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Publication numberUS2287172 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 23, 1942
Filing dateJan 10, 1939
Priority dateJan 10, 1939
Publication numberUS 2287172 A, US 2287172A, US-A-2287172, US2287172 A, US2287172A
InventorsCanton Allen A, Harrison Laurence S, Kay Alfred G
Original AssigneeHarrison Laurence S
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and apparatus for refrigeration and air conditioning
US 2287172 A
Abstract  available in
Images(12)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 23, 1942; 'L. s. HARRISON EIAL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1959 12 Sheets-Sheet l m Q E S, *3

Q N R w w E I R k, 5 w "a i m I N E w I & "3 'Q 5 INVENTORJ LAURENCE SJ'MRRISON ALLEN A CANTON ALFRED fiKAY June 23, 1942.

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INVENTORJ LAURENCE 5.HHKRL5DN ALLEN 6. CANTON HLFRED G. KAY v 4 1: ATI'ORNEYS.-

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I 7 UMMJ M9 J1me 1942- L. s. HARRISON ETAL.

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan.. 10, I959 12 Sheets-Sheet 3 LAUREN2P5ZEN ALLEN A CANTON BY ALFRED 6.KAY v l/ wLM 419' :7 A ATTORNEYS.

Julie 23, 1942. I... s. HARRISON 7,

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1939 12 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORS LAURENCE $.HARRI5DN ALLEN A. CANTON BY ALFRED 6. KAY

June 2- L. s. HARRISON ET AL 2,237,172

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1939 12 Sheets-Sheet 5 June 23, 1942; s, HARRlSON ETAL 2,287,172

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1939 '12 Sheets-Sheet 6 BY QLFRED 6. KAY

June 23, 1942. L. s. HARRISON ET AL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1959 12 Sheets-Sheet 7 Iiiiiiiii BEBE 0mmmmwmumm 7 N 5 R R Ow T O N Nmm R Emmm. 0 V5 .6 NERD JIMNF. A

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Jun 1942- L. s. HARRISON ETAL 7, Y

CONDITIONING METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR 12 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Jan. 10, 1939 LAUAHXEQQEE RISON GLLEN a. CANTON BY (Imago GAKAY t a 7 is ATTORNEYS June 23, 1942. s. HARRISON EI'AL ,1 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING I Filed Jan. 10, 1939 12 Sheets-Sheet 9 N O 5 WN R OY m m mm Mfiw. NE R IW Au m6 B I)! ..I. ll lllllll llfl Q in i T Q Q Q 3 Q i Q Q C Q mm .n mu 7 2E ATTORNEYS June 23, .1942. L. s HARRISON ET AL 2,237,172

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1939 12 Sheets-Sheet 1O LAURENCE SLHA RISON v -HLLEN 8-C4NTON BY HLFRED G. KAY

J1me 4 L. s. HARR/ISON ETAL I 2,237,172 7 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1939 .12 Sheets-Sheet ll 2' ATTORN Y? METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Filed Jan. 10, 1939 12 Sheets-Sheet 12 INVENTORS I LAURENCE s. HARRISON ALLEN A.CANTON Y ALFRED wow 1/ I M 4. 2 3 ATTORNEYS Patented June 23, 1942 ERATION AND AIR "CONDITIONING Laurence S. Harrison, Bronxville, and Allen A". Canton, New York, N. 1., and Alfred G. Kay,

Palm Beach, Fla, assign era, by mesne assignments, to said Laurence S. Harrison Application January 10, 1939, Serial No. 250,142

32 Claims. (01.6%)

This invention relates to refrigeration and air conditioning, particularly to an-air conditioning and cooling system suitable for buses, taxicabs, passenger cars and other mobile or stationary installations which have available waste heat energy and require or are adaptable to. use refrigeration or cooled and conditioned air. It is adaptable in enlarged design for air conditioning and refrigeration in buildings equipped with plants operated by Diesel or other types of engines.

The invention utilizes the refrigeration prin- For automobiles, the major consideration from the standpoint of temperature control is the high temperatures and humidity of summer. The present car heaters take care, to some extent, of

' low temperature conditions. The humidity created by the respiration-of passengers within the relatively small space insidea car body practically avoids the necessity for supplying moisture in winter; but the added humidity due to this ciple of adsorption and compression, the waste a heat such as the exhaust of a car furnishing the energy and a suitable adsorbent material such as activated carbon or the like supplying the compression. The invention provides a commercially cause creates a real problem for applying air cool-- ing and conditioning to a car in summer when the air is already heavily laden with moisture. A

study of the daily maximums for a number of scattered cities in the United States indicates practical device of light weight, low cost, high relative capacity, mechanical I, simplicity," re-' liability, and operating economy.

The adoption of air conditioning in railway transportation has created a definite standard, due to traflic competition, for its application to motor transport of all types, The trend to air conditioning for buses is very well defined and at least one manufacturer of passenger cars has announced that air conditioning in some form will be provided. Once begun. it is believed that public demand will speed the development of air conditioning and will not be satisfied with the present proposals, which amount to little more than improved ventilation, but will require con-' ditioried air in the full sense of the term. This invention supplies thi need in that it regulates the temperature of the air, removes its moisture content to a satisfactory extent, and takes care of ventilation requirements.

There are many considerations in the design of an air conditioning system for automobiles, the more important of whichare: cost, mechanical limitations, power available, body insulation, available space, added weight, range of climatic conditions, maintenance or operating costs, type of refrigerating material and individual options as to comfort.

