US 2287229 A
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June '23, 1942. M. H. CARPENTER BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 27, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Muss l7! Cxmpnvme V ATTORNEY June 1942- M. H. CARPENTER BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 2'7, 194]. 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR Mu: b. CJRPf/WEK BY v MQM' ATTORNEY Jline. 1942- M. H. CARPENTER 2,287,229
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 27, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 lNYEN-TOR Mus/9f C/wmvrm svmah ATTORNEY Patented June 23, 1942 i ulmrlzo- STATES PATENT orrics BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Miles E. Carpenter, Merrick, N. Y., assignor to Duramore Buildings, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application January 27, 1941, Serial No. 376,023
11. Claims. (c1. 20-2) building within a factory in a few relatively large completely finished three-dimensional sections, as distinguished from mere wall panels and the like which are essentially two-dimensional, which sections can then be transported to the site and there placed on a foundation and secured toget-her to form'the finished building.
Objects of this invention are to devise a portable sectional building having constructional features adapting it to be built in a factory with all the advantages of indoor factory work, which l5 sections canbe completed'in the factoryeven to installation of fixtures and decorative surfacing and trim, which sections can be transported from factory to site without bending or sagging or otherwise injuring. the installations and final work, which sections can be secured together into finished buildings at the site with a minimum of labor and time, and which will form finished buildings of great strength and resistance to settling, cracking or other deterioration, and which can be'disassembled and moved to another site if desired with a minimum of labar and damage to any part of the building.
Further objects will become apparent during a factory.
Fig. 10 is an enlarged detail view corresponding to the lower left corner of Fig. 5;
Fig. '11 is a horizontal section at a corner, taken on the line lll| of Fig. 5;
Fig. 12 is a perspective of the frame construction for one of the sections; v
Fig, 13 is a detail horizontal section of a corner in my wall construction taken on the line I3|3.of Fig. 6;
Fig. 14 is a detail horizontal section showing the construction of an inside corner where two sections are joined together, as atA in Fig. 1;
and I Fig. 15 is a detail perspective of a portion of a base frame such as the right half of the structure shown in Fig. 7, the left hand'part of which comes at an interior partition and the right hand part of which comes at an exterior wall.
As illustrated particularly in Figs. 2, 3 and 4,
houses constructed in accordance withmy invention and preferably made of a plurality of a completed sections, although some features of my invention may be utilized where housesare constructed in a single section. Each section is, in accordance with the best practice under my invention, built and assembled together in The several completed sections are then transported separatelyto the house site as on a flat truck trailer. Each sectionshould not the course of the detailed specification which 80' in its horizontal dimensions exceed 12 x 29 ft.
In the drawings, which illustrate embodiments of my invention,.
Fig. 1 is aperspective view of a completed or the appropriate size for highway regulations in the particular locality. By building and trans-' porting two or more such sectionsand securing them together on the sit it-is'possible to sehouse constructed inaccordance with and emcure the benefits of factory construction-and at bodying one form of my invention;
Fig. 2 is an exploded perspective view of the separate three-dimensional sections for the house of Fig. 1 before being secured together;
Figs. 3 and 4 are perspective views illustrating 40 alternative constructions in accordance with my invention, Fig. 3 showing a two-section house the same time, in spite of the limit 'of size of each unit for transportation, to produce a practical and livable final house construction-of almost any desired size. I
Figs. 1 and 8 illustrate a house set up in accordance with my invention and having two full size sections and one small sizesection. The dotted lines B--B and CC in Fig.8 indicate where'the sections arejoined'together. This house shown. as an illustrative embodiment gives a large living room, two, bedrooms, kitchen and bath.
In order to transport the house sections from. factory to site with incidental jacking up and handling in the transfer, it is essential that each section be very strong and stiff so that it will not weave, sag, twist or bow even when irregularly supported. as for example, when one corner alone,is temporarily jacked up. Without such 66 stillness and strength it would not bepractical- 2 g to completely flnishthe, sections in the factory with siding, windows, interior walls, floors, wallpaper,. plinnbing, lighting fixtures, etc. all installed before transportation. It is also important that such stiffness and strength be secured 5 without added weight or added cost. It is therefore important for carrying out my svstem of house. manufacture to incorporate special construction features which will give the desired strength and rigidity without extra weight orng cost.
The completed house is indicated generally by the reference character 20. The sections of the 3-section house of Fig. 2 are designated as 22, 24, and 26; those of the 2-s'ection house of Fig. 3 as 28, 30; andthose of thee-section house of Fig. 4, as 32, 34, 36 and 2 8.
