US 2283769 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Mamans. SIIv SEARCH mm I May 19, 1942- y y I.. G. '.-zcIIIwAIxI'zEIQ l v2,283,769
` I, EYE REACTION TESTING SUBSTITUTE FOR MISSING XR Filed Jan.' 27, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I" I""I I .f ,f'
Filed Jan. 27; 1941 2 sheetsfsheet 2 Patented May 19, 1942 UNRTED STATES PATENT OFFICE EYE REACTION TESTING Lawrence G. Schwanzel, Toledo, Ohio Application January 27, 1941, Serial No. 376,017
10 Claims. (Cl. 88-20) This invention relates to through vision.
This invention has utility when incorporated in apparatus for dark adaptation for determining light ray eye response, say after bleach, for comparison with immediate prior reaction.
More particularly this invention is a testing apparatus for the study of visual perceptions at 10W illuminations, even in the millifoot candle power range, and in making studies of the photochemical mechanism of the human eye, particularly with regard to certain reactions as in determining the regeneration of rhodopsin or visual purple in the retinal rod cells after being subjected to a light of suiiicient intensity and proper wave-length to cause a bleaching of this pigment; the so-called dark-adaptation test or the study of the rhodogenesis.
Referring to the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an embodiment of the invention in a test unit;
Fig, 2 is a view of the housing in elevation from the left of Fig. 1, showing controls therefor;
Fig. 3 is a section on the line III-III, Fig. 1, showing the movable arm for varying the transmission of light rays;
Fig. 4 is a section on the line IV-IV, Fig. 2, showing the assembly of the parts in the hous- 111g;
Fig. 5 is a view on the line V-V, Fig. 4, showing the pilot light and check illumination windows;
Fig. 6 is a wiring diagram of the control features for the light source; Fig. 7 is a view on the line VII-VII, Fig. 3, as to the transmission arm for the check illumination transmission, with herein a disclosure of a pilot transmission having an angle ray path in a translucent body;
Fig. 8 is a detail View on an enlarged scale of a window for the check illumination of diiierent light ray transmission properties, say of the polarized screen type;
Fig. 9 is a. section on the line IX-IX, Fig.. 8, showing the mounting of the polarized pair of translucent elements; and
Fig 10 is a detail view showing a closure flap as rocked into position at the limit of throw for the angular translucent means of the check illumination device.
Cushion feet I mount downwardly iianged base 2 (Fig. 4). This base 2 has eye 3 to receive hooks or lugs 4 as a ready locking means of the hinge type to have base iiange portions 5, 6, 1, swing testing equipment area effectively. This chamber I5, opposite theV into snug light closure engagement with packing felt 8 as angle 9 may be engaged by wing screw I0, thus rmly mounting housing having eyepiece II with light-seal base I2 surrounding l opening I3. This is an eiective light closure for thie one using the apparatus, with the snug thrusting of the face for seating at this eyepiece. Side walls I4, extending in a tapering direction therefrom, provide chamber I5 and, with the exception of partition I6, have preferably an optical black lining to make the general wall structure for the interior of this chamber I5 non-reflective. The face of partition I6 is at white, so that the rays of light from source 24 passing through window 2I will illuminate this viewpoint side having the eye-piece I I, has partition I6 with pilot light opening I1, say provided with red screen I8. In practice, this is desirably of the pin point type or so-called No. 52 drill in dimension of .0635" diameter. Adjacent this pilot window I'I for a red light, and desirably within 3 thereof and say thereabove as from the axis of the point of vision adjacent the eyepiece II, there is located window I9 as the check illumination.
This chamber I5 has bottom 2U with window 2I therein, preferably of a green screen or filter glass. Below this bottom 2D for the chamber I5 is chamber 22, desirably of a reflective or white lining or interior wall. In this chamber 22 is mounted receptacle 23 for light source 24, herein of the usual type say volt, 60 watt electric light bulb, so positioned that direct rays from the iilament do not go through the window 2| to the observer at the eye-piece II. This bulb receptacle 23 on the base 2 in the chamber 22 is separated by partition 25 from Voltage regulator or rheostat 26, adapted to adjust electric current to bulb 2l in receptacle 28 in chamber 29, spaced by the wall 25 from the chamber 22. This rheostat may be of the manually operated type or of the automatic voltage regulator type. The electric light bulb 2l may be say '7 1/2 watts.