It is comparatively an easy matter to design an air conditioning system for the room of a stationary building to meet a relatively stable, average. range of conditions. This is not true of asystem for. mobile units where adquate capacity must beprovided for widely varying. conditions and choice, with'pro'visions for permissible variation and adjustments to adapt the system to changed conditions or choice. i

that 100 F. dry bulb and F. wet bulb ordew point temperatures may be; considered as fair maximum conditions which must be dealt with. It is considered that the equipment must provide a temperature differential of from 10 to 20 degrees for the conditioned air in order for the equipment to be satisfactory. These requirements indicate that relatively high refrigerating capacity must be available under the operator's control. To provide such capacity at low initial cost, light weight, small space occupation and at negligible maintenance cost, is the achievement oi this invention.

The relatively small space per occupant in automobiles indicates a very high latent-to-total load ratio, which with the capacities obtainable in'this system, may be served by introducing a high percentage of .outside air; but actually the total volume required, measured in cubic feet per minute, is very'low. From a theoretical consideration of average conditions to be met, it is sumcient to mix re-circulated inside air and fresh outside air in the ratio of 1 to2 parts respectively; however, the present system is designed'to mix re-circulated air and fresh outside air in the ratio of 1 to 1 parts respectively, in order to be I on the safe side. Moreover, the capacity of refrigeration is made adequate to' reduce the moisture content enough to take care of the high humidity per unit volume produced by respiration. This is done in a simple and economical manner by providing extensive [contact between the air and the cooling surfaces, as for example by forcing the air through long passages or' laliilygrinths which give the eifect of deep cooling co The cooling unit is designed to discharge from the car a certain amount of used air, for an average passenger car amounting to as much as 20% of the total occupied volume per minute for one 55 W with the ability to increase the per- Suillcient waste heat from the motor is available to operate the refrigerating equipment, and

the use of thiawaste heat avoids the necessity of either a direct, reduction of motive power for driving the car which would be entailed by a compressor system, or the consumption of additionalfuel. 7 operating costs of this systemare very much less than they would be with a compressor system' The manufacturing, installation and Fig. 22 is a vertical section taken on the line and there are few and minor changes required in body design to take care of the refrigerating system. Perhaps the general insulation now provided for deadening sound and the heat insulation at the cowl board behind the motor might have to be increased slightly for best results for air conditioning-but the added expense would be slight-and the same for any refrigerating system used.

The enumerated and other objects and features of novelty will be apparent from the description and the drawings.

While the following description. is principally directed to the refrigeration of private passenger cars, it will be understood that the invention in principle applies as well to trucks having storage compartments to berefrigerated and also to sta-' tionary installations.

The invention 'will best be understood from a consideration of an exemplary embodiment thereof shown in the accompanying drawings, wherein:

, are available for heating it and causing it to re- Fig. l is a side elevation of a passenger car,

partly broken away, equipped with refrigerating or air conditioning apparatus embodying the present invention; h

Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic and partly schematic view of the apparatus used on the car shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a top plan view of theboiler. or generator unit shown in Figs. 1 and 2, therefrigerant connections being omitted for simplicity;

Fig. 4 is an end view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a partial sectional view taken on the line 55.of Fig. 3;

Fig. 6 is a transverse vertical section through a heat valve, the view being taken approximately" on the line 6-6 of Figs. 3 and 7;

Fig. 7 is a longitudinal vertical section taken on the'line 1'I of Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 is a transverse vertical section through a water valve,.the view being taken approximately on the line H of Figs. 3 and 9;

. Fig. 9 is 'a' longitudinal vertical section taken on the linc--99 of Fig. 8; i

Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic front end view of the boiler or generator shown in Figs. 1 and 2,

m showing the refrigerant and water connections;

Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic rear end view looking in the same direction as in Fig. 10;

Fig. 12 is a longitudinal vertical section through one of the boiler units, the view being taken on the line l2l2 ofFig. 3;

Fig. 14 is an enlarged transverse vertical section; with certain filling material removed, taken on the line ll-ll of Fig. 12;

Fig. 15 is an exploded view of some of the parts shown in Fig. 14; a

Fig. 16 is a viewof a detail shown in Fig.14; Fig. 17 is a longitudinal vertical section of a condenser shown in Figs. 1 and 2;

Fig. 18 is an end elevation looking at the left end of Fig. 17; I a

Fig. 19 is a vertical section taken longitudinally of the car, of a heater-cooler unit shown in Figs. 1 and 2;

Fig. 20 is a transverse elevational view takenon the line 20-20 of Fig. 19;

Fig. 21 is a plan view of an air distributing outlet shown in Figs. 1 and 19, the view being taken from the line 2l2l of Figs. 1 and 19;

22-22 of Fig. 21;

Fig. 23 is a vertical longitudinal section through a valve timer unit shown in Fig. 3, the view being taken approximately on the line.2323 of Fig. 3;

vention comprehends the use of an improved type of heat exchange medium which functions properly between the temperature of the motor cooling fluid which is available for cooling it and causing it to adsorb the refrigerant and the temperature of the exhaust combustion gases which lease the refrigerant. The preferred heat exchange medium and one which has given very satisfactory results inpractical tests is activated carbon.

