US 2284478 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 26, 1942. G. B. ROLQSON 2,284,478
LIGHTNING ARRESTER, PLUNGER TYPE Filed March 6, 1940 Y 5 Sheets-Sheet l May 26, 1942.
' IG, B. RoLOsoN 2,284,478
LIGHTNING ARRESTER, PLUNGER I TYPE! 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 6, 1940 May 26, 1942. G. B. RoLOsoN LIGHTNING ARRESTER, PLUN GER'A TYPE 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 6, 1940 ATTORNEYS.
Patented May 26, l1942 UNITED sTliTr-:S PATENT oFFlC,
2,284.47: uGn'rNNc Aaars'raa, rLUNGaa ma Glenn B. Boloson, Crestone, Colo. Application Maren s, 1940, serial No. 322,531
(ci. 11s-ao) (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) l The invention described herein may be manu- 18 Claims.
factored and used by or for the Government of the United States for governmental purposes to maintain an arc. The sudden rush of the sas.
` extinguished the arc.
without the payment to me of any royalty thereon in accordance with the provisions of the` act of April 30, 1928 (ch. 460, 45 Stat. L. 467) My invention pertains to lightning arresters of the plunger type for the prevention of interruptions to service and damage to connected apparatus due to surges of current produced by lightning or other causes. More specifically my improvements comprise a voltage limiting and current surge discharge device with follow-up current (arc) interrupting means.
While my invention is adapted for use between any conductors in which a difference of potential exists, it will be described as used between line with the ground. These electrodes were spaced at such a distance apart that the normal line voltage was not suihcient to start a current to Many lightning arresters have been made which make use of the principle of the above described expulsion tube. One of` the chief diinculties of this type of arrester has been due to the electrodes being a fixed distance apart. If the electrodes are set close enough. together to provide adequate protection to apparatus connected to the electric line and also to prevent line fiashover, the electrodes will be too close together to interrupt the follow-up current, es-
pecially if the follow-up current is small. On the other hand, if the electrodes are spaced far enough apart to insure the interruption of the v follow-up current, they will be too far apart to provide adequate protection to apparatus connected to the electric line or to prevent nashover of the llne.
It is an object of my invention to provide an arrester o1 the character having a much shorter flow between the electrodes. However, the electrodes were close enough to each other that when an abnormal voltage appeared between the line and ground the current would discharge between the electrodes, thus reducing the excess voltages between the line and ground.
-One of the 'dimculties of the above described unconned air-gap was that when an arc once formed between the electrodes, the normal line voltage was sumcient to maintain an arc across.y
the electrodes, thus leaving a virtual ground on the line after the device had operated. This current flow across the electrodes, created by an excess voltage surge but maintained by normal line voltage,y is referred to as the "follow-up current. Various methods have been utilized to interrupt the follow-up current, perhaps the most successful being patterned after a common type'of expulsion fuse which has been in use for ai considerable period of time.
'Ihe are between the electrodes in this fuse was conned within the arc came in `contact with the nbre it produced a non-ionized gas in -which it was dificult a fibre tube which was open at one end. When 4 tical.
air, gap between the .line and ground electrodes in normal position than would otherwise be prac- By this arrangement greater protection' against voltage surges is afl'orded apparatus connected tothe line in that the arrester 4is brought into operation by relatively small increases in line voltage whereby the voltage rise across apparatus is limited to small and undamaging values. A
Another object of my invention is the provivsion of mechanical means for increasing the length of the air gap between electrodes immediately upon the setting up of an arc thereacross, whereby the arresteris enabled to interrupt large as well vas small follow-up currents.