The interior of this chamber 29 may be a reflective white, but, due to the requirement for subdued transmission of light rays, there is no purpose essentially in so doing. This chamber 29 has top 3|] as a partition separating this chamber 29 from chamber 3l. This partition 3i) has therein window 32, say of ground glass, and with the purpose to transmit a subdued light from the chamber 29 to the chamber 3|. This chamber 3I is desirably lined with optical black to render its walls generally non-reflective.
From this chamber 29 through port 33 as confined by wall 34 is light ray passage from the illumination source 21 to the pilot window I1 for red filter light observation by one looking in at the eye-piece I I.
Bearings 35, 35, at the chamber 3l, are coaxial with the window I9 for check illumination, and mounted in the bearing 35 is arm 31, which extends to split block 38 assembled with the arm 31 by clamp screws 39. Screw 49 assembles therewith control stem 4I extending through the bearing 3G to handle 42, with which is fixed arm 43 as a pointer along scale 44 exterior of the housing. Interior of this housing or unit on this stem 4I is collar 45 fixed therewith by set screw 4B to coact with compression spring 41 as a friction holding means in any angular shifting or rocking of the arm 31 as to the bearing 35.
This arm 31 at the clamp 33 has elbow 48, from which there depends arm 49. There is thereby provided L-piece of thes-e parts 31, 48, 49, desirably of a polymer of methyl methacrylate. This is a plastic of light ray transmission properties in a path bent to conform to the direction thereof. Quartz or other translucent means may be adopted. Herein at the elbow or bend 48 chamber 53 is provided for this clamp member 38 to be clear of contacting the bend 4B, and this block 38, being of white metal, has its interior portion as exposed or in the chamber 59 of reflective value. However, the straight portions 31 and 49 of this elbow means as extending from the clamp have optical black or non-reflective opaque coating I, 52, thereon. Terminus 53 at the window I9 is desirably ground or minutely roughened, as is face 54 at the terminus of the arm 49. This terminus as adopted herein is away from perpendicular to the axis of this depending arm 49, and, in this departure from perpendicular, presents a greater area than the cross section path of the arm to receive light from bulb 21 through window 32. In practice, a desirable angle adopted herein is 45, and the direction or rotation of such as taken causes the greater surface area of the arm 49 to be presented toward and from the bulb 21 so that the light as received therefrom may be increased or gradually diminished. In this swing or rocking, there is reduced the visibility response effective as through the window I9 for the observer at the eye-piece II. In practice, this swing operation may be as much as 160 and, as approaching the limit of swing, depending arm 55 may be struck by the rising arm 49 and rock this arm 55 on pivot 55 to throw its depending closure 51 (Fig. 10) as a fiat face against the inclined light ray receiving portion 54 of the transmission path. This insures the starting of the device at zero or no transmission.
Remote from the eye-piece II is housing side 59 (Fig. 2) having signal window 59 as a disclosure to the operator as to whether or not the bulb 21 may be functioning in the chamber 29 as switch 60 is operated to have the pointer from "off position EI to test position 62, thereby past the voltage control or rheostat 26 to the test bulb 21. This rheostat or voltage regulator 2B is normally in the chamber 29 against disturbance by the operator, the purpose being that the light bulb 21 is normally adjusted as to the rheostat and is, during its life, of sufiiciently close approximation, and under the conduct of test is efficiently responsive hereunder.
In practice, the observer or one to undergo dark adaptation test therethrough is placed in a darkened room for a period of time. Then being placed at the apparatus, he snugly places his eyes at the eye-piece II as a light seal against light outside the device. As the one gazes through the eye-piece II as snugly closed to shut off all light rays into the chamber I5, there is illumination at this time only from the window I1 of the red pin-hole light serving as a pilot, target, or fixation point. When the transmission arm is at off position, the light 21 is on as the light source. The attendant or operator may, through handle 42, rock the stern 4I and with it the pointer 43 and the light transmission path 52, 48, 31, from non-transmitting position. This operation is conducted slowly or in small steps. When the one observing through the eye-piece I I is able to detect a check illumination at the window I9, he so indicates, and the calibration on scale 44, which is in millifoot candles, is visible to the operator. Such reading is recorded.
