US 2286793 A
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Patented June 16, 1942 [UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE YARN CONDITIONING PROCESS AND COMPOSITION THEREFOR Joseph B. Dickey, Rochester, N. Y., assignor to Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey No Drawing. Application March 23, 1940,
' Serial No. 325,576
This invention relates to the conditioning of textile yarns, and particularly to the conditioning of yarns, threads, filaments and fibers composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose such as cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate, and cellulose acetate butyrate, to render such materials amenable to various textile operations such as knitting, weaving, carding, spinningptwisting and the like.
As is well known in the textile industry, the
manufacture, processing and use of yarns composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose and similar synthetic materials give rise to numerous problems generally absent from the handling of natural yarns such as silk, wool, cotton and the like. One of the chief problems encountered in dealing with these synthetic materials is to so lubricate or soften and, in some instances, to both lubricate and soften, the yarn in question that it will have the correct frictional characteristics, or drag, and-the required flexibility for the specific purpose in view. In the handling of continuous filament yarn, for example, it is necessary to condition the material to reduce the tendency toward breakage of individual filaments when the yarn is subjected to mechanical strains such as are involved in passage of the yarn over rolls, guides, and other parts of the yarn-producing mechanism and in twisting, winding, reeling and similar operations.
In the case of yarns intended for use ,on commercial knitting machinery, it is particularly im- V portant that the yarn be soft and pliable in or der that it may conform to the contour of the needles and give a closely knit fabric free from cuts, pin holes, stitch distortion, laddering, misplaits and other common defects. Another, problem of major proportions presented by these synthetic yarns is their extreme tendency to pick up charges of static electricity, especially in such operations as twisting, windmg, warping, picking, carding, combing, drafting, spinning, and the like. This tendency is particularly aggravated in the case of cut staple fibers, since in the commercial use of such material, it is normally subjected to a number of extremely severe operations such as picking, carding, combing, etc., all of which tend to so charge the individual fibers as to make proper web formation difiicult or impossible or to give the ultimate yarn an undesirable unevenness.
In some types of yarn, all three of the abovementioned problems of lubrication, softening and anti-static treatement are present and in any case the matter of 'providing a yarn conditioning composition, in which the several functions are properly coordinated to accomplish the desired result is often a matter of extreme difliculty.
This is due to the fact that in any given yarn- .of these agents and the various formulas containing them have certain drawbacks, among which may be mentioned too drastic solvent action on the yarn, insufficient solvent 'power for the lubricants with which they are used and a tendency to form gummy deposits on the yarn after application. Furthermore, many of the known lubricating, softening and anti-static agents" are insufilciently soluble in water to permit satisfactory removal from the yarn by aqueous scour baths.
The present invention has as its principal object to provide an improved process for the conditioning of textile yarns, threads, filaments, and fibers, particularly those composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose to render such materials amenable to various textile operations and processes, such as knitting, weaving,
spinning and the like. A further object is to provide an improved process for the lubrication, softening and anti-static treatment of such yarn. A still further object is to provide a new class of yarn treating agents and compositions particularly adapted for the conditioning of yarns composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose and readily removable therefrom by the usual aqueous scour baths. A specific object is to provide an improved type of cellulose organic derivative cut staple fiber amenable to carding, drawing, spinning, and other processing steps customarily employed in the manufacture of spun yarn on the woolen, worsted, and cotton systems. Other objects will appear hereinafter.
These objects are accomplished by the following invention which, in its broader aspects,
comprises treating yarns, particularly those composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose, such as cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, and similar organic acid esters with salts of amines which have one or more aliphatic groups containing or more carbon atoms in the molecule. These compounds may be represented by the formula I wherein R is a substituent selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstisired amine base with the desired acid or acids,
with or without a solvent.
I have found that these compounds, when employed in accordance with the technique to be more fully described hereinafter, have a peculiar ability to lubricate and soften such yarns and at the same time give them anti-static properties. They also possess an unusual solvent power for mineral, blown and unblown, drying and' semi-drying vegetable and animal oils, and accordingly may be used with or without such oils.