Aside from the'object of non-ionizing the air 'gap between the. electrodes 'to interrupt an arc,
and of utilizing non-ionizing gas to lengthen an arc between the electrodes, it is also an object of my invention to force non-ionized gas directly against the arc stream to thereby reduce the number of ions in the arc stream to suchlan exf tent that there are no longer su'ilicient ions remaining to maintain the arc. With the foregoing and otherobjects in view, my invention resides in the combination of parts and in the details of construction hereinafter set forth in the folloving speciiication and ap^ pended claims, certain. embodiments thereof having the characteristics of my invention'and by which the same may be practiced being illusftrated inthe accompanying drawings in which- Fig. 1 is an upright view of an assembled arrester with a central section thereof cut away to show a portion or the interior arrangement of elements in crosssection;
Fig. 2, a vertical cross-sectional view of an arrester incorporating the basic principles of the arrangement of Fig. 1, but of somewhat modified construction;
Fig. 3, a cross-section taken at line 3-3 of Fig.. 2;
. Fig. 4, a sectional view illustrating a modified construction of the plunger arrangement; l
Fig. 5, a sectional view of another modified construction of the plunger arrangement;
Fig. 6, an upright view of an assembled arrester with a central section cut away to illustrate details of 'a modied form of electrode and plunger arrangement in cross-section;
Fig. 7,'an arrester illustrating a further modication in structural details and arrangement;
Fig. 8, a sectionalized view of a still further modification within the scope of my basic irnprovements;
Fig. 9, an illustration of the operative position of the arrangement shown in Fig. 8;
Fig. 10, a section taken at Ill-I of Fig. 6;
Fig. 11, a section takenat II-II of Fig. 8;
Fig. 12, an upright cross sectional view of a still further modification of my improvements; and in which Figs. 13, 14, and 16 are cross sectional views taken at lines I3-I3, I4-I4, I5-I5 and lli-I6, respectively of Fig. 12. v
Broadly, my invention comprises spaced electrodes for limiting voltages between points of different potential, for discharging current surges and means operable by current flow between the electrodes to non-ionize Ythe arc stream and lengthen the arc between the electrodes.
More specifically, with reference to the drawings, an air-gap I 0 is provided within a passageway II of a housing I2, of insulating material having the characteristics of porcelain or glass, between the end ofV an electrode I3, which is referred lto hereinafter as a line electrode and which closes one end of the-passageway II and extends there-into, and the end of another lelectrode, which is referred to hereinafter as a ground electrode I4 which extends into the other end of the passageway. The line electrode I3 may be suitably carried in xed position by a centrally bored stud I5, as /shown in Fig. 2, in a manner to allow the electrode to'project from the ends thereof into the passageway and outwardly thereof. A portion of the stud may also be extended and serve as the electrode I3 as in Figs. 1,6 and 12. 'Ihe stud of the Fig. 2 construction, or the stud-forming electrode of Figs. 1, 6 and 12,- is threaded into the mouth of the passageway and the outer end of the electrode or stud is provided with clamping nuts IB and I1 between which the line 4lead I 8 may be secured. Suitable means for mounting the ground electrodes I4, and for connecting a ground lead thereto will be described hereinafter.
In the present arrangement, and as described and claimed in my copending application lSer. No. 295,778, a liner I9 is mounted within the passageway AII of the insulator body I2. The
liner I9 may be of any suitable gas-evolving.
material, of minimum conductivity, of the Atype conventionally used in the art lof the class to which this invention pertains. This liner lines a portion of the walls of the bore or passageway II and provides a centrally disposed, unobstructed arc path therethrough. Although thedevice is ordinarily to be positioned in an upright manner, and although the-line electrodes and their mounting means close the end of the passageway to the entrance of water, and though the liner is preferably ofnon-conductive material,
the liner is spaced from the respective terminal electrodes to prevent its serving as a current conductor from one electrode to the other. In the alternative, if it is preferable to have the liner in contact with one or both of the terminal electrodes, the liner may be provided with a separation elsewhere to prevent a bridging-over from one electrode to the other. The liner may be retainedin spaced position or in a predetermined position within the passageway II by any suitable means, one of which is shown in the drawings as comprising a shoulder in the wall of the passageway II, and upon which the tubular or cylindrical liner is brought to rest.
The electrodes I3 and I4 may suitably be of considerably less diameter than that of the passageway I I, as shown in Figs. 2 through 5, or of 'a diameter substantially that of the passageway II as shown in Figs..1 and 6 through 11, as more specifically described hereinafter.
The electrodes of Figs. 2 through 5 are so arranged and constructed as to have their shortest arc path substantially along the axis'of the passageway II, whereas those of Figs. 1 and 6 through 11 are so-constructed and mounted as to have their shortest arc paths between the perimeters of so much of the ends of the elec-V trodes as are exposed in the passageway II immediately adjacent the walls thereof. For the accomplishment ofthe latter location of the arc, it will be noted that the inwardly extending end 2| of the electrodes I3 in Figs. 1, 6 and 12, and the innermost end of the electrodes I4 in Figs. 6, 7 and 8 are conically recessed or counter-sunk so that their greatest extension into thepassageway II will lie perimetrically of and immediately adjacent the walls thereof. While the electrode I4 of Fig. 1 is of a tubular type, it Willbe noted that its open end is innermost in the passageway, and that the shortest path between it and the line electrode I3 is also immediately adjacent the walls of the passageway. It will thus be seen that by'the arrangement and construction of Figs. 1 and 6 through 16, the electric discharge will occur between the perimeters of the line and ground electrodes, immediately adjacent the inner surface of the liner I9, where a flowing arc will have its greatesteffect upon the liner to produce a non-ionized gas.