When the handle 60 is shifted to point 64, in thereby cutting out the light source 21 and cutting in the bulb 24, effective bleaching light is thrown on the face of the partition I5 to effect certain bleaching or photo-chemical eye reactions. After this predetermined interval, and with the observer still retaining the position at the eye-piece II, the handle 5U is again shifted to bring the pointer 6I from the point 64 to the point 62. This cuts out the bulb 24 and cuts in the bulb 21, with the result that the pilot or target window I1 has its red glow. Before operating the handle 60, the handle 42 (Fig. 2) is to have the arm 52 out of transmission position. Accordingly, now it is in order to swing this arm 52 down toward the window 32 gradually or in small steps until the observer at the eye-piece II may, in addition to the pilot light I1, detect at the window I9 in focal point check illumination. This will give a second reading, also recorded.
As the test is repeated at definite intervals, say. two minutes or less for the bleach test and even thereafter, the return or adaptation of the vision is checked as to the readings determined by the graduations 44. All readings having been recorded, the eye response of the observer may then be studied. The time necessary for regeneration to the test made prior to bleach may give valuable information relative to say vitamin A deficiency. 4
In lieu of the housing 34 from the port 33 to the pilot window I1, there may be located fiange 65 (Fig. '1) to mount angular light path transmission element 6B having optical black coating 81. This member S6 has terminus 68 through port |59 from the chamber 3I to the chamber 29 and thus transmitting through red window screen 10 pilot light illumination at the window The rockable control for varying the light intensity herein is of value in that the light source 21 is undisturbed throughout, and there is accordingly retention of its quality and spectrum composition with merely a cutting off of the intensity. Iceland spar element 1I (Fig, 9) is fixed in bearing 12 at the Window I9, and complementary Iceland spar or polarizing member 13 is mounted in toothed member 14 and operable from pinion 15 on the stem 4I. This means that these light ray vibrations may, as transmitted from the member 13 to the member 1I and as at limit angular relations therebetween, say be nil; but as coming into departure therefrom, the strength or quantity of transmitted light is nah., if",
stepped up at a determined rate, and such may be used as the scale determining points.
As occasion may arise for access or inspection of the chamber 3I,- such may occur through port 'I6 (Fig. 4) normally closed with opaque strip of the graduated arc or scale 44, anchored or -attached to the housing by terminal screws 1?.-
A maximum of light rays will be gathered at the face 54 of the light transmission path when the axis of the arm 49 is in linev with the longitudinal axis 'I8 of the rays emitting from the lamp 2'! through the 'window 32, and such extent of light rays to bentransmitted is curtailed as the swing is into perpendicular with the window and therepast to shut-off position.
The extent of the swing of the arm 49 may be such as to travel in opposite directions beyond maximum transmission position.` Dueito the angularly extending facev54, the scale 44 may have two sets of calibrations-for, as the arm- 49 swings clockwise (Fig. 3), the face 54 is very gradually turned from the light source and hence the transmitted light is proportionally very gradually diminished. However, as the arm is swung counterclockwise, the face 54 is more abruptly turned from the light source and hence there is a swifter diminishing light transmission and a correspondingly diierent scale reading.
It will be noted that at no time during the operation of this device is there light shining directly into an observers eyes. The observer at the eye-piece Il may see the window 2| as lighted by the bulb 24. The light from this bulb 24 accordingly does not shine directly into th-e eyes of the observer. When the bulb 21 is on, such may act to show at the window 32 and to be observed therefrom at the window I9 due to the light ray transmission of the elbow 3l, 48, 49, of internal reflection powers. Accordingly, the light from the bulb 21 does not shine directly into the eyes of the observer.
What is claimed and it is desired to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Eye reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber provided with an observation point adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, an illumination-pointproviding window in the chamber for directing eye response of the one at the observation point receiving the test, an additional illumination window in said same chamber laterally adjacent the point window and having therefor a light source, and light ray transmission means from the source to the additional window embodying between the source and the window a swingable internal reiiection light ray transmission member of angular extent, said two windows being common for observation by the one at the observation point.