These compounds are further characterized by their exceptional ability to reduce static charges on cellulose organic derivative cut staple fiber and thus to adapt them for carding, drawing, spinning and other operations customarily employed in the manufacture of spun yam on the woolen, worsted, and cotton systems. The yarn conditioning agents of my invention also have exceptional value as surface-active compounds and as such may be employed as wetting, dispersing, and emulsifying agents, textile assistants, dye-dispersing agents and the like. These agents may also be used as substitutes for soaps because of their exceptional emulsifying power. These compounds are characterized by their stability to hard water and the fact that they are extremely stable chemically.
In the following examples and description I have set forth several of the preferred embodiments of my invention, but they are included merely for purposes of illustration and not as a limitation thereof.
My invention will be more readily understood by reference to several specific examples of typical yarn treating procedures carried out in accordance therewith.
Example 1 Oleyl amine oleate is applied by means of an applicator roll to cellulose acetate continuous V filament designed for knitting purposes in an Example 2 is applied to a cellulose acetate cut staple fiber designed for use on the woolen system in an amount corresponding to 1-5% of the dry weight of the staple fiber material. The yarn so treated is found to be substantially free from accumulations of static electricity and admirably adapted for the manufacture of spun yarn in accordance with standard commercial practice involving carding, drawing, spinning and the like.
Other examples of conditioning compositions which may be applied in accordance with my invention to yarns intended for a variety of purposes such as knitting, weaving, spinning and the like, and especially the anti-static treatment of cut staple fibers and other yarns composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose, such as cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate proplonate, and cellulose acetate butyrate and similar derivatives are the following:
Example 3 A conditioning liquid particularly useful on cut staple fibers made of cellulose acetate and which may be used for other textile operations is made up as follows:
Parts by weight Decylamine acetate 2-5 Olive oil 60 Beta-methoxyethyl succinate 38-35 Example 4 Parts by weight Lauryl-beta-hydroxyethylamino butoxyacetate -1 1-10 Olive oil 65 Tetrahydrofurfuryl formal 34-25 Example 5 Parts by weight Dimethyl laurylamine tetrahydrofuroate 1-10 Blown olive oil 99-90 Example 6 Parts by weight Dimyristylamine phosphate v 1-10 Neat's-foot oil 99-90 Example 7 Parts by weight Tetrahydrofurfuryl cetylamine borate 1-10 Neats-foot oil Tetrahydrofurfuryl tetrahydrofuroate 14-5 Example 8 Parts by weight Example 9 I Parts by weight CzoHnN- cgHulSlllfate V CQHOH u (cyclohexyl-beta-hydroxy ethyl cosyl amine) -e 1-5 Oleylamine 2 Blown neats-foot oil 97-93 Example 10 Parts by weight czzHzaNHz-oleate (docosyl amine oleate) 5 Teaseed oil Sulfonated olive oil .amine oleate.
' 2,286,798 Example 11 Parts by weight CaeHiaNHa'cerotate (cerylamlne cerotate)- 2 Palmitic acid 10 Sodium sulfate 2 -Teaseed oil 86 Example 12 csoHsiNHz-succinate (tricontyl amine suc- Parts by weight Parts by weight 15 0 C HI H -nor 00.11. (CnHsiN H no OKs-0:011 101'2 (methyl allyl dotricontyl amine) 1-10 Sperm oil 99-90 Example 14 Parts by weight ll Laurylamlue-H 0- 0 CuHu Example 16 Parts by weight Phosphated blown olive. oil oleylamine salt.-- 20 Example 20 In a 20 percent acetone I acetate are dissolved 15% by weight of oleyl The acetone solution is thenexevaporative atmosphere and the solution of cellulose truded into an filaments thus produced are wound or twisted and wound. Filaments thus prepared are of particu- Dioleylamine oleate 5 Olive oil- 25. Mineral oil 70 Example 17 Parts by weight Cetylaniline phosphate 5 Blown olive oil 68 Stearic acid 5 Di-potassium phosphate 2 p,p'-Tetrahydrofurfuryl ether 20 Example 18 Parts by weight Water 80 Gelatin 5 Decylamine acetate 5 Tetrahydrofurfuryl lactate 10 Example 19 Parts by weight Water '70 Water soluble cellulosev ester 5 lar value in the preparation of cut staple fibers.