The preferred refrigerant is One which will be adsorbed freely by the adsorbent material at the lower temperatures. available, say to derees F. if engine cooling fluid is employed for cooling the adsorbent material, and which may be in a large measure driven out of or away from the adsorbent material at the higher temperatures available, say 400 to 600 degrees F. if-engine exhaust gases at 700 to 900 degrees F. are employed for heating the adsorbent material. Methyl chloride, CHsCl, or methylene chloride, CHaCh, or what is known commercially as carrene', have been found to be very satisfactory for employment at this temperature range; and both have the additional advantage of being adsorbed in large volumes by activated carbon. The refrigerant should also be harmless and unobjectionable to passengers in case it should escape. The term adsorbent applies as well to absorbent materials, though the latter are usually liquids and not preferred for travelling vehicles, although the principles of operation would be :imiilar tothose described for solid adsorbent ma- As shown in the drawings, wherein a preferred embodiment of the air conditioning system is applied to a passenger car 20, there is indicated in Fig. 1 anengine exhaust pipe 2I' leading to a generator-adsorber 22, 'a condenser 23, a heatercooler or heater-evaporator 24, a fresh'air inlet '25 leading air to the heater-cooler unit, and a duct 26 leading conditioned air from the heatercooler unit 24 to an air distributing grill 2! placed at-some convenient location in the car. For example, as indicated, the grill may b placed just back of the front seat so that the air will circulate as shown by the arrows. For most emcient operation of the air conditioning system the blower deep coils within the limited The valves may be oi both may. be mounted on 1 an operating arm 66 and an operating-rod lation somewhat over what is now done for noise and vibration elimination; and it may also be necessary to provide improved insulation at the cowl partition 28 between the motor and the passenger space in the body. As will be seen presently, water from the engine radiator 29 may, in addition to cooling the engine, be used in the. air conditioning system, and for this reason it may be necessary to increase the radiator capacity. An increase of approximately is estimated to be entirely suflicient to take care of the air conditioning system.

Normally the carwindows will be kept closed while the air conditioning system is operating but this should not require any changes in window operating mechanism in a passenger car or taxicab, although in buses and Diesel operated railway cars it appears advisable to place the operation of windows and all other closures solely under the supervision of the attendant.

In Figs. 19 and 20 the heater-cooler unit 24 and related parts are shown in enlarged section in relation to the familiar parts of the car, Here are shown the cowl partition 26, the fresh air inlet 25, the conditioned air duct 26, the grill 21, the dash 30, the hood 3| the floor 32 and windshield 33. The fresh air inlet is provided with a screen 35 to exclude insects. A plurality. of

There will be as much air leaving by the exhaust duct 39' as there is fresh air being drawn in by the fresh air duct 45. The valve 51 is. provided to cut off or reduce the supp y of fresh air, particularly when larger quantities of inside air are being recirculated or when the system is inoperative and natural draft ventilation i used. The valve 58 is provided to prevent the entry of engine exhaust gases when a suction toward the inside of the car exists.

A switch 62 may be associated with the rod 6| for causing the blower-motor Ml to operate when the valves 51 and 58 are open and to stop when the valves are closed.

'As shown in Figs. 21. and 22 the duct 26 ter-' minates in a distributor: 63 which divides the air into a lower channel 64' having outlets 65 and 66 and an upper channel 61 having outlets (iii and 69. By this arrangement a wide distribution v of the conditioned air is obtained at the grill 21. The cooling coils 52 and the heating coils 53 may be provided with fins 10 having good thermal baflie pans 36, 31 separate water from the air and rows, and enters a fresh air duct leading to a blower 46 driven by a motor MI. The motor also drives a second blower 41 for recirculating air from the car. The blowersare preferably of the pressure type in order to impart a forced circulation to the air. A sirocco type blower is satisfactory. As shown, the blowers 46 and 41 are approximately the same size for handling equal amounts of fresh and recirculated air, although the ratio may be otherwise if desired. The blower 46 discharges into a duct 46 and 41 discharges into a duct 49. Both ducts 48 and 49 discharge into amixing chamber 50 which continues in a long flat labyrinth duct 5| passing in a series of loops over-cooling coils 52 and heating coils 53. As shown, there are four vertical rows of cooling coils and twovertical rows of heating coils. but it isobvious that the proportion may be varied; and it will .be understood that the cooling coils and heating coils may be used alternately or simultaneously as desired- The labyrinth duct gives the effect of space available and.

provides good cooling and moisture elimination which are desirable in a car where the total air.

capacity is small and the moisture dueto respiration is large. A receiver I96 is provided for the cooling coils.

The duct 5| terminates in the conditioned air duct 26 leading to the grill or register 21.

The upper end of the exhaust air duct 39 terminates near the hood and both the fresh air inlet duct 45 and the exhaust air duct 39 may be provided with valves 51 and "respectively.

a shaft as provided with controlled from the dash. Positive pressure created inside the body by conditioned air causes conductivity. I The duct 5| where it joins the duct 26 may be provided with a low dam II and behind this with a drip pipe 12 for leading condensate from the evaporator coils to the drip pipe 38.

' Referring to Fig'. 2, which is a diagrammatic andapartly schematic view of the apparatus, the parts already described will be identified and then other parts will be described. Here are found the engine exhaust pipe 2|; the generatoradsorber 22, 'the condenser 23, the heater-cooler or heater-evaporator unit 24, the engine radiator 29, blower motor. MI, and dash switch 62. The engine-isdesignated by the numeral 15, the gen- 'erator as 16,-the battery as 11, the water pump as 18 and the exhaust tail pipe as 19. The water circulation system for the engine 15 is generally indicated by the numeral 80 and this is provided with a throttle valve 8| for proportioning the flow of cooling fluid between the engine and the air conditioning system.

