US 2288770 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 7, 1942. J. w. ARMBRUSTER 2,238,770
STATISTICAL RECORD Filed Dec. 30, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 F IG, 9.
J v INVENOR ATTORNEY July 7, 1942.
J. w. ARMB'RUSTER STATISTICAL RECORD Filed Dec. 50, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR v ATTORNEY Patented July 7, 1942 STATISTICAL RECORD John William Armbruster, East Rockaway, N. Y., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application December 30, 1936, Serial No. 118,184
This invention relates generally to improvements in statistical records and more specifically to improved forms of perforated records and accounting mechanism controlled thereby.
An object of this invention is to provide a record element which has data that are readable on all margins, and also on the back and front faces. The record may be in the form of a squarerecord-card containing two sets of data indicia or perforated index points in each of the 'four marginal areas. The perforations in each margin comprise two sets of data representations, one readable when the card 'is held in one position, and the other set effective when the card is turned upside down. Since the card has two sets of representations in each of the four margins, it is apparent that it contains eight representations of data, each representation being effective when the record is positioned in the related one of the eight possible regular positions.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a form of record which may be handled with greater speed because no reference must be made to the position of the record, the representations thereon being effective in all positions of the record. It is contemplated that a record of the form disclosed may be thrown into a hopper or chute without noting which edge of the card is the leading edge and which surface of the card is the upper surface. The hopper is designed to lead the card into a tabulating machine wherein it is an analyzed and used as a control element for governing the addition of amounts and the printing of data representing said amounts or data associated with the amounts. In connection with this phase of the invention, it is contemplated that record cards of the form disclosed may be associated with merchandise in a retail store whereby the salesmen may throw one or more of such records into the hopper at the time associated merchandise is purchased. For exam-v ple, in a grocery store, cards representing the amounts charged for various package or canned goods may be stacked near the related goods and when a sale is made, the clerk will pick up one of such cards and throw it into the hopper at the same time that the related package is moved to the counter. After all the articles of a sale have been assembled, the clerk may depress the total key of the tabulating machine and present the customer with a printed record of the entire transaction, retaining a similar printed record in the machine.
Another object of the invention is the provision of means for automatically detecting the entry of a record card into the tabulating machine. Photo-cell sensing devices are placed beyond the lower opening of the card receiving hopper to detect the entry of a record card into ,a position readyfor feeding by the regular recv of record card regardless of the position in which such card is placed in the feed magazine of the tabulating machine. Heretofore it has been pos-' sible to read such card only when it is presented to the machine in a certain position. Now, in accordance with the present invention, the card may be in any one of four different positions and a correct data reading may be taken therefrom.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a square record element wherein the data represented by said element is governed by the position in which said element is placed in an accounting machine. The record is arranged'to have a different data indicia reading showing on each of the four margins when held with one face showing and four other readings on the sarnemargins but effective only when the record is reversed so that the other face is showing. In this way, a square card may represent eight different amounts or other data, one or the other of each portion of data being effective according to the position that the card is in when it is placed in the accounting machine. When such a card is used in a retail store as explained hereinbefore, it quickly adapts the record element to changes in price, sale prices, discounts, etc., because all the clerk needs to do to make the records conform with new prices is to rotate or reverse the stack of records to a position wherein they represent the new figure. Or with the new figure in mind, the clerk may adjust the position of a card to suit a priceas he is putting it in the card hopper or card magazine. Such a record element is also adapted to represent various quantities or measures of an article. For example, eight different measures of yards, feet or inches, or eight different amounts relating to dozens, gross, pounds, ounces, etc., may be represented by the same record and selected by. turncorded on the record and such records may be sorted at regular intervals to aid in taking aninventory of the stock on hand.
Another object of the present invention is the provision of a card magazine with an adjustable and removable center plate for guiding the small sized form of record cards proposed by the present invention.
Although perforations are mentioned as the means for making effective certain of the index points on a record element, it is apparent that other forms of representations may be used such as metallic inserts, embossings, printing or any manner of treatment distinguishing certain index points from the others.