Each section is supported by a rectangular base frame 40, best seen in Figs. 11, 12 and 15, consisting of a built-up inverted T-beam. This beammay be made of wood, as by using 2 x 8's turned flatwise for the cap 42 of the inverted T and two 2 x 4's alongside of each otherwith their edges resting on the 2 x 8 to form the'stem ll of the inverted T. The 2 x 4's are centered on the.2 x 8 leaving approximately 2" for the overhang of the cap of the inverted T on each side. At the comers of this rectangular frame the joints are staggered as shown in Fig. 11. The cap member 42:: of one T beam member extends to the outer line of the corner while the other cap member 42:: butts against its side.
one, and its stem members at, My are the long ones, extending across the butt joint between the cap members. Stem member 11 extends clear to the stem corner, while stem member ,b butts against it. Stem member a: then butts against b, and a butts against it. Thus the stem components form a staggered joint, and the C joint is fornied. at the maximum distance from the cap joint, whereby the breaks in the formation of theentire beam frame are spaced apart as much-as possible and a stronger, more rigid 45 construction results. It will be noted also in. Figs. 11 and l2that the opposite ends of each cap and stem are reversed, that is, where the right end of the transverse cap in Fig. 11 extends full to the end and its stem ends short, 5 its left end ends short-while its stem there extends to the longer position. Thus strains are more equalized and uniform length pieces may be used for theopposite sides of each frame.
Steel strips or plates 46 may be secured as by screws along the bottoms of each of these rectangular frames. These plates will act both to give added strength to the composite beams, to serve as protection against gouging or splintering of the wood when the house sections are jacked; up or skidded along, and also to stop termites-from entering the wood.
The exterior walls of the sections are formed g of large flat surfacing sheets 48 and studs 50 of rectangular section such as 2" x 4". studs are turned flatwise and their ends rest on.
The 5 the projecting part of the inverted T-beam, with their wider flat sides in contact with the stem of the inverted T-beam. The exterior wall su'rfacing consists oflarge flat panels or sheets 48,
. theouter flat faces of these studs and project downpast the edge ,of the cap member of the inverted T-beam, to whose face they are secured as by screws 52. The plywood is secured to the wide flat sides of the studs by a strong adhesive.
A preferred manner of securing the adhesive bond between the plywood and studs-is to apply cold phenolic resin glue to the studs and nail the plywood'to the studs. The pressure achieved and held by the nailing is sufllcient for satisfactory setting of the phenolic resin adhesive. The flat faces of the studs give greater glue-bond area than the conventional edge faces.
" The studs themselves are fastened to the beam stemsby stout wood screws 54 which pass through the plywood also and further secure it.
By this construction the studs are easily and accurately positioned and are fastened at vertically spaced points to the side face of the stem which is in tight contact with the flat face of the studs. This gives a structure which 'will withstand strains, in any direction, which would break loose and destroy the conventional edgewise studs simply resting on a .plate and toenailed thereto.
-Any desired type of insulating material may be secured between the studs. facing material 56, preferably in sheet form,
such as plywood panels, is applied across the in-' ner surfaces of the studs, and is preferably likewise glued to the flat stud faces.
Joists 58 of a height approximately equal to the stem 44 plus the thickness of the cap 42 are corner notched to fit over the edges of the caps and against the side faces of the stems. These joists are spiked in place, just as the component. members of the beam frame are secured together by spikes 60. K
A suitable filler strip 62 is laid over the beam stems to bring the height here exactly level with the tops of the joists 58, and a subfloor 64-, preferably of large continuous plywood panels, rests thereon and is fastened as by spikes into the beam frame. A finishfloor 86 is laid on top of this subfloor.
Stud spacers 68 of the same thickness as the studs are secured between them and similarly secured to the plywood which forms the wall sursecured to the heads of the studs and glued to the outer covering of plywood. Joists H, as for example 2 x 6s, are notched on to the top stringer members just described and extend preferably across the shorter dimension of each section. a The top edges of the joists come substantially flush with the top edges of the plywood sheathins.
In the usual house plan, rafters 1G slopeup from the top edge of the wall on one side to a line directly above the wall at the other side of the section. These rafters aie notched to rest on the stringers l3 and are bolted to the side faces of the joists H. Risers I8 extend from the stringer members 13a to the rafters 16 along the edge of the section where the rafters are-raised from the stringers 13a and along both ends of the section.
Sheet wall surtogether.
the axis of dowels 86, either between dowel A ridge pole 80, as for example a 2 x 8 with wider dimension vertical is secured to the raised ends of the rafters and is provided with holes for bolting it to a similar ridge pole 80 or the section which is to be secured adjacent to this section.
