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Publication numberUS2291371 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 28, 1942
Filing dateAug 3, 1940
Priority dateAug 3, 1940
Publication numberUS 2291371 A, US 2291371A, US-A-2291371, US2291371 A, US2291371A
InventorsBuchanan Jesse W, Milligan Charles C
Original AssigneeSecurity Engineering Co Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for cementing liners in wells
US 2291371 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

2 Smets-sheet 1 J. W. BUCHANAN ETAL July 28, 1942.

METHD AND APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING LINERs 1N WELLS Filed Aug. 3, 1940 July 28, 1942 J. w. BUCHANAN Erm.- 2,291,371

METO) AND APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING LINERS IN WELLS I y Filed Aug. s, 1940 2 sheets-sheet 2 irf 22% f y? a Patented July 28, 1'942 A METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING LINERS IN WELLS Jesse W. Buchanan and Charles C. Milligan,`

AvenaL'Calif., assignor to Security Eneering Co., Inc., Whittier, Calif., a corporation of California Application.August 3, i943, Serial No. 350,446

l5 Claims. (Ci. 166ml) This invention relates to a method and apparatus for setting and cementing liners in wells.

The method and apparatus is primarily used when it is desired to cement the top of the liner in place and to impose a "squeeze job" wherein the cement on being positioned is subjected to high pressure forcing the cement into iissures in the formation and all areas that will receive it.

An object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus wherein the liner can be run into the well hole and its packer set and tested before commencing the cementing operation. The cement can thereafter be discharged into the annular space between the top of the liner and the Well walls or the bottom of the casing and be caused to pass through bypass ports to a point above the top of the liner. In

considered as a continuation of th'e lower portion of Fig. l;

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. l illustrating the apparatus in that position assumed by the parts after the liner has been set and its packer expanded against the interior of the casing and in a position just prior to the closing of the ports of the bypass port coupling;

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 2 illustrating the lower portion of the apparatus in the position shown in Fig. Sand during that period when this way the bypass ports allow fresh cement or uncontaminated cement to iill all space possible without undue pressure resistance. When suicient cement has been discharged the bypass ports can be closed and mud pump pressure applied to force the cement into fissures in the Iormation and wherever cement will be received. That cement which is initially discharged and which may have become contaminated is flushed up through the bypass ports and through the packer `and is not left around the liner so as to be apt to cause a faulty cementing operation.

Tailingswhich are likewise apt to be contaminated are left within the discharge pipe and are not present in the annular space surrounding the liner.

Another object of the invention is to provide a I method and apparatus'whereby the above-mentioned operations and advantages can be secured by a4 single run-in of the run-in string of pipe. A further object of the invention is to provide a bypass port collar or coupling adapted to be incorporated in a liner operable by the run-in string of pipe so that the bypass ports may be opened or closed at will from thelsurface. With the foregoing and other objects in view, which will be made manifest in the following detailed description and specifically pointed out in the appended claims, reference is had to the acf companying drawings for an illustrative embodiment of the invention, wherein: v Figure 1 is a partial view in section through the bottom of a well casing illustrating the upper portion of the` apparatus embodying the present invention in that position occupied by the parts immediately prior to the setting of the liner;

Fig. 2 is a sectional view illustrating the lower gure may be portion of the apparatus whi h cement is being discharged; l

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 1 illustrating the apparatus in the position after the ports of the bypass port coupling have been closed and in the position wherein pressure may be imposed upon the 'cement to effect the squeeze job;

Fig. 6 is a partial view in vertical section illustrating the details of construction of the bypass port coupling;

Fig. 'l is a horizontal section taken substantially upon the line Tf-'I upon Fig. 6 in the direction indicated;

Fig. 8 is a view in vertical section illustrating one form oi tubing pack-oil coupling that forms a part of the apparatus;

Fig; 9 is a view in vertical section illustrating an alternative form of tubing pack-0E coupling that may be employed; and

Fig. l0-is a view inv vertical section illustrating the details of construction of the cementing collar that is preferably employed.