The shape of a record element may not only be square or rectangular, but any regular polygonal shape may be used with a gain in data representation capacity according to the number of sides of the polygon.
The disclosure is illustrated by a set of drawings which accompany and form part of the specification.
In the drawings: I v V Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a tabulating ma- ,chine provided with a card chute or hopper for receiving the record elements and guiding them into the magazine.
2 is a view showing a square record card with relation to the outline of a regular Hollerith card. The card is perforated to represent the amount $.29 when held in any of the positions that it is liable to assume.
3 is a rear view of the card shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a view showing a card perforated to represent the same amount when held in any of four positions to which the card may be rotated.
Fig. 5 is an illustration of a square card perforated to represent a stock number and an amount, both of which are effective with the card in any of the eight possible positions.
Fig. 6 shows a card perforated to represent 'eight different amounts, the amounts varying according to the position of the card.
Fig. 7 is a rear view of the card shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 shows a regular size tabulating card perforated to represent the same amount in four different places, the perforations being equidistant from the ends of the card so that the card may be read in any of the four positions that it may assume when one of the long edges leads as it eight passes into the machine.
' controlling transactions in a grocery store as noted hereinbefore, a stock number may be rewith electrical controls to sense the plurality of reversed index points on the small cards of the present invention.
Fig. 12 is a showing of an octagonal record with sixteen sets of index points.
Referring to Fig.2, it is noted that the outline I5 represents the contour of a regular Hollerith card or a card of the form set forth in Patent No. 1,772,492. A square card It is proportioned to retain the height of the regular card and is also cut to a width corresponding to the'height. Although the card is illustrated in such proportions, it is not necessary that it should be of such a size, the only reason for making it so being that it may be illustrated in connection with a regular form of tabulating machine. Such card may be made smaller or larger and the sensing devices cooperating with it proportioned to correspond therewith. Then, too, it is not necessary that it be in the form of a square because it is contemplated that any regular polygonal shape, such as an octagon, may be used.
The card it illustrated is shown perforated to represent the amount $.29. The pair of perforations I! in the first two columns of index points represent the amount 29 when the card is held in the position shown. If the card should be turned over by picking it up at the lower end and turning it about the upper edge through an arc of 180 then the inverted pair of perforations I8 is in a position to represent the amount 29. Associated with the perforations I1 and I8 is a special perforation l9 which forms an indication as to the position of the card. When the card is positioned as seen in Fig. 2, then perforation I9 appears at the top of the card and when the card is turned over to make perforations l8 effective,
then special perforation 19 appears at the bottom of the card. This special perforation I9 is used as described hereinafter to control the sensing devices of the tabulator to select one or the other of the sets of perforations H or iii according to the position of the card when it is presented in the tabulator.
, It is noted that the set of five perforations l1, l8, and I9 is repeated four times, once for each margin or edge of the record l6 so that no matter which way the record is turned or faced, a
pair of perforations will appear in position to represent the amount 29.
The sets of perforations I1 and I8 are spaced apart in order to avoid interference with perforations running in different directions.
This is done so that perforations running in a horizontal direction, such as those in column 20, do
not interfere with the perforation running in aimpulses while sensing brushes are traveling over Fig. 9 is a perspective view of a card magazine with a removable and adjustable center guide which may be placed in the magazine to adapt it to confine small records.
Fig. 10 is a sectional view through the magaareas between index points. If the tabulator is of a purely mechanical type, then the interspersed perforations are not objectionable because perforation sensing pins are always directed in exact'alinement with the related index Points.
Although only four perforated columns are shown related to each of the four edges in Fig. 2, it is evident that as many as eleven columns of index points may be associated with each edge.
a it is not divisible by 2, not all eleven columns can be used when the same control is desiredin all card positions, but an amount, or data, of two orders may be represented and repeated eight times around the card.
Fig. 3 shows the record card I 6 in a position wherein the upper face of the card in Fig. 2 is placed down in Fig. 3, then the set of perforations is is effective to represent the amount 29 instead of the set of perforations H.