Though the electrodes and passageway are'illustrated as circular in cross section, it is to be understood that they may be of any other desired, suitable or preferred shape in which event the recess or counter-sinking of the electrodes may not be conical but such as to provide a projecting rimk on the en'd of those electrodes, perimle'trically adjacent the walls of the passageway Ring electrodes 1 and 6, and claimed in my aforesaid copending application, may also be employed intermediate the line and ground electrodes in order to create avseries of shorter air gaps which are vknown to permit a flash-over soonerthan over an air gap whose length is substantially the same I3A of the type shown in Figs. v
l ancetre the fiber liner. r
The improvements by which ,the gap between -the ground and line electrodes oithev constructions oi.' Figs. lthrough 11, is automatically lengthened as the result of an arc comprises means whereby the ground electrode is moved downwardly bythe rush and the expansive forces of gas expelled from the gas-evolving liner by reason of the heat or an arc across the electrodes.
In the accompanying drawings means illustrative of practical arrangements for accomtion upon the piston member is more positive because of the confinement of the gases until vented.
A similar result is obtained by the modified construction shown in Fig. 5, from an inspection of which it will be seen that the cylindrical support 22 is provided with an olf-set portion 29 having a greater interior diameter tha'n the upper portion in which the piston plate is normally held by the spring 26. In this construction, as in that of Fig. 4, the expansive force of thegas,
produced by the action of the electric discharge inside of the upper portionfof the cylindrical cup plishing the function of automatically lengthenthe'liner after their effects have been utilized to non-ionize the air-gap and their expansive forcesl utilized for lengthening the air-gap betweenelec-4 trodes. Further details of the gap lengthening means will rst be considered in connection with Figs. 2 through 5. and thereafter with respect to the construction and arrangement `shown in Figs. 1 and 6 through 11. Y j
In the construction shown in Figs. 2 through 5 the cylindrical support 22 carries a suitable guide 2l for steering the rod-like electrode Il longitudinaily in its downward movement along the axis of the passageway, and vupward to its normal predetermined position. vUpon the lower portion of the electrode Il and above the vents A23, a piston acting member 25 is secured in a horizontal manner transversely of the electrode and the cylindrical support.
The ground electrode is normally held in a predetermined spaced relation `with respect to the line electrode by the upward force of a spring 2l and may be prevented from being pushed into closer relation or into `contact with the line electrode by a suitable stop' such-as 21 cooperating with the guide 2Iin the modifications of Figs. 2
The piston member 2l of the embodiment-illustratedin Pigs. 2 and 3 is sumciently less in diameter than the interior of the. Wlindrical support 22 as to allow the gases to escape around the edges thereof to the vents 22.
In the embodiment illustrated ln Fil.
and when forced downward passes into the portion of the cylinder whose inside diameter is considerablyv greater than that of the piston, thus allowing the gas to escapeA around the edges thereof to vents 23.
With respect to the electrodes Il of the modifi-l cations shown in Figs. l and 6 through l1, it will be noted that aJ shoulder 21' is provided in the walls of the passageway Il against which the ends of the electrodes are normally held by the spring 26 and which shoulders serve as stop 21 of the constructions shown in Figs. 2 through 5. It will also be noted that the electrodes I4 of Figs. 1 and 6 through 1l make a fairly close fit within the passageway il and the side walls of the passageway serve as guides, similar to that of guide 24 of Figs. 2 through 5 during the downward movement and return of the electrode Il in operation. It is to be further noted that one end of each of the electrodes I4 of Figs. l and 6 through ll is closed by a closure member 25' which serves as apiston member similar to piston members 25 of Figs. 2 through 5.
The member 25 of Fig. 1 is on the outermost end of the inwardly opening tubular electrode Il vents then in turn flows through vents 22.
ever. the piston member 2i is of suflicient diamy eter as to allow practically no gas to escape over the edges thereof. In this modification the-vents 2l are provided in tbe side walls, rather than in me bottom, or me cylindrical nippon: and in order for the gas to escape it islneeessary for the piston member to be forced down below at least .ai portion of those vents. In this construction :the
nrst rush of gases has less free flow than in the construction of Figs. 2 and 3., but its mc- The constructions and arrangements shown in Figs. 6 through ll differ somewhat from that of Fig. l in that the electrode Il is closed at its upper end and must be forced out of the passageway Il, by the gases, before the gases can escap'e to vents 22.
