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Publication numberUS2292231 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 4, 1942
Filing dateAug 8, 1941
Priority dateAug 8, 1941
Publication numberUS 2292231 A, US 2292231A, US-A-2292231, US2292231 A, US2292231A
InventorsLawrence Lesavoy I
Original AssigneeLawrence Lesavoy I
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
System of packaging
US 2292231 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 4, 1942. a. LESAVOY 7 2,292,231

'SYSTEM OF PACKAGING 4 Filed Aug 8, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet l 2 INV ENTOR [I IAN/FENCE LESAVOY ATTORNEY V Aug. 4, 1942. 1. 1.. LESAVOY SYSTEM OF PACKAGING Filed Aug. 8, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 TOR J, ZAWEENCE [55A VOY ATTORNEY Patented Aug. 4, 1942 SYSTEM OF PACKAGING I. Lawrence Lesavoy, Allentown, Pa. Application August 8, 1941; Serial No. 406,010

31 Claims.

This invention relates to a system of packaging, and particularly to an apparatus for continuously fabricating bags, dispensing selected 7 products into the bags and sealing the filled bags.

In large scale packaging operations, preformed containers are generally employed to receive the product to be packaged from a suitable feeding or conveying apparatus. When such containers are in the form of boxes, they are space-consum ing, expensive and necessitate the employment of costly and intricate sealing methods; and where such boxes are purchased in collapsed condition, they require individual handling to place them in condition to receive the goods. When the containers are in the form of bags, they are generally diflicult to handle because of their limp condition. Furthermore, such bags contain long lateral seams in view of the fact that they are made from flat lengths of material which must be formed and sewed together. These seams are unsightly, and besides, they reduce the strength of the bag because of its tendency to open at the seams when loaded. And in most of the packaging methods heretofore employed, especially where large bulks are handled, the steps of fabricating the container, setting it up, dispensing the product to be packaged and sealing the filled container, are separately performed in successive.

stages, being both time-consuming and expensive.

And should the various steps not be performed in perfect synchronism, there will be a bottleneck and a consequent delay all along the line.

It is within the contemplation of this invention to avoid the aforesaid shortcomings in largescale packaging operations by providing a system of continuously forming containers as the product to be packaged is being dispensed, and automatically sealing and separating successive filled containers.

In the preferred method of my invention, the container is automatically produced on a knitting machine in the form of a seamless knitted bag, and predetermined quantities of the product are supplied to successive bags as they are being made, whereafter the bags are sealed at top and bottom only. And in this aspect of my invention it is an object to enable the dispensing, sealing and bag separating mechanisms to be coactively associated with the knitting apparatus, so that the timing of said mechanisms will bear a predetermined relation to the size and proportions of the bags knitted by the machine.

It is another object of my invention to enable bags of several layers to be simultaneously knitted, thereby producing containers combinatively adapted to hold fine-grained contents or contents of great weight.

And another object of this invention is to enable packages produced by this apparatus to be automatically identified by labels or printed impressions.

Other objects, features and advantages will appear from the drawings and the description hereinafter given.

Referring to the drawings:

Figure l is a fragmentary front elevation, showing partially in section, theapparatus constituting my invention.

Figure 2 is a section of Figure 1 along line 2-2.

Figure 3 is a sectionof Figure 1 along line 3-3.

' Figure 4 is a fragmentary development of the actuator cam mechanism for operating the gathering mechanism of my invention, the view being taken substantially along line 4-4 of Figure 1.

Figure 5 is a sectional plan view of Figure 1 taken substantially along line 5-5, the dot-dash lines indicating the projected position of the gathering mechanism.

Figure 6 is a sectional plan of Figure 1 taken substantially along line 6-6 thereof, the view showing only the cutting means.

Figure '7 is a fragmentary plan view of the stapling mechanism shown in its projected position afterhaving formed a closure for the casing.

Figure 8 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of my invention showing one method of applying a label between the walls of the casing.

Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view'showinc the electrical connections employable with my invention.

Figure 10 is a perspective view of one of the gathering segments and its cam follower, and.

Figure 11 is a fragmentary vertical section of a label marking device adapted for association with my invention.

The drawings illustrate an embodiment'of my invention wherein two coacting knitting units are arranged to simultaneously knit two concentric tubes of fabric which are formed into a doublewalled bag for receiving the product to be packed. Although this. embodiment is preferred, my invention also contemplates the employment of a single knitting machine for producing singlew walled bags adapted to receive the product by substantially the same instrumentalities employable with the double-walled structure.