Referring to the accompanying drawings wherein similarreference characters designate similar parts throughout, I0 indicates the casing in e. well which has been set above the productive formation indicated at F, see Fig. 2. Within the casing it is desired to set and cement a liner.

, In carrying out the present invention 'the liner is made up with a lower perforated or slotted section of any suitable length indicated at I I having an upper portion l2 which is blank or unslotted or unperforated. The lower perforated portion II is connected to the upper blank portion by means of a cementing collar I3, the details of which are illustrated in Fig. 10. This cementing collar may be of any preferreddesign but in the preferred form ofconstruction it has a'ported collar I4 having ports I5 within which therey is a drillable bushing I6 .carrying baci.: pressure valves Il. 'I'he bottom of the bushing is blanked oi as.

indicated atv I8 preventing downward flow of cement through the bushing and causing it to be expelled outwardly through the walls of the collar It -pasttheback pressure valves I'I.

` liner and the exterior of the nipple or tail pipe A cement basket I9 is optionally mounted on the liner a suitable distance below the cementing collar and serves to prevent cement discharged from the cementing collar from flowing downwardly in the. well around the perforated portion Il. A suitable distance above ,the cementing collar there is incorporated' in the linera tubing pack-oil coupling which in the form illustrated in Figs. 2, 4, and 8, comprises an outer collar or coupling 20 threaded at its ends for attachment to the liner sections and having'on its interior a rubber ring 2| held in place by means of drillable retaining rings 22 and 23 A which may be held in place by means of screws 24. AThe bore or opening through the rubber ring is such that it may closely flt about a nipple or tail pipe v25, the outlet -of which is at the bottom thereof. Thisring 2l serves as a type of packing means between the interior of the preventing cement that is discharged from the tail pipe from flowing upwardly between the liner and the tail pipe and causing it instead to be discharged through the cementing collar I3.

At the-top of the liner there is incorporated therein a bypass port collar indicated at 26, the

apagan ing I0 on the setting ofthe liner. .The run-in string of pipe isequipped atits bottom with a releasing tool consisting of a squaredl or noncircular tube 39 extending through a nut 48 equipped withv left-hand threads 4I engageable withv complementary threads on the interior of the linerl hanger. An anti-friction bearing 42 is preferably employed to facilitate unscrewing of the-nut 4l from the liner hanger regardless of the weight that may be imposed. The nipple or .tail pipe 25 is secured to the bottom of the releasing tool and extends downwardly into the liner.

The operation and advantagesof the abovedescribed apparatus are as follows. The liner and associated apparatus are first assembled together in the position shown in Fig. 1 wherein the keys or splines 32 on the nipple or tail pipe 25 are. disposed below the key bushing 30. The lower end voi! the tail pipe or nipple slidably extendsthrough the packing ring A2l and is disposed but a short distance above the baille in -the cementing collar '|3. In this position the liner is lowered into the well and the apparatus is in that position illustrated in Figs. l and 2.

On reaching the desired level the slips 31 are released and set as shown in Figs. 3 and 5, and

'the packing rings 38 are expanded into firm threads 21 to receive an inner tubular valve 28 which is equipped with complementary threads. This valve preferably carries a packing ring 29 and has secured on its interior a keyed bushing 30. This bushing is held in place by means of screws 3|. The interior of the valve 2,8 is. of

' the same internal diameter as the interior diameter of the liner so that when the keyed bushing 30 which is formed o'f readily drillable ma-` terial is drilled up -or otherwise removed from thev liner on completion of the setting and cementing operations, the valve 28 will form no obstruction on the interior of the liner.

At the upper end of the nipple or tail pipe 25 there are formed two diametrically opposed keys or splines 32 which when the nipple or `tail pipe is elevated from the position -shown in Fig. 1 to the positionshown in Fig. 3 may pass between the keys or splines 33 on the interior of the key bushing 38 so as to enable the keyed bushing ltobe rotated by the nipple or tail pipe and to thus screw the tubular valve 28 downwardly. in

. the collar or coupling so as to close the ports 34.v In the preferredform of construction the .interior of the collar or coupling is formed with the spaces between keys 33 and to provide additional spaces for fluid flow between the key bushing 30 and the nipple or tail pipe 25.