The particular method of application of the; yarn treating compositions of my invention to the yarn will depend largely upon the nature of the yarn and the use for which it is intended. In
of the standard bath, or spray application. Ii the yarn is in continuous filament form, compositions may be applied Just as the yarn emerges from the spinning cabinet, or while passing from package to package. Likewise, the lubricant may be applied during twisting, winding, crepeing or similar operations. positions may be conveniently applied in the form of an emulsion bath or spray, preferably after any desired special treatment'of the yarn such as crimping or the like. In some cases, the lubricating, softening and anti-static agent may be added to the spinning solution from which the yarn is to be spun.
The amount of the compositions applied will, in general, depend upon the purpos for which the yarn is to be used. For example,1if the yarn ,is to be employed for knitting, anywhere from 5- 25%, based be applied. intended for run from about 1-5 In each of the compositions given, the essential lubricating, softening and anti-static component is a compound of the type indicated above. However, as illustrated by the specific examples, such compositions may contain other lubricating; softening, or anti-static agents to augment or supplement the effect of the primary ingredient on the dry weight of the yarn, may On the other hand,
if the yarn is and thus give the compositions added 01' improved properties. Likewise, solvents, non-solvents, blending agents, co-solvents, emulsifying agents, dispersing agents and similar ingredients may be added as circumstances may require to adapt the compositions for specific uses. Similarly, various dyes or other coloring matter may be added to the compositions in case it is desired to permanently or fugltively tint the yarn undergoing treatment.
Although in the above examples, I have referred to compositions containing specific pro-" portions of the various ingredients, the amounts employed in .any given case may vary widely depending upon the particular purpose for which the composition is intended. For example, it it is desired to control the solvent, softening, or other specific action of the conditioning agent per se or of any other ingredient, the amount thereof may be adjusted in accordance with the desired action.
While I have found it convenient to describe my invention with particular reference to the treatment of yarns composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose acetate, the conditioning agent and compositions described herein are also applicable to the conditioning of many other types of cellulose derivative yams, such as those composed of or containing cellulose propionate, cellulose butyrate, cellulose acetate propionatay'cellulose acetate butyrate, the" cellulose others such as ethyl, methyl and benzyl celluloses, viscose and cuprammonium cellulose, silk, wool, cotton and other natural and artificial materials. 7
The term yarn as used herein and in the claims is to be understood as covering single.- 'fllaments, a plurality of filaments associated in the form of roving, threads and the like, either of high or low twist, composite [threads or yarns composed of a mixture of natural and artificial filaments, composite threads formed by twisting together individual threads or strands of the same or different natural or artificial materials of the same or diiferent denlers, creped or In the case of cut staple fibers, the com-- weaving, the amount will generally cellulose, particularly procedures such as roll, wick,
ing characteristic of the agents described herein is their ability to lubricate, soften and give valuable anti-static properties to yarns, particularly those composed of or containing organic derivatives of cellulose such as cellulose acetate, and to render them amenable to various textile operations. These agents are especially valuable in the anti-static treatment of cellulose derivative cut staple fibers.
As indicated above, these compounds are distinguished by the fact that they have an especial solvent power for awide variety of mineral, blown and unblown, drying and semi-drying animal and vegetable oils. Furthermore, due to their ready solubility in water, they may be removed from yarns and fabrics by means of the usual aqueous scour baths. In addition, their ability to emulsify various oils customarily used for yarn treatment makes them especially valuable for the preparation of emulsions designed for use in the anti-static treatment of cut staple fibers.
Of the above compounds, I have found that dioleyl amine naphthenate, dimyristylamine phosphate. and lauryl amine cetyl sulfate give outstanding results in the lubrication, softening and anti-static treatment of yarns, especially those composed of or containing cellulose organic acid derivatives such as cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, and the like.
What I claim is:
1. The process of conditioning yarn composed of or containing cellulose acetate to render it amenable to textile operations including knitting, weaving, spinning, carding. drawing and the like which comprises applying thereto a lubricating and anti-static composition containing as its essential lubricating and anti-static component dimyristylamine phosphate.
2. Textile yarns composed of or containing cellulose acetate amenable to textile operations including knitting, weaving, spinning, carding, drawing and the like, impregnated with a lubricating and anti-static composition containing as its essential lubricating and anti-static component dimyristylamine phosphate.
, 3. A conditioning agent for rendering yarns composed of or containing an organic derivative of cellulose more amenable to textile operations including knitting, weaving, spinning, carding, drawing and the like, containing as its essential lubricating and anti-static component dimyristylamine phosphate.
l JOSEPH B. DICKEY.