US 2291072 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 2 8, 1942. A. DAHLE f 2,291,072
' DEvoTIoNAL LIGHT l Filed March e, 1940 ...mm n., u
Inunuuu INVENTQR. Ham PH DAHLE.
Patented July 28, 1942 DEVOTIONAL LIGHT Adolph Dahle, Cincinnati, Ohio, assig'nor to Atkns & Pearce Mfg. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, a
corporation of Ohio Application March 6, 1940, :Serial No. 322,580
My invention relates to light structures generally embodying a wick and a body of fuel to be burned in a container. In general the burning of such lights, because of the container, has involved the liquecation of the fuel for a considerable depth below the flame, whereby the wick is deprived of the support of the solid fuel. Heretofore, to maintain the wick in proper burning position it has been the practice to reinforce the wick with a stiiTening core of expandable metal as taught in the Atkins Patent No. 1,496,837 dated June 10, 1924. In the structures of my present invention, an expendable metal core is avoided, and instead there is employed a noncombustible core which will withstand the heat of the flame. In a copending application in the names of Root and Rau entitled Wick support for devotional lights, Serial No. 319,852, led February 20, 1940, there is described a wick structure in which in one embodiment absorbent wicking strands are associated with a non-combustible metallic core by braiding, weaving, twisting or the like. In that application a light structure is described comprising an elongated body of fuel in a container; and the wick, which has been reinforced as set forth above, is located in the fuel body in association with a holder for the wick at the bottom of the fuel body. The reinforcingY core of the wick is designed to be stiff enough so that if it does not maintain the axial position of the wick in spite of the liquecation of the fuel it will have sulicient stiffness to maintain the burning portion of the wick away from the walls of the container by receiving leaning support near the top of the container. The structure thus contemplates a wick having aY non-expendable core of sufficient stiffness to operate under these circumstances; therefore, the wick reinforcement must be a relatively heavy and relatively stili reinforcement. Moreover, the reinforcement must be properly chosen in view of the use to which it is to be put, so that in the heat of the flame curling and distortion of the reinforcement will be minimized.
An object of my invention is the attainment contact of the ame with the side of the container whereby breakage of containers is avoided.
It is my object to attain these advantages in a novel way permitting the employment of different kinds of reinforcement and a wider choice of wick constructions, as will be pointed out hereinafter.
These and other objects of my invention which will be apparent to one skilled in the art upon reading this specification, I accomplish by that construction and arrangement of parts of which I shall now `describe exemplary embodiments. Reference is made to the `drawing wherein:
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view through an exemplary light construction embodying my invention.
Figures 2 and 3 show respectively forms of spider construction which I may employ.
Figure 4 is a vertical section view of another form of light structure.
Figure 5 is a View of an exemplary weight construction.
Figure 6 is a vertical sectional View of still another type of light embodying my invention:
Figure 7 is a view inl perspective of a form of spider constructionwhich may be employed in the light of Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a sectional view of my light showing still another structure embodying an aspect of my invention.
Whereas the type of light referred to above, to which the stiffness of the reinforcement of the wick is primarily relied upon for support where the wick leans against the top of the container, requires a container construction having a relatively narrow mouth or equivalent means, my
of similar advantages through the use of a wick f which does not require the same weight and stiffness of reinforcement, and which in one embodiment of my invention does not need to be free of a tendency to kink, curl or distort in the heat of the llame. As a consequence, I am able to produce and employ a less expensive wicking, that is to say, a wicking the lineal footage of which is greater for a given weight because it can carry a definitely lighter reinforcement.
Itis also a general object of my invention to provide means for the control of combustion in light of the character described, and means preventing either the submergence and extinguishmentof the burning portion of the wick or the structures are not so limited. One aspect of my invention contemplates the provision of a means for holding the Wick both at the top and bottom of the container whereby a substantially axial position of the wick is ,enforced in spite of considerable distortion in the wick itself, and in another aspect my invention involves a structure in which the wick may be tensioned to the point where major wick distortion is prevented. My invention also contemplates the solution of those problems in structures of this character which are produced by the tendency of the fuel to expand and contract because of variations in storage temperatures or general weather conditions. My invention also contemplates, in one aspect, the solution of those combustion problems which arise through the collection of carbon in the bottom of the container.
In Figure l, I have shown at l a container of the wide mouth type. Such containers have the advantage of being readily re-usable, since the fuel body and wick may be formed and sold as a unit and merely placed in the container for burning.. Where, however, the lights are made and parent hereinafter, is not a limitation upon my invention.