The top ofthe liner is equipped with a liner hanger which may-be of any preferred design. That illustrated comprises a slip cone 36 which serves to expand slips 31 intol engagement with the interior of casing I0. Packing means 38 is taminated flow. upwardly around the liner and. nally into the liner through the bypass ports 34.

associated with the liner hanger and is designed to be expanded against the interior of the cas- 7`5 packing engagement with the 'interior of the casing. When in this position the packer may be tested to determine whether or not it Ahas been properly set and whether or notit is leaking. This is accomplished by imposing mud pump pressure on the outside of the run-in string of pipe and within the casingand observing whether or not pressure builds up therein and is retained. Y

If` the lpacker 38 has been properly set and there is no indication of leakagethe apparatus is then in condition for the cementing operation. 4

The run-in stringv of pipe is then rotated to the right so as to disconnect the releasing tool from l theliner hanger, this being accomplished by unscrewing nut Il from the liner hanger. The run-in string of pipe can then be lifted a short distance Solas to cause the keys or splines 32 to enter the key bushing 30 in the spaces bel tween the-keys 33 therein. Cement slurry is then pumped down through the run-in string of pipe and through the nipple or tail pipe 25,'being discharged at the bottom of the tail pipe below the packing ring 2l. This slurry is caused -to exit from the .liner through the ports in the cement collar and to flow upwardly around the top of the Y linerA in the annular space between' the liner and the well walls. Well uid, cuttings, and the initially discharged slurry which is apt to be con- They then ow upwardly through the spaces between the keys 33 around the nipple or tail pipe 25 and `iiow upwardly through the liner hanger and through the liner packer 38. In this way all contaminating'substancesbetween the liner and the well'walls or between the top ofthe liner and the interior of the casing are eectively ilushed out through the bypass ports so that oncoming slurry which is uncontaminated completely lls the annular space surrounding the liner above the cement basket I9. When the cement slurry has been thus positioned around the top of the liner the run-in string of pipe is rotated causing the keys or splines 32 to engage one of the keys 33 thus screwing the tubular valve 28 downwardly closing the bypass ports 34. Mud pump pressure cient cement seal around the top of the liner.

Return of the slurry to the interior of the liner is prevented by the bypass ports 34 being closed by the tubular valve 28 and by the back pressure valves I1 in the cementing collar. Consequently,

when sufcient pressure has been imposed the run-in string of pipe and its associated apparatus is then in condition to be withdrawn bringing with it the releasing tool and the nipple or tail pipe 25. When the cement has hardened the key bushing 38, the ring 2i, and the retaining rings 22 and 23 as well as bushing i6, can be drilled up inasmuch asthese parts are all formed of readily drillable material such as aluminum or an aluminum alloy. This leaves the liner cemented in place with the interior of the liner free and unobstructed.

In the event that the liner itself is entirely formed of readily drillable material such as an aluminum alloy, all parts of the liner should be made of readily drillable material where possible. In other words, the tubular valve 28, the body of the bypass port coupling, the body oi the pack-ott coupling, and the body of the cementing collar should be formed of readily drillable material as well.

It will be noted from the above-describe the discharged cement to flow outwardly through the outlet ports and not continue down the liner. From the above-described method and apparatus it will be appreciated that a highly improved means and method has been developed for setting and cementing liners in wells. While the improved means and method has been primarily designed to enable the displacing of 'well duid from around the liner by uncontaminated cement slurry and the imposition of pres# sure to eilect a squeeze Job it will be understood that it is not necessary in all instances to impose pressure. In some situations the method and apparatus may be advantageously employed without attempting the imposing of pressure to secure a squeeze job.

Various changes may be made in the details of construction without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention as deiined by the appended claims.