If the entire building is to consist of only one I on either section face for the width of the doorway and a longer uninterrupted dowel groovand dowel may be provided there. 4
Similar dowels 86a extend vertically at the ends of the sections, and fit in similar grooves 84a (shown in Fig. formed in opposing faces of the corner studs. Similar bolts pass through .theaxes of these dowels, 'or through the dowels themselves, to hold the sections together along At the line 3-3 in Fig. 8, two sections are joined 'where an interior partition wall corresponds generally with the joining line. As seen at the bottom center of Fig. 5, the edges of the cap members 46 butt against each other, while the composite stem beams 44 are spaced apart. The distance between them is equal to two stud thicknesses. Referring now to Fig. 7 it will be seen that the studs 50 in the two halves of the interior partition wall are staggered so that they do not touch each other. This gives a more highly sound-proof wall and reduces the transmission of jars and vibrations as well as sound. The two end studs 58a do however come directly the ends.
Fig. 3 illustrates. diagrammatically where the bolts 88 are placed, along the bottom edge, along the vertical end edges, and along the ridge poles 80 and the adjacent ceiling stringers 13.
These bolts secure the sections tightly togetherand prevent any spreading apart of the sections. The horizontally disposed dowel keys prevent any 3 vertical shifting between the sections, and the vertically disposed dowel keys prevent any end-- opposite each other and are drawn into direct face contact when the two sections are secured together. This makes for greater strength at the ends of the walls. The same is true at door j jambs where there are doors through the partition wall.
Below the floor level strength and rigidity are the important factors rather thansound insulation. Here filler blocks 82 of the same thickness as the studs, are spiked or otherwise secured in place horizontally between the studs and fitting against the stem and extending cap of the inverted T-beam, near the ends of the wall and below the door openings, on theopposing sides of both sections. These filler blocks are more or less staggeredsince the studs are staggered, and
the overlapping portions of their faces are in fiat contact with each other, being drawn tight together when the sections of the building are drawn together.
These filler blocks have corresponding semi-- cylindrical grooves 84 formed along their opposing faces, which provides a cylindrical bore when the sections are drawn together.
A hardwood dowel 88 of a size to fit snugly in this bore is placed in one of the grooves 84 before the two sections are drawn together, and preferably secured againstfalling out, as by nailing it in place. When the sections are approximately positioned with respect to each other and are drawn tight together this dowel with the. cooperating grooves serves to guide the sections into final exact relationship. When they are tight together the dowel, with its tremendous strength in shear, prevents even minute vertical displacement of the two sections .with' respect to each other.
Bolts 88 pass through the composite stems 44 and filler blocks 82 to draw the sections tightly These bolts also pass directly through lengths or directly through holes bored in the dowels as seen in Figs. 7 and 5.
The dowels 86 are shown in exploded relation doorways, as is the case with the three center dowel lengths in thatflgure, since no studsoccur wise shifting between the sections.
The'ceiling joists 14 as shown in Fig. 5 either butt the stringer 13a which is to be bolted to a corresponding stringer I3, and are fastened by end spikes, or a ledger board may be fastened on the face of the stringer to give a notch support of the joist similarto that seen at the left end of the joists in Fig.5.
The corner studs in the end walls (stud 58b in Fig. 15) extend the full height to the ridge pole, as shown in Fig. 5, constituting both stud and riser in one unbroken length. These studs provide the grooves 84a for the vertical dowels 88a, and give firm support for the stringers 13a by providing notched seats for their ends as seen 1 in Fig. 15.
The arrangement of studs and filler blocks in relation to the T beam frames has been described for outside walls, and for adjacent joined faces which coincide with a partition wall; My construction can also be adapted to cases where the joint between sections comes within a room. Such a joint is shown at the right in Figs. 2 and 5 and at the line 0-0 in Fig. 8, and in enlarged section in Fig. 9.
Here the standard inverted T beam is used on theleft side which has an outside wall along.
part of its length, so that the studs can fit in as previously described. A filler block 90 is fitted into the angle of the T beam for the portion of its length where the open room comes and no studs occur. the angle of the T and come flush with the edge of the cap 42 and the top of the stem 44, and is securely spiked to both.
The adjacent frame beam for the smaller section is of L shape on this side, its cap 420 being narrower and flush with the outside edge of its stem 44c, and of T shape as before on the other three sides where wall studs go. The L beam fits fiat against the filled-in -T beam at this joint CC, and grooves, dowel, and bolts are provided acrossunder the fioor similar to those. previously described. The vertical walls at the far side and the ceiling stringers and roof members are secured together as with the other sections. The near end wall of the small section is arranged to coincide with a partition wall, and
these are secured together with similar grooves,
dowel, and bolts as shown in Fig. 14,
By use of the constructional features which I have described in detail, in illustrative embodiments, I am able to buildv complete house -sections in a factory, with all the advantages of factory methods and factory operations, and truck these sections to.the site where they 'are This filler block is of size to fill easily and quickly placed on the foundation and fastened together. I attribute a large part-of the commercial success of my invention to the combination of structural features including the composite beam frame with studs set in the angles and the stiff walls formed of large continuous sheet panels glued. to the studs, which gives torque-resisting strength allowing the sections to be freely lifted and moved about without strain or damage. In combination with these features of strength in the individual sections, the manner of securing the sections together develops similar integrated strength and stiffness for the entire assembled house, which makes the sectional fabrication practical.