Cooling fluid flows to the condenser 23 by way of an inlet pipe 62 and away from the condenser by an outlet pipe 93 which finally joins a radiator return pipe 84.

The generator-adsorber 22 snay be cooled by air or by an independent air-water cooling system, but preferably it is cooled by fluid from the engine cooling system, as shown. Cooling fluid may flow to the boiler or generator by way of an inlet pipe 9! and out by an outlet pipe 68. Another outlet pipe 89,-which may be 1 referred to as the backpass outlet, may be provided for more positively evacuating the cooling fluidfrom the boiler at times,'as will be later explained. The pipe 69 maybe provided with a back-pass suction pump 90 driven for convenience .by a pump-timer motor M2, although the pump may be driven directly. bythe engine.

A check valve 9| is placed in the pipe 99 to prevent flow in a direction other than that indicated by the arrow. The motor M2 miay boomtrolled by a dash switch 92 and a rheostat It.

The heatenevaporator is supplied with hot fluid from the engine cooling system when desired by-an inlet pipe "equipped with a cut-oft valve 94. Cooling fluid, 1. e. hot water, leaves the heater-evaporator by way of the outlet pipe 95. w

Besides driving the pump 96 the motor M2 also drives-a valve timer III which in turn drives a valve Operating shaft "I at the boiler through exhaust air to leave by way of the duct 39. 7s afiexible shaft I62.

Refrigeratingfluid may flow from the generator-adsorber 22 to the condenser 23 through the pipe I03; from the condenser to the evaporator 24 through the pipe- I04; and from-the evaporator back to the boiler through the pipe the four generator-adsorber units A, B, C and.

D, so also are the exhaust gases from the exhaust pipe 2| divided between the four units. This is also true of cooling fluid from the inlet pipe 81. But whereas the refrigerating fluid is permitted to divide according to conditions existing within the generator-adsorber units, the exhaust gases are controllably divided by an exhaust or heat valve I08; and the cooling fluid is divided by the water valves I09 and H0. All of the valves I08, I09 and' H0 are. driven by the drive shaft IOI.

In Figs. 3, 4 and 5, the generator-adsorber and associated parts, with the exception of the refrigerant system, are shown on an enlarged scale. In Fig. 3 the four units 22A, 223, 22C, 22D are shown as being supplied with heating gases from the exhaust pipe 2I and valve I08 by four branch exhaust pipes 2IA, 2IB, 2IC and 2ID; and the used heating gases are passed to the exhaust tail pipe 19 by the four branch pipes 19A, 19B, 19C and 19D. A muffler II I may be provided, ifdesired, but this may be small or even omitted since the boiler units provide a muiliing effect.

The water valves I09 and H0, conveniently,

which will be later explained. The valve body I24 is also provided with a back-pass port I21 with the exception that the opening I of H0 is disposed at the top and admits air instead of being at the bottom for exhausting water. The valve bodies of both valves I09 and H0 are exactly in phase. Strainers S are provided for the valves'I09,. IIO,

It is provided that the valves in normal operation will pause at the ports andrnove rapidly between ports. The mechanism for accomplishing this is shown in Figs. 23 and 24 and. will be described later. The action of the valves may be followed by observing Figs. 6-9. Figs. 6 and '1 show the port I2I over the opening 2IC for supplying exhaust heating gases to ,the generatoradsorber unit 220. Figs. 8 and 9 show the port I25 over the opening 81D and the port I26 over the openings 81A and 813 for supplying cooling fluid to the Units 22A, 22B and 22D. The port I21 is positioned overthe opening 1280 at both ends of the generator-adsorber whereby water is positively withdrawn from unit 22C at the bottom front end at opening I30, and outside air is at the same time drawn in at'the top rear end. That is, while'three units 22A, 22B, and

may be placed below the generator-adsorber, as

. shafts IOI and H2 rotate in the same direction and at the same speed in order to keep the valves I09 and I I0 in step with the valve I03- In Figs. 6 and 7 the exhaust or heat valve I08 is shown in enlarged detail. Here it is seen that the shaft IIII drives a valve body II8 which rotates within the casing of the valve. Preferably the valve body II3is formed of a'vitreous or other heat and corrosion resistant material operating in hard molded graphitebearings II9, I20. The valve body I I9 is provided with an elongated arcuate port I2I which partly spans two of the branch openings 2IA, 2I3, 2IC or 2ID in pass ing from one to the other. This is of value to prevent undue back pressure on the engine during transfer of the valve opening from one unit.

to, thenext, and when the system is shutdown, as will be later explained. The valve casing is made in separable parts to permit easy repair or replacement.

In Figs. 8 and 9 the front water valve I09 is shown in enlarged detail. Here it is seen that 22D are being cooled, theiother unit 220 is being heated and the residue of water is being withdrawn by the back-pass pump while fresh air is being drawn in torepla'ce the water. This cycle is maintained continuously, three units being fcooled while one unit is being heated. For example, if each unit is heated for 20 seconds it will be cooled'for 60 seconds in a total cycle period of 80 seconds.

Figs. 10 and 11 illustrate this in a readily understandable manner. In Fig. 10 the pipes 81A, 01B and 81D are shown to be supplying cooling water to the generator-adsorber units 22A, 223 and 22D, while the pipe 910 is shown to be empty to denote that the water has been withdrawn by the back-pass pump from the unit 220 and that'air is being drawn through it in reverse direction while it is being heated.