In the form illustrated, the cylinders l0 and II of the upper and lower knitting machines, respectively. are surrounded by and operatively associa ad with cam rings I2 and i3, respectively.

A plurality of posts l4 and I5 support the upper and lower yarn stands l6 and I1, respectively, so that upon an operative rotation of said cam rings and stands, the yarns i8 and I 9 will be fed to the needles and 2| of the cylinders to form tubular casings of knitted material 22 and 23 extending downwardly within the cylinders. The detailed construction of the needles and needleelevating and depressing mechanism is not shown in view of the fact that they are of conventional structure and are well-known to those skilled in the art.

It is to be further observed that the two said cylinders l0 and II are coaxially arranged, and that the base 24 of the lower cylinder serves to support the base 25 of the upper cylinder through the medium of the posts26. The cam rings l2 and I3 are coactively associated with each other through the medium of bevel gears 2'! and 23, the shafts 29 and and the transmission line 3|, said transmission line being preferably either an endless chain or belt and pulley arrangement. Although either of said shafts 29 or 30 may be connected with the source of motive power, the drawings illustrate shaft 23 as being so connected. According to the design illustrated, the gears 21 and 28 are revolvable at the same speeds, to produce identical knitting speeds for both the upper and lower cylinders. Should it however be desired to change the relative knitting speeds of both machines, so as to produce a doublewalled bag with the inner wall 22 containing a diii'erent arrangement of wales and courses than that of outer wall 23, it is within the contemplation of my invention to so modify the transmission mechanism 3|, in conventional manner well-known in the art, as to effect the desired speed ratio between shafts 29 and 30 and consequently between the knitting speeds of the upper and lower cylinders.

Centrally disposed within the cylinders l0 and H of the coacting knitting machines is the hopper 32 extending downwardly from a point above the uppermost yarn stand and parts carried thereby, to a point preferably well within the lower cylinder II. In the structure shown'in the drawings, the hopper contains the outlet portion 33 terminating at a point substantially at the level of the cam ring l3; but it is to be understood that the position of said outlet portion can be modified to suit particular design requirements. upper yarn stand I6 is rotatably associated with the hopper 32 through the medium of the ballbearing arrangement led in rotatable engagement with the outer cylindrical surface of the hopper. In this manner the hopper serves to help support the said yarn stand.

At the top of the hopper 32 is a floor 34 serving as a support for the dispensing mechanism constituting a part of my invention. Slidably mounted upon said floor is the dispenser or valve member 35 containing two compartments 36 and 31 separated by a wall 38. Extending into both compartments from said wall is the gate 39 which, in the preferred form, contains two downwardly sloping surfaces 40 and 4!, said valve being slidably movable on floor 34 so as to partially obstruct the inlet opening 42 at the top of the hopper 32. The said dispenser 35 has in the lateral wall 43 thereof two apertures 44 and 45, each of these apertures being adapted to be moved into registry with corresponding apertures 46 and 41 of the conveyor apparatus 48, upon an It will also be observed that the operative oscillation of the dispenser, in a manner to be more fully hereinafter described.

The said conveyor apparatus 48, in the particular form of my invention illustrated, comprises a cylindrical tube 49 containing therein a conventional helical or screw type of conveyor 50. The conveyor tube 48 is offset with respect to the hopper 32 and dispenser 35, and contains two conduits 5| and 52 terminating in the said apertures 46 and 41. 'I'hesaid conduits 5| and 52 terminate in flange 53 in slidable abutment with the flange 54 of the dispenser member 35. The arrangement is such that should it be necessary to gain access to the interior of the knitting machine cylinders, the hopper 32 can be withdrawn upwardly, after being operatively detached from the dispenser 35, without interfering with the conveyor mechanism 48.

Pivotally attached to the dispenser 35 at 55 is the lever 56 mounted upon the hopper 32 at 51; and pivotally connected to lever 33 at a point intermediate its ends is the link 58 operatively connected to the crank 53 associated with the reduction gear 56 and the motor 6|. The arrangement is such that upon an operative rotation of the motor 3| for a predetermined interval, the crank 58 will be rotated through an arc of about 180 degrees to thereby actuate the link 58 and lever 53 to the right, thus producing a slidable movement of the dispenser 35 also to the right. It will be observed that when the said dispenser 35 is in its extreme left position, the aperture 44 thereof is in registry with the aperture 46 associated with conveyor 43, and when the dispenser is in its extreme right position, the aperture 45 thereof will be in registry with the corresponding aperture 52 of the conveyor tube. The dispenser 35 also carries with it the plate 62 which extends over and serves as a closure for aperture 41 of the conveyor when the dispenser is in its left position, and which also extends over and serves as a closure for the aperture 46 of the conveyor when the dispenser is in its extreme, right position.