While I .have shown and described various illustrative embodiments and features together, it is to be understood that various of them could be used separately or in other combinations or variation without departing from the substance of my invention. Hence I desire to be limited only by the following claims.
1. A building section adapted to be completely prefabricated apart from and transported to the building site and there joined with at least one more similar section to form a completed building, said section comprising a generally rectangular baseframe in the form of an inverted T beam, a floor secured directly onto the stem surfaces of said frame, and at least two adjacent vertical outside walls secured to said frameand to each other, said walls fitting within the outer angles of said T beam frame, having face contact of the inner sides of the walls against the vertically rising stem and end contact against the head of the inverted T.
2. Device of claim 1, in which the vertical outside walls have facings thereover and the facings extend down over the side of the head of the T-beam.
3. Device of claim 1 in which the stem member of each T beam length is built up of two relahigh narrow planks face to face with the ends of.
the outer ones protruding past the ends of the inner ones by a plank thickness at each end, the staggered end of each stem fitting in the staggered end of the joining stem in interlocking relationship at each corner, the cap m'm the T beam whose stem components abut the sides of the joining stem components extending full to the corner, and the cap member of the joining 'beam abutting against the side of said 'cap memher.
5. In a three-dimensional building unit adapted to be manufactured complete and in assembled relationship in a factory for transportation to the site for joining with at least one other such section to form a completed building, a generally rectangular T section base frame for the section comprising flat cap members and stem members secured along the upper faces of said cap members, the stem and cap members being joined in,
staggered relationship at the corners of the frame, the stem members being thinner than the cap members and leaving inner and outer ledges of the cap members, notched flOOf'jOlStS fitting I studs whereby to prevent vertical shifting of the across the inside of said frame with the notched ends resting on the inner ledges, and the outer ledges adapted to support the bottom edges of building walls.
6. A generally rectangular T section base frame for a portable building section comprising four flatwise cap members butting end to side at the corners, the members of each opposite pair being of the same length and being oppositely staggered to' form the corner joints, and stem members on edge on the cap members and having butting end to side corners, the members of each opposite pair of stem members being of the same length and being staggered opposite to each other and opposite to the adjacent cap member joints to form their earlier joints, whereby a strong frame is provided having a minimum concentration of jointweakness, and identical dimensioned pairs of members-may be usedfor its formation.
7. In a building construction made upof preassembled sections, a generally rectangular T section frame for each section, filler pieces for two adjacent frame sides each being of the same thickness as the overhang of its T- can whereby flush abutting frame sides are presented, corresponding longitudinal grooves being formed in said filler pieces, a key member fitting in said grooves, and means for drawing and holding said frame faces together in keyed relationship.
8. A building construction comprising portable preassembled three-dimensional sections adapted to be fastened together at'the site, each section providing. a plurality of outside walls at least two of'which in each section areadjacent at a corner, where they aresecured together, and an interior partition wall being provided at the meeting plane of two of the sections, each of said sections having an inverted T'section'beam frame, the outside/walls resting in the outer overhang of the T cap, and studs for. the-partiand sound conductivity is avoided, and corre-' sponding horizontal filler strips of thesame' thickness as the studs being provided between the feet of studs in the two sections, saidstrips having longitudinal corresponding grooves 'in their abutting faces, and short lengths ofv key rods being provided in said grooves between the two Factions relative to each other, and *means being provided to draw and hold the two sections tightly together with said keys in place.
9. In a preassembled building section adapted to be joined to a generally similar building section to form a finished building, a section base frame, grooved members along .a face of said frame adapted to receive a common key for positioning with respect to similar grooves in' the section to fo.rm a completed house said section having a generally rectangular base frame'comprising a horizontally extend platform portion and a vertically extending stem portion, at least two outside walls forming at least one end and onelside to said house section and being secured together at the corner, a floor on the stem portion of said base frame and a rafter frame-supported at least at all'four of its corners by uprights from the corners of the base frame, a roof over said section, the outer surfacing of the outer walls extending-past its studs and overlapping and being secured to the outer edge of the base frame and the frame of the rafter ceiling, said section being provided with positioning and