In Fig. 11 heated water is shown as being withdrawn from the generator-adsorber units 22A, 22B and 22D by the pipes 88A; 93B and 89D, while air is being supplied by the pipe 99C to the unit 220 which is being heated. The arrows alongside the pipes I05A, I053 and I05D in Fig. 10 indicate that refrigerant is being adsorbed into the units 22A, 22B and 22D which are being cooled;

while the arrow alongside the pipe I030 in Fig.

other end. An outer coil I33 for refrigerant is placed in the annular space between the casings I34 and I3! and an inner coil I31 for refrigerant is placed within the irmer casing. The coils are connected around the end of the inner casing.

' Refrigerant enters the outer coil I35 from the pipe I03 and leaves the inner coil I31 through the pipe I04. Cooling fiuid enters the inner casing from the central pipe 82 and leaves by the two outer pipes 83a and 8317 connected to the pipe 83 shown in Fig. 2. This arrangement makes a very effective heat exchange arrangement between the refrigerant and the cooling fluid.

Figs. 12-16 show a preferred construction of a unit for the'generator-adsorber 22. The construction is the same for all of the-four units so general reference characters applying to the generator-adsorber as a whole will be used. Here.

it is seen that exhaust gases enter by the pipe 2I and leave by the pipe I9; that refrigerant enters by the pipe I and leaves by the pipe I03; and that cooling fluid enters by the pipes 81a, 81b and 810 and leaves by the pipes 88a, 88b,

88a, 88b are disposed on the side'of the unit while the pipe 810 is disposed at the bottom for draining water at times'and the pipe 880 is disposed at the top for admitting air at times.

gether, the curved edges I4'I of the covers engaging the overhanging portions. I45 of the fins.

Perforated copper strips I48 slide endwise into the openings I44 beneath th overhanging portions I45. The use of the sliding strips I48 permits the complete filling up of all space between the fins I42 with 10 to 18 mesh activated carbon.

The entire assembly is enclosed by an imperforate copper cartridge I 50- welded to the end plates of the boiler unit. The spaces between the perforated strips I48 and the cartridge I 50 form conduits extending the entire length of the unit for passage of refrigerant; and the perforations 880. It will be noted that the pipes 81a, 88b and If desired, the side pipes 87a, 81b, 88a, 88b may be dispensed with and only the pipes 810 and 886 used. In this case water enters by thepipe 810 at the bottom, rises as heated, and leaves by the pipe 880 at the top. Then when the port I21 of the valve I09 opens the pipe 810 to the backpasspump and the port I21 of the valve H0 of the strips permit the penetration or escape of refrigerant to and from theadsorbent material at any point along the length. If desired, the

elongated spaces may be made of gradually decreasing or increasing size forthe entering or escaping refrigerant to take care of decreasing or increasing amounts passing any given section.

The refrigerant intake pipe I05 is connected with the upper space and the outlet pipe I03 is conneoted with the lower space as shown in Fig. 12. Between the cartridge I50 and the outer casing I5I of the unit there are disposed a plurality of heat conducting fins I52 of a material such as copper. These fins have spacing tabs I53 fitting upon the cartridge I50 and increasing the (7011-. tact area therewith. The pipes 81a, 81b and 81c may extend throughthe fins I52 from one end of the unit to the other and between fins may be provided with holes in the side for distributing opens the pipe 880 to the air, the air enters at the top and the water can be completely driven out at the other end (front) at the bottom. However, the use of several water pipes may be desirable because they provide a very rapid fiow and good distribution through the unit.

water to the spaces between the fins. The outlet pipes 88 a, 88b and 88c may also extend through all of the fins and be provided with holes in the sides for collecting water between fins.

Each generator-adsorber assembly unit is insulated by porcelain spacers I54 and the four If desired, also the valve IIO which admits air may be placed above the boiler instead of below,

activated carbon I43, the latter being indicated by stippling. The fins may be provided with bent tabs I42a for holding them straight and spacing them the proper distance apart. For activated carbon a satisfactory spacing may be 8 fins to the inch, in order to provide a reduced time rate of heat transfer to the carbon granules by providing a high degree of metal mass dispersed in the mass of carbon to be heated and cooled.

It should be noted that while the carbon granules filling the cells between the metal fins may be compacted to a considerable extent, the preferred arrangement is to provide firm packing-of v the granules to prevent loosenessor movement from vibration and at the same time give a good filtering access for the refrigerant to the pores of its adsorbent.

The shape of these fins is shown in Fig. '15. Here the tabs I42a are shown before they are bent.

The fins are provided with cut out portions I44 at the top and bottom, having overhanging portions I45. Two thin sheet copper coversI48 snap into place upon all of the spaced fin tounits are bolted between two bracket flanges I 55, one. at' each end, providing means for securing and mounting the entire adsorber-compressor. The units are readily removable for replacement or repair. p I A preferred form of valve operating and tim ing means will now be described by reference to Figs. 23 and 24. But first it is to be noted from Fig. 2 that the pump-timer motor M2 is controlled iointly by a dash switch 92 and a timer switch I58,the switches being in parallel so that the motor will continue to run even after the dash switch 92 is opened until the switch I58 in the timer I00 is also opened. Of course, in

starting, the motor will begin operating when the switch I58 is open if the dash switch '92 is closed. This arrangement is one means for insuring that no boiler unit will be exposed to the continued heat of exhaust gases for a long period without at the same time also furnishing cooling fluid to the unit to prevent injury. The particular method of accomplishing this is to move the valves to mid-position between normal halting positions, that is, to move the valves 45 degrees before the motor is finally cut off after the dash switch 92 is opened.