We claim:

1. The method of setting and cementing liners in wells which includes setting the liner in a well, packing on between the top of the exterior of the liner and the interior of the Well casing, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it to method and apparatus that all operations can be I accomplished on a single run-in of the run-in string of pipe, namely the liner may be set and its packer expanded, the packer tested, the space between the liner and the well walls flushed clear and cement slurry discharged in place and subjected to highpressure to effect the squeeze job. 'I'he use ofthe bypass ports 34 is-not only advantageous in enabling the ushing out of contaminating substances but is advantageous in that these ports form an adequate space for the passage of cuttings. In the normal situation the :was

clearance between the packer 38 and the interior of the casing is very small when the packer is in contracted condition, frequently not exceeding 1/8". 'I'his small clearance hinders the flushing out o f cuttings between the packer and the interior of the casing. By the use of the bypass ports these ports may be adequately large to pass even large cuttings which could not be flushed betweeen the packer and the interior of the casing.

In Fig. 9 there is illustrated an alternativeA form of pack-oi! coupling thatmay be used. In

this form of -construction the pack-oil coupling comprises a coupling body 20a within which there-is the rubber or packing ring Zia held in place by means of retaining rings 22a and 23a. Adjacent the bottom of the lower retaining ring 22a. there is a valve seat I3 adapted to seat anupwardly closing valve Il urged into closing position by means of a spring l5. This valve is adapted to be forced open when the tail pipe 25 is passed downwardly through the rubber ring 2id Y and upon withdrawal of the tail pipe the valve will close so as to prevent reverse ow of the .ce-

ment slurry. Where this form oi' construction is used the cementing collar need not be equipped with back pressure valves as valve 44 serves to perform their function, Thus, in using the construction illustrated in Fig. 9 the cementing collar need only be equipped with suitable Voutlet the exterior thereof and causing owvupwardly on the outside of the liner, then intothe liner,l and upwardly through the packer, andr then closing the upper entrance to the liner against ilow therethrough and imposing pressure on the cement on the exterior of the liner.

2. The method of cementing liners in wells which includes setting the liner in a well, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it through a lower outlet therefrom to the exterior of the liner to cause upward flow on the outside of the liner and into the liner through an upper inlet, and then closing the upper inlet and imposing pressure on the cement on the exterior of the liner.

3'. The method oi? cementing liners in wells which includes setting the liner in a well, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it to the exterior thereof through a lower outlet and preventing upward fiow from adjacent the lower outlet within the liner, causing upward ilow on the outside of the liner and from the exterior of the liner into the liner through an 'upper inlet, and then closing the upper inlet against inward ilow therethrough and imposing pressure on the cement on the exterior of the liner. y

4. An apparatus for setting and cementing liners in wells including a liner, packing means for packing oi between the top of the liner and the interior of a well casing, a run-in string of pipe detachably connected to the liner having a nipple extending into the liner, a second packing means for packing oi between the interior of the liner and theVV nipple above the outlet from the nipple, there being an inlet to the liner between the packing means, and means for optionally.

opening and closing said inlet operable by the ports and a baille therebelow which will cause nipp1ev6. An apparatus for setting and cementing liners in wells including a liner, packing means for packing off between the top of the liner and the-interior of a well casing, a run-in string of i the packing means, and means for optionally opening and closing said inlet operable by rotation of the nipple by the runin string of pipe.

7,. 1An apparatus for setting and cementing liners in wells comprising a liner having. external packing means adjacent its top adapted to be expanded into engagement with a well casing, a run-in string of pipe detachably connected to the liner by which the liner may be lowered into the well and the packing means set, t'here being inlet ports in the liner beneath the packing means, a nipple connected to the run-in string of pipe extending into the liner, means for packing off between the interior of the liner and the nipple above'the outlet from the nipple, a cementing collar equipped with back pressure valves in the liner-below the last-mentioned packing means, a

cement vbasket on the'liner below the cementing collar, and valve means operable by the nipple for closing the inlet ports to the liner.

8. An apparatus for setting and cementing liners in wells comprisingv a liner having external packing means adjacentits top adapted to be expanded into engagement with a well casing, a.

run-in string of pipe detachably connected to the liner by which the liner may be lowered into,

the well and the packing means set, there being inlet ports in the liner beneath the packing means, a nipple connected to the run-in string of pipe extending into the liner, means for packing oil' between the interior of the liner and the nipple above the outlet from the nipple, a cementing collar equipped with back pressure valves in the liner below the last-mentioned packing4 means, and valve means operable by the nipple,

for closing the inlet ports to the liner.