2 represents a body of fuel in which, located substantially axially, there is awick 3. The wick 3 may be provided with a holder 4 at the bottom of the fuel body and extends preferably somewhat beyond the top of the container as at 5. A supporting spider 6 is employed which may be like the spiders shown in Figures 2 and 3, or some equivalent structure. The spiders include generally legs 'I or 'Ia together with a relatively small central supporting ring 8 or 8a. The spider of Figure 2 may be made by welding. The spider of Figure 3 is shown made by twisting the wires of which it is formed. The ends of the legs 'I or 1a are bent over to engage the outer wall of the container I. Th'e ring 8 or 8a has an internal diameter larger than the external diameter of the wick but only slightly larger. When the light is assembled for burning as shown in Figure 1, the wick 3 having the reinforcement 3a extends through this ring so that the top of the wick is at all times supported in a substantially axial position in the container. As a consequence, considerable distortion can occur in the reinforcement 3a without any danger of the flame coming into contact with the wall of the container. The end 5 of the wick reinforcement should extend sufficiently through the ring to compensate for such taking up in the length of the wick reinforcement as may be caused by the expected distortion.
Various supporting means may be used, including but without limitation, perforated plates, or single arms having clipor clamp-like attachment to the top of the container.
The structure of Figure 4 employs the same container and body of fuel; and it may employ the same wick. Figure 4 shows how my light structure may, if desired, be used with an ornamental cover piece 9 having central openings I0 for the exit of the gases of ycombustion and outlying openings I I for the entrance of air for burning. A spider 6 has again been shown in this light construction.
Devotional lights have been made with a variety of cap structures forthe container. Usually these cap structures have a central perforation for the exit of products of combustion and various outlying perforations for th'e entrance of air. All of these cap structures may be used in connection with my invention. Furthermore, where the wick is to be suspended at the top of the container, as hereinafter described, the cap may itself form the suspending means if desired. Thus the end of the wick may be passed through one of the air inlet holes for support, or passed through a special perforation formed near the central opening of the cap; and the wick may be attached at such points as hereinafter set forth. Also a spider or equivalent support may be used in connection with the central opening of a cap.
The wick at the bottom of the fuel body inFigure 4 is provided with a holder 4a which is made to have considerable mass. As shown in Figure 5, it may comprise a structure I2 very much like the usual thin metal holders formed by stamping, and provided with clamping means I3 for wick engagement. To this I have added weight means which may be in the form of a ring of metal. It
may merely overlie the body I2 of the holder or it may be fastened thereto by ears I5. The wick 3 is clamped to the holder in such a way as to withstand some strain and, if desired, may be bent over beneath the holder. At the top of the light Ih'ave shown the reinforcement 3, bent over so as to be hooked onto the ring of the spider 6 'as at I6. In this construction the wick has essentially a suspension at the top of the container. Substantial distortion of the wick reinforcement is prevented because of the tension which it places on the wick. If the reinforcement tends t0 distort appreciably the wick is, as it were, stretched between the spider 6 and the solid body of fuel engaging the holder 4a. When, in the course of the burning of the light, all of the fuel becomes liquefied, the weight of the holder is such as to keep the reinforcement stretched; and the Weight of the holder parts I2 and I4 will be chosen with this in view. In many instances no more than the ordinary holder need be employed, and in some instances the weight of the reinforcement may be sufficient.
As a consequence, I am enabled to use a much lighter, non-combustible reinforcement than is possible in the structure set forth in the Root and Rau application; and I am enabled therefore to use a cheaper wick per linear foot. Whereas in the Root and Rau structure the wire reinforcement may be varied in thickness for different lengths of fuel body (but for sanctuary lights and the like will ordinarily have to be of a heavier gauge), in my light construction much lighter gauges are employable, and in the construction of Figure 4 or its equivalent, wire reinforcements of very ne gauge may be employed in a single strand so long as they are not destroyed in the flame. Moreover, as has been explained, I am not concerned with the inherent stiffness of the reinforcement where suspension is provided both at the top and the bottom. Nor am I concerned with the selection of a metallic reinforcement of such composition and temper that it will not curl or distort in the heat of the flame. I am not restricted to the use of a single metallic core in the aspect of my invention wherein tension keeps the wick support from distorting, but may employ a wicking braided or woven or twisted from absorbent textile strands together with one or more fine wire-like strands of a material capable of withstanding the flame.
Any'type of fastening of the wick to the spider 6 may be employed. Where a wire core of sufficient stiffness forms a part of the wick, mere bending over as shown in Figure 4 will serve my purpose. Otherwise the wick end may be bent over and twisted about itself or it may be otherwise fastened as by being knotted above the ring or provided with a clamped-on abutment. Or a spider may be provided with means for clampingly engaging the wick.
In Figure 6 I have shown my invention applied to a type of light in which the container I1 is in the form of a bottle with a restricted neck I8. The wicking is again shown at 3. A holder will be employed as before. To illustrate another type of holder, I have shown at I9 a block or disc of relatively heavy metal centrally perforated to receive the wick 3, the body of the metal being peened against the wick as at 20 to clamp it. A stamped sheet metal spider 2| is shown both in Figure 6 and in Figure 7, having arms and a central perforated disc-like portion 22 tln'ough which the wick 3 'extends and to which, if desired, the wick 3 maybe attached.
