, a wad therein spaced from the closed end, shot between said wad and the other end of said shell, said shell having a lateral port between the closed end and said wad, and an air gun having a chamber into which said shell fits having a port opening laterally into said chamber and in register with the port in said shell when the shell is in position in the chamber, and a breech block to engage said shell and hold it in said chamber.

the air pressure operating on the valve 23 against the spring 4| forces the valve 23 to closed posi- 3. The combination of a shot shell comprising a case closed at one end and having a flange at said end extending from said shell, having a portion extending laterally from the shell a greater distance than the rest of the flange, a wad in the shell spaced from the closed end, shot between said wad and the other end of said shell, said shell having a lateral port between the closed end thereof and said wad, and an air gun having a chamber into which said shell fits having a port opening laterally into said chamber and in register with the port in said shell when the shell is in position in the chamber, and having a passage leading to said chamber having an open side and being of a width to receive the narrowest por tion of the flange on the shell whereby said shell can only be inserted in said chamber in a predetermined position, and a breech block to engage said flange when the shell is in the chamber.

4. The combination of a shot shell comprising a case closed at one end and having a flange at said end extending from said shell, having a portion extending laterally from the shell a greater distance than the rest of the flange, a wad in the shell spaced from the closed end, shot between said wad and the other end of said shell said shell having a lateral port between the closed end thereof and said wad, and an air gun having a chamber into which said shell fits having a port opening laterally into said chamber and in register with the port in said shell when the shell is in position in the chamber, and having a recess at the entrance to said chamber shaped to fit said flange, whereby said shell can only be inserted in said chamber in a predetermined position, and a breech block to engage said flange when the shell is in the chamber.

5. The combination of a shell comprising a case closed at one end and having an open space adjacent said closed end, said case having a lateral port opening into said open space, and an air gun having a chamber into which said shell fits having a port opening laterally into said chamber and in register with the port in said case when the shell is in position in the chamber, and eccentrically disposed means on said gun for engaging said eccentrically disposed means to position said shell so that said ports are in register when the shell is in position in the chamber, and a breech block to engage said shell and hold it in said chamber.

6. The combination of a shell comprising a case closed at one end and having an open space adjacent said closed end, said case having a lateral port opening into said open space, and an air gun having a chamber into which said shell fits having a port opening laterally into said chamber and in register with the port in said case when the shell is in position in the chamber, and a breech block to engage said shell and hold it in said chamber.

'7.' In an air gun, the combination of an air reservoir adapted when fully charged with air under pressure to hold sufiicient air for-several shots, a port leading therefrom, a poppet valve in said reservoir and closing said port and adapted to be closed and held in closed position primarily by air in said reservoir and having a stem, substantially the entire resistance to the opening of said valve being the pressure of air in said reservoir, a hammer extending along the line of the axis of said valve stem and movable from a cocked position spaced from said stem to a discharging position in contact with the end of the stem to open the valve, a spring adapted to propel said hammer from cocked position to discharged position said spring being adapted to be compressed by manual cooking of said gun and not adapted to hold the valve open against firing pressure in said reservoir, said hammer being adapted when propelled by said spring from cooked to discharging position to strike said stem and open said valve against firing air pressure in said reservoir when fully charged, whereby on firing of the gun when the reservoir is fully charged, the valve is opened momentarily and is then closed by the pressure of the air in the reservoir working on said valve and against said spring, thereby conserving a portion of the air in the reservoir, and means for supporting said hammer and spring as a unit and adjustable as a unit toward or away from said valve, and stop means mounted on said supporting means for accurately limiting firing movement of said hammer and the opening of thevalve.

8. In an air gun, the combination of an air reservoir adapted when fully charged with air under pressure to hold sufilcient air for several shots, a port leading therefrom, a poppet valve in said reservoir and closing said port'and having a stem, substantially the entire resistance to the opening of said valve being the pressure of air in said reservoir, a hammer extending along the line of the axis of said valve stem and movable from a cocked position spaced from said stem to a discharging position in contact with the end of the stem toopen the valve, a spring adapted to propel said hammer from cocked position to discharged position, said hammer being adapted when propelled by said spring from cocked to discharging position to strike said stem and open said valve, and means for supporting said hammer and spring as a unit and adjustable as a unit toward or away from said valve, and stop means mounted on said supporting means for accurately limiting firing movement of said hammer and the opening of the valve.

9. In an air gun having a high pressure air reservoir, a port leading therefrom, and a poppet valve in said port having a stem extending out through said port, the combination of a support movable toward or away from said valve stem on a line parallel therewith, means for holding said support in adjusted position, a hammer mounted on and for movement along said support and axially of said valve stem and positioned to strike said valve stem to open the valve, a hammer spring on said support engaging said hammer to drive it toward said valve stem, and

a stop on said support in the line of movement of said hammer to limit the forward firing movement of said hammer when it is propelled by said spring, whereby uniform hammer travel is obtained at all times and whereby the amount of opening of the valve may be determined by adjusting said support toward or away from said valve stem.

10. In an air gun having a high pressure air reservoir, 8. port leading therefrom, and a poppet valve in said port having a stem extending out through said port, the combination of a support movable toward or away from said valve stem on a line parallel therewith, means for holding said support in adjusted- -position, a hammer mounted on and for movement along said support and axially of said valve stem and positioned to :strike said valve stem to open the valve, and a hammer spring on said support engaging said hammer to drive it toward said valve stem.

PERRY FRANKLIN V'INCEN T.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2495829 *Jul 9, 1945Jan 31, 1950Franklin Vincent PerryAir gun
US2568308 *Jul 21, 1947Sep 18, 1951Daisy Mfg CoCocking mechanism for pneumatic guns
US2594240 *Dec 24, 1947Apr 22, 1952Daisy Mfg CoPneumatic gun
US2604088 *Jan 12, 1949Jul 22, 1952Daisy Mfg CoAir gun
US2621351 *Aug 30, 1948Dec 16, 1952Phillips Petroleum CoApparatus for forcibly propelling pellets against a surface
US2635599 *Aug 4, 1949Apr 21, 1953Daisy Mfg CoUniform muzzle velocity pneumatic gun
US2923285 *Jul 5, 1955Feb 2, 1960Salles JohnSpear guns
US7624726Jul 13, 2005Dec 1, 2009Kee Action Sports I LlcValve for compressed gas gun
US7712463May 25, 2007May 11, 2010Kee Action Sports I LlcSelf-regulating valve assembly
US7913679Jun 10, 2005Mar 29, 2011Kee Action Sports I LlcValve assembly for a compressed gas gun
Classifications
U.S. Classification124/61, 124/70, 473/577, 124/76, D21/573, 124/69
International ClassificationF41B11/62
Cooperative ClassificationF41B11/62
European ClassificationF41B11/62