It may be seen from Fig. 6 that when the valve body H8 is stopped in the mid-position, i. e., 45

'. degrees beyond its normal halting position illustrated, the elongated port I 2| will partly span and supply exhaust gases to two pipes, for example, the pipes 2 I C and 2 ID.

It may also be seen from Fig. 8 that when the valve body I24 is stopped in the mid-position, i. e., 45' degrees beyond its normal halting posi-. tion illustrated, the elongated port I25 will part- 1y span and supply cooling fiuid to two pipes, for

v, and to one side of the shafts I63 and I68.

example the pipes am and am; while the elongated port I26 will also span and supply cooling fluid to two pipes, for example, the pipes fluid out the air intake opening when the back-' pass suction pump is inoperative.

With this preliminary explanation the con- I struction and operation of the timer mechanism shown in Figs. 23 and 24 may be understood.

The motor shaft I58, through a train of reducing gears housed by a casing I60, wrives a gear I6I which, through a gear I62, drives a Geneva pin shaft I63. The shaft I63 carries fast thereon apin arm I64 provided with a .pin

I65. A roller may be mounted on the pin I65 if desired. A Geneva disk I66 carrying the slots I61 is mounted on a shaft I68 in position to cooperate with the pin I65. The shaft I68 drives the flexible shaft I62 previously mentioned. Each time the shaft I63 rotates, the pin I65 rotates'the Geneva disk I66 through '90 degrees and four turns of the shaft I63 will rotate the Geneva disk four spaces, corresponding to the four boiler units and the four fixed ports or pipes of the exhaust gas and cooling fluid valves.

A locking arm I1I, providedwith a detent pin I12 adapted to enter the slots of the Geneva disk I66, is mounted on a fixed pivot pin I13 above Near its midlength and upon a spur arm I16 the locking arm I1Icarries a cam pin I15 adapted to cooperate with a cam I16 carried by the shaft I63. The cam I16 is disposed at such an angle to the pin arm I66 as to raise the detent pin I12 away from the disk I66 when the disk is being turned by the pin I65. A spring I11 pulls cam pin I15 against the cam I16 and the detent pin I12 toward the Geneva disk I66.

Means are provided for operating the switch I58 from the locking arm "I. For example, an

arm I80 is loosely 'mounted onthe pivot pin I13 and extends out between spaced pins I8I, I82 carried by the arm I1I.- At its outer end the arm I68 carries a pin I83 operating in the slot I84 of a switch operating lever I85 pivoted upon a stud I86. At its free end the lever I85 carries a switch operating pin I81 adapted to engage the upper protruding blade of the switch I58 to separate the contacts. A spring I88 secured to the stud I85 at one end and to the pin I83 at the other end serves to impart a snap action to the lever I85 when passing over dead center position,

From this it will be clear that when the cam pin I15 rolls up on the high point of the cam I16 while the Geneva pin is in its mid-operating position, that is in a line joining the centers of shafts m and m, it will'cause the arms In and I86 to actuate the switch lever I in a direction to open the switch I58. This will immediately stop the motor if the switch 82 has already been opened.- If the switch 82 has not been opened the motor will continue its normal operation and the Geneva pin I65 will carry the Geneva diskth'rough the full 90 degree tum andleave it in the position shownin Fig. 23.

"The. operation of the apparatus is believed to be clear from the foregoing description. The exhaust gases pass through the generator-adsorber units at all times. At such times as the to completely block the exhaust gases and prevent operation of the motor.

Through the switch 62 the operator has complete control of the motor MI and thefans of the heater-cooler 24; through the rod. 6I- he has control over the valves 51' and 58 for the fresh air and exhaust air; and through the switch 92 and the rheostat R he has control of the timer motor M2 and through it of the boiler operation. Other controls, such as the valve 94 for the heating coils 53, may be located within easy access to the operator. Likewise, the valve 8| for pro- 'portioning the engine cooling fluid between the engine and. the air conditioning system may be placed where readily accessible.

The air conditioning system herein described imposes but little burden on present facilities, either as to power requirements or as to weight. The generator-adsorberunit actually utilizes in a practical manner the heat of exhaust gases which heretofore has been lost. Indeed it is one of the important features of this invention that it employs waste heat in a simple and convenient manner to produce refrigeration, and this will be true whether the waste heat is derived from internal combustion engines or from other sources. And the weight and size of the apparatus are negligible factors as may be illustrated by the following practical example for use with automotive vehicles.

Adsorptive material, such asactivated carbon, is available in the open market, having an adsorptive capacity for methyl chloride (CHaCl) of over 30% of the weight of the adsorptive material between temperature limits of F. and 450 F. and at pressures, respectively. .of"27.9 pounds per square inch (suction) and pounds per square inch (head), which are the expected maximum conditions existing in such an air conditioning system. For methylene chloride (CHzCh) the adsorptive capacity would be over 33% of its weight between the same temperature limits and at respective pressures of 22.63" of vacuum (suction) and 6.56 pounds per square inch (head); I

With 1.345 pounds of methyl chloride required per minute for each ton of refrigeration, or.l.492 pounds of methylene chloride either refrigerant would require approximately 4.5 pounds of carbon per ton of refrigeration. With the proposed design, each boiler or heat transfer unit would contain 1.5 pounds of carbon for each ton of refrigeration. Practical tests indicate that 56 ton of refrigeration is ample to air condition the average private passenger automobile.