The wick in my lights may be suspended at the top of the container, and may lack a holder at the bottom. In fact, the Wick may terminate short of the bottom of the container. This affords an additional factor of combustion control. In the burning of reinforced wicks, carbonized portions of the combustible wick part, or carbon deposits, sometimes form on the reinforcement, and become dislodged, falling and settling in the liquefied fuel. If these pieces of carbon or carbonaceous substance collect on the bottom of the container near the wick, when the fuel has been consumed sufficiently to uncover them, they may act as additional Wicks producing a very large flame which s not only undesirable but may be dangerous. In Figure 8 I have again shown the container l, fuel 2 and Wick 3, the reinforcement 3a of which is attached to the spider 6 or its equivalent at 23. The wick terminates short of the bottom of the container as shown, and above such carbon masses 24 as may collect therein. In this structure, when the body of fuel no longer contacts the end of the wick, the ame will go out.
In making the candle for the light of Figure 8 the fuel blank is formed in the usual Way with a central rod to form a wick perforation. After the blank has solidified, the Wick is thrust through the perforation in such a way as to terminate short of the bottom of the blank. In making the other forms illustrated, it is possible, where desired, to cast the fuel in a container around the Wick and holder.
Since, as has been stated, some difficulty is occasionally encountered with the expansion of the solid fuel in a container, it is well in my type of light to keep the body of fuel far enough below the top of the container to take care of normallyto-be-expected expansion. Nevertheless, it will be noted in the forms illustrated, that my spider or supporting means is not fastened to the top of the container. Thus should the fuel expand to a point lbeyond the top of the container it may be cut olf as in usual practice, and the spider replaced. But it is also well to keep the body of the fuel sufficiently below the spider to prevent smoking. In employing a spider or its equivalent, it is not necessary to strip the textile strands of the wick from the reinforcement at the top. Wicks are currently used in pre-waxed form and the textile strands at the spider will rapidly burn away. However, the wick may be stripped at the top if desired.
Modications may be made in my invention without departing from the spirit of it.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. In a devotional light or the like, a container, a body of fuel, a wick of combustible strands braided about a continuous, straight, non-combustible stiff wire strand, and means at the top of said container for suspending said wick during burning by means of said strand for the purpose described.
2. In a devotional light or the like, a container, a body of fuel, a Wick of combustible strands braided about a continuous, straight, non-combustible stiff wire strand, and means at the top of said container for suspending said wick during burning by means of said strand, said means comprising a member having a portion to engage said container and a portion to which said strand may be attached, said member being cut away in part to provide ingress of air and egress of products of combustion for the purpose described.
3. In a devotional light or the like designed to be burned in a container, a body of fuel, a wick therein of combustible strands braided about a continuous non-combustible straight wire strand, anchoring means for said wick substantially at the bottom of said fuel body, and means for engaging the container substantially at the top thereof, said means having a portion for engaging said Wick for the purpose described.
4. In a devotional light or the like designed to be burned in a container, a body of fuel and a Wick therein of combustible strands braided about a continuous non-combustible stiff, straight wire strand, said wick terminating short of the bottom of said fuel body, and having sufficient extension beyond the top of said fuel body to permit attachment to supporting means for the purpose described.
5. In a devotional light or the like designed to be burned in a container, a body of fuel, a wick therein of combustible strands braided about a continuous non-combustible straight wire strand, anchoring means for said wick substantially at the bottom of said fuel body, and means for engaging the container substantially at the top thereof, said means having a portion for engaging said wick, to which said wick may be attached for the purpose described.
6. In a devotional light or the like, a container, a body of fuel therein, a wick of combustible strands braided about a continuous, straight, non-combustible lament, supporting means for engaging the top of said container and having a portion to which said filament may be attached, and anchoring means at the bottom of said wick to which said filament is attached, said anchoring means having suflicient mass to maintain said filament under tension to prevent such distortion thereof as would permit the wick to contact the side walls of said container for the purpose described.
7. In a devotional light or the like, an elongated container, a body of fuel therein, a wick structure comprising wicking strands disposed about a straight, stiff, continuous and non-combustible wire so as substantially to cover said wire, said Wick being located substantially centrally in said container and extending in the direction of the length thereof, and means at the top of the container affording support for said Wick by engaging the wire thereof in said substantially central position.
8. In a devotional light or the like, an elongated container, a Ibody of fuel therein, a Wick structure comprising wicking strands disposed about a straight, stilf, continuous and non-combustible Wire so as substantially to cover said Wire, said wick being located substantially centrally in said container and extending in the direction of the length thereof, and means at the top of the container affording support for said wick by engaging the wire thereof in said substantially central position, said wick terminating short of the bottom of said container.