If desired, suitable stops, such as studs Il may be provided to limit the downward travel of the ground .electrode Il in the modifications of Figduring movement. The studs 2l of themodi- ,ncations of Figs. 6 through 11 also serve as advditional guides for the electrodes Il of these constructions, as will be described more fully hereelectrode I4 to accommodate the spring 26. A'
cross sectional view of this arrangement is shown in Fig. 10.
As in Fig. 6, the electrode I4 of the Fig. 7 construction houses the stud and spring 26 in operation and the stud, in addition to serving as a stop to the downward movement of the electrode, serves as a guide for the electrode after it leaves the guidance of the walls of the passageway II. The stud 30 in the Fig. 7 construction, however, is made hollow to accommodate the spring 2B therein. The electrode I4 in the constructions of Figs. 6 and 7 telescope the studs 30 in operation, and by doing so, greater protection is afforded the spring against the damaging effects of hot gases.
In Fig. 8 the arrangement is similar to that of Fig. 7, except that in this instance the stud 3U telescopes electrode I4 during operation instead of being housed by the electrode as in Fig.- 7. Fig. 11 illustrates a cross sectional View of the Fig. 8 arrangement.
The spring 26 should besufliciently resilient to be readily compressed by the expansive forces of the gases, evolved from the liner', against,` the piston members 25 and 25 in their rush from the passageway II. In doing so, the electrode I4 is carried downward, thus lengthening the space between it and the line electrode.
In Figs. 6, 7 and 8 the end of the electrode I4 which extends innermost into the passageway II is forced by the gases outwardly from the end of the passageway I I and, in such a positin, as illustrated in Fig. 9, the gases are forced to pass at right angles through the arc flowing from the passageway I I to the electrode I4. The arc is thus forced outward, lengthened and its path weakened by the non-ionized gas which is introduced directly into the arc stream. In such arrangements as those of Figs. 6 through 16 wherein the electrode I4 is fixed, or located in nal operation, outwardly of the passageway II, it is conceivably possible that the gases deflected into the arc stream may force the arc outwardly from its direct path between passageway II and electrode I4 sufliciently to cause it to sever its iiow to electrode I4 and jump to the wall of the cup-like support 22, thereby Ilessening the purpose and effect of vthe deflected gases; To avoid such an occurrence the insulator body I2 is provided with a skirt-like continuation I2 which depends suliciently to prevent the arc from forming between passageway II and the wall 'of the cup-like support 22.
In Figs. 6, 7 and 8, to avoid compressional oppositionv to the expansive forces of the gases upon the piston-acting members, vents are provided for the escape of air trapped within the hollow electrodes I4 by the studs 30 during the movement of the electrode. In Fig. 6 the vent comprises grooves 33 longitudinally in the si es of the stud 30, as shown in cross section in Fig. I 0.
directly 'connected if desired.
prises an opening 34 in the bottom of the hollow stud 30, and' in Fig. 8 the vent comprises an elongated slot 34' through the walls of the hollow stud 30.
A small vent, not shown, may be provided in the piston-acting members 25 and 25' to permit the slow escape gases which may be trapped above-those members after the operation. Such' vents will allow the spring 26 to restore the electrode to its normal position without being seriously opposed by a compressional force.
In order to insure good contact between the ground electrode and a ground lead, one or more flexible connections may be provided by direct or indirect hook-up between the ground electrode and a ground connection, as shown in the drawings. In the`Fig. 8 construction the elongated slot 34 may also be utilized as a passageway for the flexible lead 35 from the electrode I4 through the stud 30. .The iiexible leads 35 may extend from the electrodes I4 to the cuplike support 22, which support may serve as a conductor to a ground lead connection. The ground lead connecting means may suitably comprise a projecting continuance of stud 30 threaded or bolted to the base of the cylindrical support 22 to which the flexible leads 35 may be The projecting portion of the stud may in turn be provided with a pair of clamping nuts 36 and 31 between which a iinal'ground lead 38 may be clamped. The initial portion of the ground lead may, if desired, be in the-form of an arm or bracket 39 (see Figs. 1, 6 and 7) for mounting the device and the lead 38 extended therefrom. The ground*4 lead or bracket'may also be from a mounting o n` the side of the support 22 as shown in Fig. 7 if` desired, rather than from a continuance of the stud 30.