Although the invention is illustrated by means of perforated record elements, it is contemplated that other means be employed to make effective certain of the index points on a record. For example, metallic inserts may he placed at certain points in a record or the record may be embossed or treated in any other way to. distinguish certain index points of the element from the ordinary form of the rest of the element.
In Fig. l is shown a tabulating machine 22 of the kind set forth in detail in Peirce Patent No. 2,042,324, granted May 26, 1936. This machine is adapted to sense perforated records and add and print items and totals of the amounts represented on the records. The regular card magazine 23 of such machine is changed by adding therein a three-sided magazine guide 24 with flared edges at the top to receive a stack of square records It when they are inserted by hand.
Another way in which the square cards may be put in the magazine. is through a hopper or chute 25 suported on the machine 22 by a bracket 26. The chute is proportioned to converge I down into the lower part of the guide 24. 'The upper part of the chute is widened so that its width is greater than one of the sides of the square card 16 butnot wide enough to allow the card to be caught in it cross-cornered. The converging width of the chute prevents the card from turning therein once it is within the chute contemplated that such a card chute may be built into or placed near a counter in a retail store so that at the same time that merchandise is placed on the counter, the related record card may be dropped into'the chute without any reference to its position.
The chute and magazine construction is further illustrated in Fig. 10 where the parts are shown in section with a card It positioned as it leaves the chute and drops into the lower part of the magazine. When the card rests on the lower part of the magazine, it is in. position to be en aged by a picker knife edge which reciprocates in a well known fashion to engage the card and push it out of the magazine through the hroat leading into the regular record feed= ing and sensing devices oi the tabuiator.
Attached to the upper part of the card guide 245 is a bracket 23 holding the lamp 1- for lighting the interior of the magazine to influence a photo-cell PC mounmd in a box it fastened 1mderneath the bottom plate so of the magazine so that the photo-cell isin alinement with an opening 2| directly under the lamp.L. When the magazine is empty, the light from lamp L'- passes through opening 3| and influences the sensitive elements of the photo-cell PC to prevent an automatic starting operation of the tabulator as explained hereinafter with reference to the wiring diagram. However, as soon as a card It falls out of the .chute 25 and covers the opening 3|, the light is out off and photo-cell PC is effective to initiate a starting operation of the tabulator. Of course, as soon as a starting operation is effected, the picker 54 is operated to feed the card It into the machine and again exposes the photo-cell to the light from lamp L. Then, the tabulator is stopped until another card falls from the chute. Such operation continues as long as cards are dropped into the chute. The photo-cell control may be disabled so that the operator may depress the start key manually for each record card or he may wait until he has assembled a group of. such cards and then place them in the magazine in the usual manner. has passed through the tabulator, the total key may be depressed to print a total record in the usual way. Duplicate record strips may 'be printed in the tabulator so that a record of the transaction may be handed to the customer while another record is retained for the proprietor.
If natural lighting conditions are good, or if the ordinary room light is advantageously placed, the lamp L may be removed.
When the records are to be placed in the magazine in a group, an adjustable magazine of the form shown in Fig. 9 may be used. This magazine is 'made with a back plate 32, a pair of side plates 33 and a bottom plate 34.- Sliding along grooves cut in the bottom plate 34 is an ordinary pair of pickers '54. Usually they both'serve to engage one of the long edges of a regular sized record card to feed the card through the throat cards may be confined within a space at the right of the magazine, a supplementary frame in 'the form of an adjustable angle plate 35 is assembled therein and removably held against the back plate 32 by a pair of bolts 36 passing through horizontal slots 31 cut in the back plate.
The slots 31 are long enough so that the angle and passing down towards the magazine. Itis plate 35 may be moved toaccommodate shapes of cards other than square shapes. The weight 38, which is placed on-the top of a stack of cards to hold them in position against the bottom of the magazine, is cut away at 39 to permit the angle plate 35 to be adjusted back or forth across the magazine.
Turning now to Fig. 4 it is noted that there may be provided another form of square card 40 which-is not as flexible in its control as the other card 56. Record card 46 is perforated to represent the amount 63 when sensed in any of the four upright positions of the square card, but this card is not effective when it is tu ned upside down.