9. A bypass port collar for use in cementing liners comprising a ported collar adaptedto bel incorporated in a liner, a tubular valve threaded into the collar adapted to be screwed into posiinto the collar adapted to be screwed into positions opening or closing the ports, and means on the valve engageable by a nipple attachable to a run-in string of pipe by which the valve may be screwed, the collar having a seat against which the valve may be tightened.

11. The method qf setting and cementing linersin welis which includes setting the liner in a well, packing oi between the top of the exterior of' the liner and the interior of the well casing, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it to the exterior thereof. and causingl flow upwardly on the outside of the liner, then into the liner, and upwardly through the packer, and then closing the upper entrance to the liner against now therethrough.

12. The method of cementing liners lin wells which includes setting the liner in-a well, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it through a'lower outlet therefrom to the exterior of the liner tocause upward ilow on the outside of the liner and into the liner through an upper inlet, and then closing the upper inlet.

13. The method of cementing liners in wells which includes setting the liner in a well, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it to the exterior thereof through a lower outlet and preventing upward ow from adjacent the lower outlet within the liner, causing upward ilow on the outside of the linery and from the exterior of the liner into the liner through an upperI inlet, and then closing the upper inlet against inward ow therethrough.

14. 'I'he method of cementing liners in wells which includes setting the liner in a well, discharging cement in the liner and forcing it through` a. lower outlet therefrom to the exterior of the liner to causeupward ilow on the outside of the liner` and into the linerthrough an upper inlet, and then closing the upper inlet and drill# ing out the interior of the liner so as to leave its interior open andunobstructed. l

15. An apparatus for cementing liners and the like in wells comprising a liner having an outlet' andan inlet thereabove, means detachably connecting the liner to a run-in string of pipe, a nipple connected to the run-in string of pipe and extending into the liner to a level Ibelow the inlet, means for preventing upward flow between the liner and the nipple to cause the cement discharged through the nipple to pass out of the outlet; a threaded valve operable upon rotation to close the inlet, and means providing a splined connection between the nipple and the valve.

JESSE W. BUCHANAN. CHARLES C. MILLIGAN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2425202 *Jan 12, 1943Aug 5, 1947Shell DevApparatus for completing wells
US2431751 *Jun 9, 1941Dec 2, 1947Hayward Landes HApparatus for cementing wells
US2436525 *Apr 19, 1943Feb 24, 1948O'donnell Roland ELiner setting and cementing tool
US2438992 *Apr 3, 1942Apr 6, 1948Baker Oil Tools IncWell cementing apparatus
US2442544 *May 24, 1943Jun 1, 1948Baash Ross Tool CompanyLiner hanger
US2710655 *Jul 19, 1952Jun 14, 1955J B NelsonRotatable port control sleeve
US3223159 *Sep 9, 1963Dec 14, 1965Brown Oil ToolsLiner cementing method
US4039025 *Aug 23, 1976Aug 2, 1977Exxon Production Research CompanyApparatus for anchoring an offshore structure
US4243099 *May 24, 1978Jan 6, 1981Schlumberger Technology CorporationSelectively-controlled well bore apparatus
US4848459 *Apr 12, 1988Jul 18, 1989Dresser Industries, Inc.Apparatus for installing a liner within a well bore
US4898243 *Jan 25, 1988Feb 6, 1990Lindsey Completion Systems, Inc.Liner and drill pipe assembly
US4942924 *Feb 13, 1989Jul 24, 1990Duncan Stewart MLiner setting assembly and method
US7270181 *Oct 7, 2005Sep 18, 2007Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Downhole surge pressure reduction and filtering apparatus
US7487831Jul 16, 2007Feb 10, 2009Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Downhole surge pressure reduction and filtering apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/290, 166/128, 166/124, 166/208
International ClassificationE21B43/10, E21B43/02, E21B33/14, E21B33/13
Cooperative ClassificationE21B43/10, E21B33/14
European ClassificationE21B33/14, E21B43/10