This would require but .75 pound of carbon per boiler, and this-mass of adsorbent, material with the design of the container proposed may be heated to 500' .F. in 15 seconds by exhaust gases at 700 F. The twenty seconds heating cycle is therefore adequate to drive the gas to the necessary compression in a container of 2%" diameter and 15%" long. The entire heat transfer assembly can hence be mounted conveniently underneath any standard make of automobile, and may take but little more space than the conventional mumer, which can be dispensed with when the present system is used. s

The proportions mentioned are believed to be most satisfactory for the lighter weight vehicles;

but for the heavier vehicles or stationary installations where waste heat is available it is possible of refrigerating and conditioning air and is par.-

ticularly suited for the needs of automotive ve-. l-

hicles. And while one embodiment has been 11-, lustrated and described with particularity, it will be understood that the invention may have various embodiments within the limits of the prior" art and the scope of the subjoined claims.

We claim:

1. An air conditioning system for automotive vehicles driven by internal combustion engines, comprising in combination, a generator-adsorber provided with a plurality of generator-adsorber units containing a refrigerant adsorbent material, means for selectively passing hot exhaust gases from the motor to said units to drive the refrigerant out of said adsorbent material, a condenser receiving said refrigerant from successive units, means for selectively passing engine cooling fluid to said units which are not being heated to cause the. material to adsorb refrigerant, an evaporator receiving refrigerant from said condenser, and means for supplying refrigerant from said evaporator to said units.

2. An air conditioning system for automotive vehicles driven by internal combustion engines, comprising in combination, a generator-adsorber provided with a plurality of generator-adsorber units containing a refrigerant adsorbent material, means for selectively passing hot exhaust gases from the motor. to said units to drive the unitsin rotation, said last mentioned means including an intake valve for the heating fluid and intake and exhaust valves for the cooling fluid, all of said valves being synchronized.

5. A heat exchange device, comprising in combination, a plurality of units each of. which is provided with separate chambers for heating fluid, for cooling fluid, and for activation fluid subject to change of condition with heat treat-' ment, means-for supplying and removing the activation fluid from all units as required by the treatment, and means for alternately admitting heating fluid and cooling fluid to the heating and cooling chambers respectively of said units in rotation, said last mentioned means including separate valves for said heating fluid for said cooling fluid, and for said activation fluid.

a 6. A heatexchange device, comprising in combination, a plurality of units each of whichis provided with' separate chambers for heating fluid, for cooling fluid, and for I'fluid activation material, means for supplying and removing an activation fluid to and from all of the chambers containing fluid activation material as'required by the .treatment, and means for alternately ad-' mitting heating fluid and cooling fluid to the heating and cooling chambers of said units in rotation, said last mentioned means including an intake valve for the heating fluid and intake and refrigerant out of said adsorbent material, a condenser receiving said refrigerant from successive units, means for passing engine cooling fluid to said condenser, means for selectively passing engine cooling fluid to said units which are not being heated to cause the material to adsorb rematerial between the same temperatures, and

frigerant, an evaporator receiving refrigerant from said condenser, and means for supplying refrigerant from said evaporator to said units.

3. An air conditioning system for automotive vehicles driven by internal combustion engines. comprising in combination, a generator-adsorber provided with a plurality of generator-adsorber units containing a refrigerant adsorbent maexhaust valves for the cooling fluid, all of said valves being synchronized. i

7. A refrigerating system adapted to be operated as an auxiliary to an internal'combustion engine,'comprising .in combination, an evaporator, a condenser, a heat exchanger containing adsorbent material of atype which adsorbs and releases refrigerating fluid between the temperatures of engine cooling water and exhaust gases,

the refrigerating'fluid being of a type which is capable of adsorption by and release from the means forselectively heat treating said material contact with the ,material or refrigerating fluid with exhaust gases and cooling water, said last mentioned means including separate synchronized control means for said exhaust gases and said cooling water.

terial, means for selectively passing hot exhaust ases from the motor to said units to drive the refrigerant out of said adsorbent material, a condenser receiving said refrigerant from successive units, means for selectively passing engine cooling fluid to said units which are not being heated to cause the material to adsorb refrigerant, means for selectively exhausting engine cooling fluid from said units after the supply of cooling fluid is cut off and drawing'air through the exhausted unit, an evaporator receiving refrigerant. from said condenser, and means for supplying refrigerantfrom said evaporator to said units.

4. A heat exchange device, comprising in combination, a plurality of units each provided with a chamber containing refrigerant adsorbent material, means for leading refrigerant to said chambers from an evaporator, means for conducting refrigerant from said chambers to a condenser, a heating fluid chamber for each unit,

a cooling fluid chamber for each unit separate- '8. 'The method of operating a refrigerating system as an auxiliary of an internal combustion engine, which comprises, alternately condensing and expanding a refrigerating fluid in a suitable medium by alternately {changing the temperature of themedium in the presence of the refrigerating fluid by. treatment first with engine cooling water to approximate the temperature of the water and then with hot exhaust combustion gases to approximate the temperature of the hot gases.