Fig. 5 shows another form of record similar to card it but differing therefrom in that it (2011- an amount so that said number and amount perforations are effective to control the tabulator no matter how the card is thrown into the chute After a related group of cards 25 (Fig. 1). The perforations Ila and I'll) represent the amount and stock number, respectively, when the record 4| is positioned as shown in Fig. 5, while on the other hand, the perfora-.
tions Na and Ill) represent said amount and number when the card is turned upside down. A special perforation |9a indicates the position of the card and controls the effectiveness of one or the other of said sets of perforations as the card passes through the tabuiator.
Figs. 6 and 7 show another form of record card 42 whereon the data representations, instead of being the same for all eight positions of the record, are made different for each of the eight possible positions. As illustrated, the card is perforated to represent amounts corresponding to prices of material sold in half yard lengths; in otherwords, the eight data indicia or amount representations thereon are graduated in magnitude or value in increments of $.06 to effect a raduated control of amount entry according to position. When using such card, the mode of control is entirely different from that used in the cards illustrated in Figs. 2 to 5, inclusive. There the cards were designed for control irrespective of position while the card in Figs. 6 and 7 is of a directly'opposite nature in that the position of the card determines which of the graduated amounts is to be represented thereby.
Therefore, when such card is used, note must be taken of the value it is desired to represent thereby and carefully place the card in the proper position when it is put into the chute 25 (Fig. 1) or placed under the weight 38. In the. card 42 illustrated..-in:Fig. 6, the perforationv43 represents the amount ,f"$.06, w le hepa ro D forations; 44; represent's the amount, $.36
when t card stu d. botto face-up, t e special. perforationv 4 5.determines which. of the ".,perforations..43, 44,-gare to be. effective in controlling the :tabulator.-,Fig.,7-shows, the same a d. "as tha illustrat dn Fis- 6- he only ference beingtlthat the card is -tumed with: the
other face; showing., The face ;.showing in Fig. 6, when .placed' upright. in .the -magazine, represents amountsassociated withhalf yard divisions of material, while the other face of the card shown in Fig. 7 ,presentsamounts associated with full yard lengths of material.
The card 46 illustrated in Fig. 8 is of the regular form perforated to representthe amount $1.95 in four different places. A set of .perforations 50 is effective when the card, is positioned as shown. If the card is turned over to expose the other face, the set of perforations is effective under control of the special perforation 52. When the card 46 is turned over on end to put the top edge at the bottom, then the perforations 53 are effective, and if the card is then turned upside down, the other set of perforations 54 becomes effective. It is possible to use the same set of six sensing brushes in connection with all perforations because the sets of perforations 50 and SI are the same distance from the left edge of the card'as the perforations 53, 54 are from the right edge of the card.
In Fig. 12 there is shown a polygonal form of a record in the shape of an octagonal record I card 55. Each of the eight marginal portions of the octagon are pierced to represent the value "7 two times, once at 56 for a facing up positionand again at I! for a position with the card faced in reverse. A special perforation 58 selects the proper set of perforations according to the way the record faces.
Fig. 11 discloses a wiring diagram which in most respects is similar to the diagram described in detail in U. S. Patent #2,042,324. The present description will deal only with the new wiring connections provided therein to take care of the novel forms of records described hereinbefore.
At the top of Fig. 11 a square record I6 is shown in the position it is in before it is fed down past the upper brushes 62 and the lower brushes .63. The upper brushes sense the record one complete card cycle before the card is presented at the lower brushes. This is done so that the special perforations thereon, such as perforation [9, may be sensed and devices actuated thereby to selectively control the adding and printing functions of the machine under control of either said amount perforations I! or I8. If a perforation I9 appears at the top of the record l6 as shown in Fig. 11, then, when the cardpasses down between the sensing rollers 62a and the upper sensing brush 62, a circuit is connected because at the same time in the cycle that the perforation l9 appears under the brush 62, a pair of cam contacts CFIU connected therewith closes to connect the circuit. If the record card l6 should be reversed with the other face showing, then special perforation l9 aptmon contact brush 62b, ,wire 4I8, contacts T8 and wire 249 at theother side of the line.