Current owing through the spring 26 may tend to weaken the same and in an eilort to relieve the spring of such possible weakening effects an insulating disk 40 may be suitably interposed between the spring 26 and the ground electrode I4. I
It is also within the scope of my invention to provide a device of the character described wherein a ground electrode I4, of the type having a perimetric rim projecting uppermost, is xed a predetermined distance outwardly from the end of the passageway II `in a position and of a construction such as shown in Figs. 12 through 16. In such a modification the electrode is not moveably responsive to the expansive forces. of the gas; spring 26 of Figs. 1 through 11 is omitted; and the stud 30, somewhat modified, is utilized as electrode I4. If desired, the
' liner I9 may extend to or substantially to the A suitable vent in the Fig. '7 construction com- 75 lower Aend of the passageway I I without bridging the electrodes I3 and I4, due to the space between the end of the passageway II and the outwardly positioned electrode I4. Such a modied arrangement would function in the manner described in connection with the linal operation of the constructions of Figs. 6, 7 and 8 in that the gases flowing from the passageway II are deflected from their course between the base of the insulator body I2 and the electrode I4. An arc flowing non-axially of the passageway II between perimeters of lthe electrodes will be forced outwardly and lengthened by the gases which are deflected from their flow, axially from the passageway, directly across the arc stream. Furthermore, when the 'gases are deected by this arrangement, as in that of Figs. 6, 7 Iand 8, from their ow along the axis oi the passageway il electric power system, it is to be understood thatv the same may be interposed between any points, of differing electric potential in a system, to
limit the voltage, to permit the discharge of surge current. and to interrupt the ilow of follow-up current between such points in the system.
Having described my invention, what I claim is:
1. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter comprising spaced electrodes for connection to conductors betweenwhich a difference of potential exists, means responsive to current flow between.
said electrodes toevolve gas, and means actuated by the force of the evolved gas to, lengthen the space between said electrodes.
2. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter cornprising at least two electrodes having an air-gaptherebetween, a chamber surrounding the airl gap, means within said chamber responsiveto an arc between said electrodes to evolve a gas, and means actuated by they pressure of the evolved gas to lengthen said air-gap.
l3. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter comprising electrodes for connection to conductors between which a diierence of potential exists, means providing a confined air-gap between the ends of said electrodes, means responsive to an arc across said electrodes to evolve gas within tion with respect to said iixed electrode, the improvements comprising means operative by an arc across said electrodes to evolve gas in sumcient quantity as to oppose the normal tendency of said yieldable means and move said movable electrode from its normal predetermined 'spaced relation with respect to said ilxed electrode t0. lengthen said air-sap.
5. A voltage limiting, current surgeI discharge device with follow-up current interrupter comprising electrodes, for connection to conductors between which a difference ci! potential exists, having a conned air-gap therebetween and device with follow-up current interrupter comprising an insulating housing, a pair of spaced electrodes extending into communication with the interior of said housing, lgas emitter material within said housing intermediate said electrodes, means connected to one of said electrodes and movable by the expansive forces of gases evolved from said emitter to increase the spacing of said electrodes.
8. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter comprising an insulating housing, at least two electrodes within said housing in air-gap spaced relation with respect to each other whereby anarc may iiow thereacross when abnormal voltages occur between said electrodes, gas emitter material, which when subjected to the heat of an arc, will emit gases, said material being mounted within said housing intermediate said electrodes, piston means connected to one of said electrodes and movably responsive, to lengthen said airgap,l bythe expansive forces of gases evolved within said housing from said emitter material by an arc across said electrodes.
9'. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with'follow-up current interrupter', comprising an insulating body having a passageway therethrough, electrodes to which conductors of different .potential are adapted to be attached respectively, said electrodes being mounted in communication with said passageway and normally in Vpredetermined spaced relation with respect to each other, material which is gas-evolving when subjected to abnormal heat mounted in and lining a portion of the passageway between said electrodes, said lining incompletely bridging said electrodes and having an unobstructed passageway therethrough substantially in axial alignment with said electrodes, and
means operable by the expansive forces of gases evolved from said liner to move at least one of said electrodes and lengthen the normal space between said electrodes.
l0; A voltage limiting, current surge discharge D device with follow-up current interrupter, comprising an insulating body having a passageway therethrough, electrodes to which conductors of .dinerent potential are adapted to be attached respectively, said electrodes being -mounted in communication with said'passageway and nortween said lelectrodes, said lining incompletely bridging said electrodes and having an unobstructed passageway therethrough substantially in axial alignment with said passageway, means means responsive to current now between said Y electrodes to simultaneously non-ionize and lengthen said air-gap.
6. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with iollowup current interrupter comprising a pair oi.' electrodes, means providing av conned air-gap between the ends of said electrodes, means responsive to an arc across said electrodes to produce non-ionizing means in said air-gap, and means operable' by said non-ionizing meansto lengthen said air-aap.
7. A voltage limiting, currentsurge discharge' operable by the expansive forces of gases evolved irom said liner to move at least one of said elecprising an insulating body having a passageway predetermined spaced relation with respect to each other, material which is gas-evolving when subjected to abnormal heat mounted within and lining only a portion of the length of the passageway between said electrodes, piston means fixed to one of said electrodes, means for holding said piston means and its connected electrode normally in predetermined spaced relation with respect to the other electrode, means for causing the expansive forces of gases evolved from said liner to react upon said piston means and move its connected electrode a greater distance from the other electrode vthan when in its normal relation with respect thereto.
12. A voltage limiting current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter, comprising a hollow insulating body, normally spaced electrodes adapted to be connected respectively to points of differing electrical potential, said electrodes being mounted so as to have their shortest line of separation within at least a portion of the hollow of said insulating body, material which is gas-evolving when subjected to abnormal heat mounted within and surrounding only a portion of the gap between said electrodes, piston means fixed to one of said electrodes,
1 means for holding said piston means and' its connected electrode normally in predetermined spaced relation with respect to the other electrode, means for causing the' expansive forces of gases evolved from said liner to react upon said piston means and move its connected electrode a greater distance from the other electrode than when in its normal relation with respect thereto, means for limiting they distance of move- Y, ment of said electrode and means for automatically returning said electrode to its normal relation with respect to the other electrode.
13. A voltage limiting current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter, comprising an insulating body having a chamber therein, a fixed electrode and a movable pistonacting electrode mounted in spaced relation within said chamber, material which is gas evolving when subjected to abnormal heat mounted within and completehr lining a portion of said chamber between said electrodes, means for normally holding said movable electrode in predetermined spaced relation with respect to said iixed electrode, and means for causing the expansive forces -of gases evolved from said liner to react upon said piston-acting electrode to lengthen the normal distancey between said electrodes.
14. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge vdevice with follow-up current interrupter, comprising an insulating casing, gas evolving material mounted Within and lining a portion of the casing, a pair ofelectrodes extending into opposite ends of said casing .with their innermost ends in predetermined spaced relation, said electrodes having their greatest extension into said casing immediately adjacent-the walls of said casing, and means movably mounting one of said electrodes, said movable means being responsive to expansive forces of gases evolved from said liner.
15. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter comprising an insulating casing, spaced electrodes supported by said casing, said electrodes having a peripheral rim substantially in alignment with the inner Walls of said casing, a gas evolving material lining a portion of the casing between the rims of said electrodes, and means for deecting gases actually exhausted and expelled outwardly from s aid casing, during operation of the device, through and beyond the shortest arc paths between the rim of one electrode and that of the other.
16. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter, comprising an insulating body, gas evolving material mounted within and lining a portion of the said body with their innermost ends in predetermined spaced relation, said electrodes having terminal rims in substantial alignment with the inner walls of said body, and means associated with one of said electrodes movable by the expansive forces of gases evolved from said lining to lengthen the separation between said electrodes.
17. A voltage limiting, current surge discharge device with follow-up current interrupter,.com prising a through-bored insulating body, gas evolving material mounted within and lining a portion of the bore, electrodes extending into opposite ends of said bore with their innermost ends in predetermined spaced relation, said electrodes having annular foremost ends positioned immediately adjacent the walls of said bore, means associated with one of electrodes normally closing the base of said bore yet movable by the expansive forces of gases evolved from said liner to lengthen the separation between said electrodes, and resilient means for automatically restoring said movable electrode to its normal position upon the interruption of the cause material mounted within and lining a portion of the hollow of said body, spaced electrodes having terminal rims in substantial alignment with the inner Walls-,of said body, and. gas deilecting means for directing gases actually exhausted and expelled outwardly from said body, during operation of the device, through and beyond the arc paths between the terminal rims of said electrodes.
GLENN B. ROLOSON.