The said hopper or chute 32 contains, in the preferred form thereof, the bafiies 33 to intercept and break the fall of the material being dis.- charged. The lower portion of the hopper also contains, extending downwardly therefrom and surrounding the said outlet portion 33, the inwardly curved forming base and guide 64. In the preferred form of my invention, the said guide 64 is disposed circumferentially about the central axis of the cylinders, and is in the form of a hollow, substantially conical shell. The wall of member 64 is also preferably resilient so that it exerts a slight outward pressure against the tubes of knitted material. A plurality of friction segments 65, of resilient construction, are disposed about said member 64, the relationship .between the member 64 and segments 65 being such as to permit the knitted tubes 22 and 23 to pass downward therebetween and be slightly frictionally retarded thereby against the downward pull operatively exerted upon said tubes. In this manner the members 64 and 65 will create a slight drag or resistance to the downward pull and thereby obviate the danger of any excessive tension being induced within theknitted tubes 22 and 23 extending down from the knitting levels.

The lower outlet portion of hopper 32 is provided with two swingably mounted closure memhere or gates 66 and 61, these members being pivotally mounted at the axis 68 at the termistops 9| and 92.

nal portion 69 of the said hopper. Each of the gates has affixed thereto a lug 10, these lugs extending outwardly in an inclined direction as shown clearly in Figure 1. gagement with said lugs are the terminal portions of, the actuator II containing a bar 12 with a loop member 13 extending transversely between the said lugs. Afiixed to said actuator is the solenoid core 14 movable vertically within the solenoid coil 15 whenthe circuit through said coil is operatively closed. Upon such a closing of the circuit, the said core 14 will be drawn upwardly, to carry the actuator H and loop 13 upwardly also. The lugs will thereby be engaged by loop 13 and the gates 68 and 81 will be pivotally opened to the dot-dash position shown in Figure 1. When this occurs the contents within the outlet portion 33 of the hopper will be discharged in a manner to be more fully hereinafter set forth.

At a predetermined level below the forming guide 64 is the gathering mechanism 16 containing a number of arcuate segments 11 (see Figure 10) circumferentially disposed about the outer tube of knitted fabric 23, these segments being adapted to move inwardly radially in such a manner as to embrace and draw together the concentric knitted fabric tubes 22 and 23 to form a bag closure, hereinafter to be described. The said segments 11, in the form of my invention illustrated, are in overlapping arrangement, each being adapted to partially embrace the bag and to force the engaged portion thereof radially inwardly when the assembly of segments is operatively contracted. The segments are each provided with a rod 18', shown as being of substantially square cross-section, and extending radially outwardly with respect to the cylinders of the knitting machines. Preferably at the outer portions of each of said rods is follower pin 19 extending downwardly into a slot 80, con- ;tituting a cam path, within the cam plate 8|. lhe said cam plate BI is horizontally disposed and slidably mounted within annular support 82 and wall 83.

An actuator cam ring 84 is slidably mounted on bed plate 85, and contains an annular rack 38 in threaded engagement with gear 81. The cam ring- 84 carries on the inner surface thereof the lug 88 which, upon-an operative rotation of said cam ring, is adapted to engage the plate actuator or slide pin 89 extending through aperture 90in cam plate 8|, said pin being slidably movable vertically therein within the limits of The said slide pin 89 contains an inclined surface 93 adapted to engage the correspondingly inclined surface 94 of the abutment member 95. When the pin 89, moving under the influence of lug 88, reaches member 95, the surface 94 engages surface 93, whereby the pin 89 will be elevated to a point completely out of engagement with lug 88. Hence after pin 89 reaches member 95, the lug 88 is no longer in engagement therewith and cannot operatively effect a movement of plate 8 I When the said actuator pin 89 is caused to move by lug 88 in the direction of the arrow (Figure 4) the cam plate 8| will be moved a corresponding distance in the same direction. This causes the follower pins 19 to move inwardly (towards the cylinder) within the slots 80, thereby causing an inward radial movement of the rods 18 and consequently the segments 11 to produce agathering together of the tubular fabric. After the actuator pin 89 has be- In underlying .en-"

come disengaged from lug 88, the springs 98 will cause a retraction of cam plate BI to its original position, thereby causing an outward return movement of the pin followers 19 within slots 88 to their original positions. This movement obviously causes a retraction of the gathering segments 11 from their projected positions.