Aholding circuit'is established for magnet 66 through a pairof contacts 68,;closedby themagnet whenit is momentarily ;energizedby the sensing of perforation 19. The holding circuit includes line 24], switch. SW, wire 65, magnet 66, contacts 68, contacts CFl-l'and wire 69 leading to the other. line 249. ,ContactsCFllare held closed by the associated cam throughout most of the following cycle when the card 16 is passing under the lower brushes and the contacts open only after all amount perforations have been sensed, under the lower brushes and at a time Shortlybefore thespecial perforation IS in the succeeding card passes under the upper brush 62. In this way, the magnet 66 is always deenergized subsequent to the time in the cycle when a special perforation may be sensed and, therefore, it is in readiness for a possible re-energization or a maintenance of the state of deenergization.
Selection magnet 66 is provided to shift con tacts 13 and I4 for determining which of the two sets of perforations l1 and I8 on the record card It are tocontrol the adding and printing devices of the tabulator. Normally, a set of lower sensing brushes 63' are effective through the closed contacts 13 to connect the adding magnets 200 and the printing magnets Ill of the tabulator to be controlled by the set of pertive in the same manner.
close contacts 14, making the other set of perforations i'l effective to control the adding and printing functions.
Sample circuits may be traced through the units orders of both sets of perforations to illustrate the change brought about by switching from control under one set of perforations to control by the other set. Starting from the main line 24!, a circuit may be followed along wire 2, contacts LCL2, contacts CF3, common brush 63b, lower sensing roller 63c, brush 63', plug wire 16, the right set of contacts 13, plug wire 'I'l to the common plug socket Mi in the ,units order. Then the circuit branches out into directions; in one direction, through the contacts 250 and the units order adding magnet 208, bus bar 241, wire M8, and then through a set of impulse timers CRH, CRI2, CRIS, and CRM connected to line 249. The other branch of the circuit passes down through wire M3 to contacts 256, 259, lower order print control magnet HM, bus bar 32%, wire are, and contact timers CR! i, CRI2, CRIS, and CR connected to the line 249. These contact timers are provided to prevent circuits through the brushes at times when the brushes are passing between index points. This is done because it may be noted in Fig. 2 that horizontal perforations are interspersed between vertical perforations and if such horizontal perforations were allowed to become effective, they would disturb the adding and printing functions of the tabulator. To prevent such disturbance, the contact timers disconnect the sensing cir cuits except. at such times when the sensing brushes are directly over the index points which may be effective.
Turning now to the condition of the wiring when the units order perforation H is effective, then the magnet 66 is energized to close the units order contact M and connect the following circuit: from line I, through wire 5 I2, contacts LCL2, contacts CF3, common brush 63b,- con--. tact roller 63a, units order lower brush 63", plug wire 18, contact 14, plug wire H, and thence through the units order adding and printing 4 control devices to the line 249 as described,
Although the description of the device shown in Fig. 11 is concerned with the controlby perforations found in one margin of the square record I6, it is obvious that any of the other three margins of such a record would be efiec- Then, too, if the sets of perforations I1 and 18 should represent dissimilar, rather than similar, amounts, the operations would be carried on in the same fashion,
added when special perforation i9 is effective,
voperates A pair of contacts S'Iia is arranged in a shunt switch SS-is closed and a circuit established leading from line 2 through a wire 80, lamp L and a switch SS connected to the other line 249. 1 Whenever it is desired to operate the machine without photoelectric card sensing control, switch SS ma'y be opened to disconnect the lamp and' the photoelectric unit; however, whenever the switch is closed, lamp L is lighted and relay STR. is energized as long as the light rays fall upon the sensitive elements of the photo-cell PC. When the rays are cut ed by a record l6 obstructing the opening 3| between the'lamp L and the photo-cell PC, relay STR is deenergized and other connections to start the tabulator.
around the ordinary start contacts STI. These contacts are normally ineficctive due to an open condition of the switch SSH; however, whenever photo-cell control is desired, switch SS! is closed and then contacts 811s are effective under control of the associated relay S'IR. Since relay STR is energized so long as the magazine is free from record cards, contacts STiaare normally open to the only difference being that the amounts would difier from amounts added without such special control.