2. Eye reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, an illumination-point-providing window in the chamber for eye response of the one receiving the test, and an additional illumination window laterally adjacent the point window in said same chamber and having therefor a light source, and light ray transmission means from the source to the additional Window embodying between the source and the window a pvotally mounted internal reflection light ray transmission of angular extent member coaxial with the additional window.
3. Eye reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, a rst window having a fixation point in the chamber for eye response of the one receiving the test, a second window laterally adjacent the rst window in said same chamber and having therefor a light source, a light ray transmission device from the source to the second window embodying between the source andthe window a bearing adjacent the second window, rockable internal reflection light ray transmission means of angular extent in the bearing, and an actuator for the means including a scale device for disclosing the position as to which actuated. Y
4. Eye reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, a first window having a point in the chamber for directing eye response of the one receiving the test, a second window laterally adjacent the first window in said same chamber and having therefor alight source, a light ray transmission device from the source to the second window embodying between the source and the Window a bearing adjacent the second window, a rockable angle internal reiiection light ray transmission means in the bearing, and an actuator for the means.
5. Eye reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, a rst window having a point in the chamber for eye response of the one receiving the test, a second window laterally adjacent the first window in said same chamber and having therefor a light source, a light ray transmission device from the source to the second Window embodying between the source and the window a bearing adjacent the second Window, a rockable angle internal reflection light ray transmission means in the bearing, said angle means having an arm toward the light source to terminate in a face at an angle to the direction of the arm for departure from arm cross sectional area of rays from the light source.
6. Eye reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, a first window having a point in the chamber for eye response of the one receiving the test, a second window in said same chamber laterally adjacent the point and having therefor a light source, a light ray transmission device from the source to the second window embodying between the source and the window a bearing adjacent the second window, a rockable angle internal reflection light ray transmission means in the bearing, said angle means having a light ray impinged terminal face of greater area than the cross section of the means for gathering rays from a light source.
7. Eye. reaction testing equipment comprising a chamber adapted to be closed by one looking into the chamber to receive a test, a rst window having a point in the chamber for eye response of the one receiving the test, a second window laterally adjacent the first window in said same chamber and having therefor a light source, a light ray transmission device from the source to the second window embodying between the source and the window a bearing adjacent the second window, a rockable angle internal reflection light ray transmission means in the bearing, said angle means having a light ray impinged terminal face of greater area than the cross section of the means for gathering rays from the light source, and an actuator for swinging the angle means for the face to be shielded by its shield extent in cutting out rays from the light source.
8. In an apparatus for testing eye reaction, a Window, a light source having a constant light value, and a rockably mounted internal reflection light ray transmission element of angular extent from the light source to the window, said element being provided with a cylindrical portion with a terminus having a plane at an angle to the axis of the cylindrical portion and adapted to receive a maximum impinged light when the line of the axis is coextensive with the light rays from the light source, said transmitted light being in a more rapidly diminishing cycle when said element is swung in one direction from said maximum transmission position than when swung in the opposite direction.
9. In apparatus for testing eye reactions, a housing having a partition therein dividing said housing into a viewing chamber and a light receiving chamber, a window in said partition, a light source in the light receiving chamber below the window, and a light ray volume adjustment device comprising a swingable internal relection member of angular extent for conducting light rays from the light source to said window, said member having a pair of diverging arms, one mounted axially toward the Window and the other extending radially from the one and axially swingable into and out of the path of the light rays.
10. In apparatus for testing eye reactions, a housing having a viewing chamber, a chamber therebelow having a light source therein, a partition therebetween having a light filter screen window, an additional chamber having a second light source therein, a light transmitting chamber thereabove, the partition therebetween having a second light diffusing screen Window, a partition between this latter chamber and the viewing chamber, a third diierently effective light screen window in said latter partition, means in the light transmitting chamber for transmitting light from the second light source to the third window, and switch means to light one or the other of the light sources.
LAWRENCE G. scHWANzEL.