9. A heat exchange system of the adsorbent type. comprising in combination, a plurality of heat exchange units containing adsorbent material for alternately adsorbing and releasing refrigerating fluid with change in temperature, means including distinct and separatelythough coordinately controlled heating fluid and cooling fluid for selectively heating one unit while cool-.

ing anotherv unit, said heating and cooling fluids being kept separate from said adsorbent matefluid to the heating and cooling chambers of said 7 rial and refrigerating fluid, and constantly operating means actuated independently of the condition of said refrigerating fluid for controlling the flow of the heating and cooling fluids.

10. A heat exchange system of the adsorbent type, comprising in combination, a plurality of rial for alternately adsorbing and releasing refrigerating fluid with change in temperature, and

means for simultaneously heating and cooling a single unit in the inoperative condition of the system.

11. A heat exchange system of the adsorbent type. comprising in combination, a plurality of heat exchange units containing adsorbent material for alternately adsorbing and releasing refrigerating fluid with change in temperature,

-means for selectively heating one unit while cooling another, and means for simultaneously heating and cooling a single unit in the inoperative condition of the system.

12. A- heat exchange system of the adsorbent type, comprising in combination, a plurality of heat exchange units containing adsorbent material for alternately adsorbing and releasing refrigerating fluid, means for selectively heating one unit while cooling another during normal 1 operation, means for simultaneously heating and nartments for refrigerating fluid', for heatingfluid, and for cooling fluid, valve means for. controlling in rotation'the flow of heating and cooling fluid to said units, and means for controlling said valve means for causing it to simultaneously supply heating and cooling fluid to a single unit in the inoperative condition of said system.

14. Apparatus as set forth in claim 13 further characterized by the fact that said controlling means contains elements which cause the valve means to automatically halt in the position to supply both heating and cooling fluid to a single unit when the operator turns off the system.

15. A heat exchange system comprising in combination, a. heat exchange unit provided with separate compartments for an adsorbent material and refrigerating fluid, for heating fluid, and for cooling fluid, valve means for alternately supplying cooling fluid and heating fluid to said unit, and means associated with said valve means for admitting air to the cooling fluid compartment when heating fluid is admitted to said heating fluid compartment.

16. A heat exchange system, comprising in combination, a heat exchange unit provided with separate compartments for activated carbon and a refrigerating fluid, for exhaust heating gases, and for cooling water, synchronized valve means for alternately supplying exhaust heating gases and cooling water to said unit, and means associatedwith said valve-means for admitting air of water to the' water compartment, means for withdrawing substantially all the water from said compartment at regulated times, and means for preventing the backflow of water to said compart-- ment when withdrawn.

19. Apparatus of the character described, comprising in combination, a plurality of refrigeratrate compartments for refrigerating fluid, for

exhaust heating gases, and for cooling fluid, metal supports for said units, and heat insulating means betweensaid units and said metal supports, said means providing for the passage therethrough of exhaust gases.

21. Apparatus of the character described, comprising in combination, a heat exchange unit having separate compartments for refrigerating fluid and an adsorbent material, for cooling fluid, and for exhaust heating gases, a multilobed centraiconduit for said-exhaust gases, spaced metal partitions on said central conduit forming cells for adsorbent material, means for supplying refrigerating fluid at the bottom and withdraw.- ing it at the top of said cells along the length of said unit, spaced metal partitions in said cooling fluid compartment which is located outside around said refrigerating compartment, and means for supplying cooling fluid at the bottom and withdrawing it at the top of said cooling compartment along the length ofsaid unit.

22. Apparatus of the character described, comprising in combination, a heat exchanger having operation of said valve means independently of the heating or cooling eflfected, and means for compartments for refrigerating fluid, for heating and sucking water out ot the water compartment when exhaust heating gases are admitted to said heating compartment. g

17. Apparatus as set lorth in claim 16, further comprising in combination, means for'shutting 01! air and causing both heating fluid and cooling fluid to flow unit simultaneously when a predetermined edi dition exists in the system.

18.- A heat exchange system, [comprising in combination. ii -heat exchange unit provided with separate compartments adsorbent material and refrigerating fluid, for heating fluid, and for cooling-mater. means for controlling the flow varying the speed of said valve ,timing means.

23. Apparatus as set forth in claim 22 wherein said timer is driven by an electric motor and said speed varying means comprises a rheostat under the supervision of -an operator.

24. Apparatus of the character described, comprisingin combination, a heat exchanger having fluid, and for cooling fluid, valve means for controlling the flow of heating fluid and cooling fluid to said heat exchanger, a timer for operating said valve means, said timer including a quick throw motion for operating said valves to normal positions, and means, including switch operating means for stopping said valves in a mid position when said timer is stopp d.

25. Apparatus as set forth in claim24 in which said switch operating means includes asnap-over member operated by a member mov-.

ing inunison with valve operating means.

' 26. Air conditioning apparatus for automotive vehicledcomprising in combination, a heat exchanger, means including a motor. and fan for forcing air into said vehicle through said heat exchanger. an exhaust duct for leading used air out of said vehicle through the floor, a,valve in said exhaust duct, a dash switch for said fan motor, and an operating member for said switch,

said member also being associated with said

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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Classifications
U.S. Classification62/106, 62/481, 62/480, 62/118, 165/43, 62/238.3
International ClassificationF25B17/08, F25B27/02, B60H1/32, F25B17/00
Cooperative ClassificationB60H1/3201, F25B17/083, F25B27/02
European ClassificationF25B17/08B, B60H1/32A, F25B27/02