It will be observed that a portion 91 of each slot 89 extends for a predetermined distance along a circumferential path. The purpose of this is to hold the follower pins 19, and consequently the gathering segments 11, in their projectedpositions while a stapling or sealing operation is being performed, in a manner to be hereinafter described.

The actuator cam ring 84 contains on itslnner surface cams 98 and 99, the former being adapted to actuate the stapling head I00 and the latter the complementary anvil WI. The stapler head I00 is carried by lever I02 pivotally mounted at I03, the arm I04 terminating in a roller I05 constituting the follower for the cam 98. Similarly, the; anvil head is carried by a lever I08 pivotally'rotatable at I'0'I, the arm I08 of the lever terminating in a roller I09 constituting the followerfor the cam 99. The stapler head I00 contains therein the plunger I10 in engagement with the expandable toggle linkage HI; and connected to the said linkage at I12 is the plunger lever I13 the outer terminal I14 of which is engageable with the cam I15 affixed to the stationary framework of the machine.

Upon an operative rotation of cam ring 84, the saidcams 98 and 99 will cause the staple and anvil heads I00 and IM respectively to move inwardly, against the action of springs H0 and III. The plunger lever I13 is carried along by this movement until it is engaged by the cam I15, so that at the end of the movement of lever I02 there will be a shift in the relative positions of levers I02 and I13. The lever I13 will actuate the linkage HI and consequently the plunger I10 downwardly to produce a stapling operation inconventional manner. Figure 7 illustrates the completion of this stapling or sealing operation, the wire staple II2 being forced by the cooperative action of the stapling head I00 and anvil IOI to embrace the gathered-together portion of bag II3. Further details of the stapler are not herein described,v inasmuch as it can be of any conventional structure known to the art.

It will be observed, by referring to Figure 1, that below stapling head I00, diagrammatically represented by a rectangle, is another stapler I I4, both of the staplers flanking the gathering mechanism 16, one being thereabove and the other therebelow. The said stapler I I4 is operated precisely in the manner of stapler I00, preferably by cams similar to cams 98 and 99 and disposed directly therebelow. It is thus apparent that during the operative rotation of cam ring 84, both the upper and lower staplers are simultaneously brought into action, at spaced levels, so as to produce sealed closures H5 and IIS (see bottom of Figure 1). The upper sealing staple at II5 constitutes the bottom closure of the upper bag, and the lower staple at H8 constitutes the top closure of the lower bag.

A cutting device forseparating the upper and lower bags between closures operated by the actuator 'cam ring 84. At another portion of the inner'surface of said cam ring 84 is the cam II' I engageable with the roller N8 of the lever arm II9. This arm H9 is pivotally connected at I20 to sleeve I2I, the lower H5 and H8 is also terminal of which carries the bell crank I22; and the terminal portion I23 of the bell crank carries the rotatable circular knife I24. It is thus apparent that upon an operative engagement of cam II1 with follower H8, the sleeve I2I will be rotatably actuated to cause an arcuate movement of bell crank I22, thereby bringing the knife I24 into engagement with the region between closures II and I I6. In order to'eifect a rotary cutting movement of the knife, the cam ring 84 is provided with a segmental rack I 25 engageable with gear I26. This gear is aflixed to shaft I21 extending through the sleeve I21 and terminating in a pulley I 28. operatively connecting this pulley with pulley I29 is the belt I30, the pulley I29 being operatively connected with the shaft I 3| upon which the knife is mounted. Upon an operative engagement of the gear I26 with rack I25, the knife I24 will thus be rotatively actuated, during the period of such engagement, to effect the desired cutting action. The combined action of cam H1 and rack I25 on the cam ring, in proper timed relation, will hence produce a severance of two adjacent bags.