Devices are provided to automatically start the machine independently of the manually depressed start keys and the automatic group control devices. These devices take the form of photoelectric sensing means for registering the presence of a record in the magazine as explained hereinbefore with reference to Fig. 10. As shown in Fig. 11, the photo-cell PC is wired in the machine to form a circuit leading from line 259, through a switch 55S and then through a standard photoelectric sensing the photo-cell PC, amplifier A and a control relay STR, ending in a other line 2st. Cooperating with the photo-cell is the lamp L wired to be ei'lective whenever the device including I wire it connected to the revent a starting circuit. However, when relay STR is deenergized due to the presence of a record in the magazine, spring attached to the upper blade of contacts S'Iia becomes effective to close the contacts and complete the starting circuit just as though the startkey ST had been depressed.
The start key is operable to control the machine independently of the automatic photocell control, each of these functions merely supplementing the other without destroying its eflec tiveness.
At the same time that the primary start contacts 'STla. are operated, another pair of start contacts ST2a are closed to complete a shunt connection around the contacts ST2 provided in the tabulator. shunt circuit is provided with a switch SS2 that is linked to the switch SS! so that both are operated together. If the shunt around contacts STI is cut out of the circuits, then, at the same time, the shunt around contacts STI is also rendered ineffective. The lower blade of contacts S'I'ia is provided with an insulated projection overlying the top blade of contacts STZa so that when the spring BI is effective to close contacts STIa, the motion is carried on through the projection to close contacts ST2a also.
If two or more cards should accumulate in the hopper, the starting operation would continue until all cards are removed, one at a time, by the picker blade; therefore, even if the picker should 0 fail to feed a card, the starting condition is repeated as often as necessary until the card is actually fed to the sensing brushes.
Throughout this specification the terms margin and edge are used to define the relative positions or" the sets of indicia on the record elements or cards. But such terminology is not to be interpreted as limiting the places where indicia or index points are to be found as only along the border of an element, since such indicia may beplaced far removed from an edge and still be related to the edge. For example, the perforations it, it and is in the card shown in Fig. 11, relate to the left edge of the card, even though some of them are closer in position to other edges and near the center of the card.
Wherever elements or cards of a regular shape are referred to, it is understood that the shapes meant are the equilateral triangle. the square, the regular pentagon, the regular hexagon, etc.
When the position of a record element is defined with respect to the chute, magazine, feeding devices or analyzing devices and it is stated that omissions, substitutions and changes may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is in tended to be limited therefore only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.
1. A square element for controlling an accounting machine comprising four sets of index points, each of the four sets located similarly with respect to a different margin of the. element.
2. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being of a regular shape with several edges of uniform length and having similar data indicia in several sets, each set being associated with a related edge, all of said sets being similarly located with respect to the related edges of the element, whereby the same control of the machine is effected by the element when ular positions of the element are representative of presented therein in any of several regular positions. I
3. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being ofa square shape with all four edges of uniform length and having four sets of different data indicia, a different set of saidlindicia associated with each different edge and all of said sets: being similarly located with respect to the related edges, the sets of indicia related to two horizontal edges being interspersed being the indicia related. to two vertical edges and vice versa, whereby a different control of the machine is effected by the element when it is presented therein in each of the four different regular positions.
4. An element for controlling an'accounting machine, said element being of a regular shape with all edges of uniform length and having sets of indicia representing data graduated in magnitude, one graduated set associated with each related diilerent edge, each of said sets being located with respect to the related edge the same as the other sets are located with respect to their edges, whereby several graduations of indicia entry control of the machine may be effected by the element according to which of the several different regular positions the element is in when inserted into the machine.
5. An accounting machine control element of regular shape with two faces and a plurality of edges all of which are of equal length, a plurality of sets of data indicia thereon, a pair of said sets relating to each edge, with one set of each pair inverted to relate to a certain face of the element while the other set relates to the other face, all pairs of sets of indicia being equally spaced from the edges so that they may be sensed by a common means, and all arranged whereby any edge of the element may be the leading edge and either face the upper face.
6. Anaccounting machine control element of regular shape with two faces and a plurality of edges all of which are of equal length, a plurality of sets of different data indicia thereon, one
different data values, and the edge chosen as the leading edge and the way the element is faced, determine the data entered into the machine.
7. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being regular in shape a with all several edges of equal length and having a plurality of columns of index points, said columns being arranged at different angles relative to each other on the element, one or'more of said columns being related to each of said edges and arranged parallel with the related edge,
whereby the element may be inserted into the machine in any regular position without reference to any particular edge or edges and the element is effective to exercise control of the machine by means of the columns of index points related to any edge.
8. A control element for an accounting machine, said element being shaped as a regular polygon with two faces and with several edges of equal length, said element bearing a plurality of pairs of columns of index points, a pair of columns related to each edge and parallel therewith, and all pairs of columns arranged symmetrically with respect to each other, the points of one of said columns of each pair being arranged in an inverted relation with respectto the other column so that said inverted column is eifective A when the element is turned to change faces, and several special index points, one for each edge and related pair of columns and positioned on the element with relation to the related pair of columns to determine which column of the pair is to be the effective column according to the way the element faces.
9. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being square in shape with two faces and two horizontal and two vertical edges of uniform length and having four pairs of sets of similar data indicia, one pair of sets as sociated with each edge and with one set of each pair relating to a different face than the other set of the pair, each of said pars of sets being located with respect to one of said edges of the element the same as the other pairs are located with respect to their edges, the'sets of indicia related to the two horizontal edges being interspersed between the indicia related to the two vertical edges and vice versa, thereby making possible the same control of the machine to be 1 effected by the element when presented therein in any of theeight possible regular positions.
10. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being square in shape with two faces and two horizontal and twovertical edges of uniform length and having four pairs of sets of different data indicia, one pair of sets associated with each edge and with one set of each pair relating to a different face than the other of said pair, each of said pairs of sets being located with respect to one of said edges of the element the same as the other pairs are located with respect to their edges, the sets of indicia related to the two horizontal edges being interspersed between the indicia related to the two vertical edges and vice versa, whereby eight different indicia entry controls of the machine'may 2,288,770 4 i if be effected by the element according to which of the eight possible different regular positions the element is turned to when placed in the machine.
11. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being square in shape with two faces and two horizontal and two vertical edge of uniform length and having four pairs of sets of indicia representing data graduated in magnitude to represent a progression of values around the element, one pair of sets of indicia associated with each edge and with one set of each pair relating to a difierent face than the other of said pair, each of said pairs of sets bein located with respect to one of said edges of the element the same as the other pairs are located with respect to their edges, the sets of indicia related to the two horizontal edges being interspersed between the indicia relating to the two vertical edges and vice versa, whereby eight graduations of indicia entry control of the machine may be eifected by the element according to which of the four different regular positions the element is in when inserted into the machine and according to which of the two faces is uppermost when it is inserted.
12. An element for controlling an accounting machine, said element being square in shape with two faces and two horizontal and two vertical with an edge relating to a difierent face than the for forty-four columns ofindex points arranged and spaced in the Hollerith system, as many as eleven columns associated with each edge,- twenty-two columns aligned with the vertical edges and twenty-two columns aligned with the horizontal edges and spaced symmetrically with respect to the edges, said columns being grouped in pairs with the pairs of index points of the horizontal columns being located in the spaces between the index points of the vertical columns and vice versa, certain of the columns associated other columns relating to the same edge and arranged in an inverted relation with respect to said other columns so that said inverted columns are effective when the element is-turned to present said difierent face, the pairs of columns relating to the same edge but different faces being spaced laterally with regard to each other, and special index points positioned on said element with relation to the inverted columns to determine which of the columns are to be effective according to the facing of the element, said index points representing the same data repeated eight times in diflerent positions. whereby the same control of the machine is effected by the element being presented therein in any of the four regular positions and with either face uppermost.
edges of uniform length and having provisions 3 JOHN WILLIAM ARMBRUSTER.