It is obviously important that the operative sealing of the bags by the stapling mechanism be performed at certain predetermined intervals, depending upon the amount of material to be packaged and the proportions of the bag. Inasmuch as the bag consists of knitted courses and wales, a definite and predetermined relationship can be established between the knitting mechanism and the actuating mechanism for the gatherer 16, the staplers I00 and I I4 and knife I24. A drive for the actuating mechanisms is hence taken off the bevel gear 28 which-controls the rotation of knitting cam ring I3 and which coacts with corresponding bevel gear 21 controlling the action of knitting cam ring I2. The shaft of one of these bevel gears, preferably shaft 30 of gear 28, contains a pin I32 adapted for engagement with the teeth or cogs I33 of the cog wheel I34. The said wheel I34 isconnected in conventional manner through a transmission arrangement to gear 81, said transmission including the gears I35 and I38. The number of cogs on wheel I34 and the ratio of the various gears should be made such as to conform with the particular case. It is obvious that the design should be such that the cam rings I2 and I3 will rotate many times before the gatherer, staplers and cutter will be actuated, inasmuch as each rotation of said cams about the knitting cylinder produces one course of knitting. Upon calculating the number of courses to produce a bag that will accommodate the desired contents and also provide room for a suitable closure, the total number of turns of cam rings I2 and I3 can be made to bear a predetermined relationship to the turns of the actuator cam ring 84 controlling the action of said gatherer, staplers and knife. Should it be desired at any time to alter the size of the bags, all that need be done is to substitute a suitable transmission mechanism between shaft 30 and lower cam ring 84, such transmission mechanism preferably containing the elements set forth in the drawings,

Mounted on'the shaft of gear 21 is the electrical timing mechanism I31 which is adapted to set into operation the said motor SI for operating the oscillating dispenser 35 and solenoid 15 for actuating the closure mechanism at the bottom of the hopper 32, as well as for operating any other necessary electrical device operatively associated with the apparatus. Figure 9 gives a diagrammatic illustration of this timing mechanism, which includes a rotatable drum I38 mounted on the shaft of gear 21, containing thereon a number of contacting elements I39, I40 and I. The drum also carries a metallic contactor ring I42. The various contacting elements are adapted for op'erative engagement with the brushes I43, I44, I45 and I46, respectively. These brushes are adapted to engage the corresponding contact elements to close the circuit through the various electrical devices forming part of this apparatus. For example, when brush I44 engages contact I40, the circuit through the solenoid 151s closed; when brush I43 engages contact I39, the circuit through the motor 8| is closed; and when brush I 45 engages contact I,

the circuit through motor I41, to be later referred to, is closed. The position of contacts I39 and their dimensional proportions can be varied to suit particular requirements, and the circuit can thus be closed at a predetermined time for any predetermined interval.- It is important to note that inasmuch as the electrical timing mechanism I31 is connected to gear 81, it is operatively associated with the knitting machine cam rings I2 and I 3, so that the devices actuated thereby can bear a predetermined relationship either to the knitting operations or the length of the bag formed by the machine.

In the operation of this apparatus, any given product can be fed into the conveyor tube 48 so that predetermined quantities thereof may be conducted to the hopper 32. For many types of material, the screw type of conveyor 50 will be suitable, such as for granular material or material consisting of relatively large sized pieces, such as fruits and vegetables. It is of course obvious that if the particular material to be packaged is not suitable for operative use with a screw type of conveyor system, as might be the case with mailing matter and other bulk material, a conventional hopper or other feed system may be employed as convenience might dictate.

In the screw type of conveyor illustrated, the material is moved through tube 48 towards the aperture 46 in registry with aperture 44 of the dispenser quently be discharged into compartment 36 of the dispenser 35. Inasmuch as the other aperture 41 of the conveyor tube-48 is covered by plate 62, none of the contents can be ejected at this point. However, one or more additional devices according to this invention can be operatively associated with other portions of the conveyor tube 48, so that a continuous operation of the conveyor system can be permitted without any interruption whatsoever.

It will be observed that compartment 31 is empty while compartment 38 is full. This is because the contents of compartment 31 have dropped through opening 41 into the hopper 52, such contents being shown at the lower closed outlet portion 33 of the hopper 32. The two knitting machines are constantly being operated and are continuously producing tubes of fabrics 22 and 23. At certain predetermined times, the solenoid core 14 will be actuated under the influence of the timing mechanism I31 above described, to cause an upward movement of the actuator H and an opening of the gates 66 and 61. The contents within the hopper 32 will then be discharged into the bottom of the bag, which has previously been sealed by the action of the gatherer 16 and staplers I00 and I I4. It should be observed that after the material had passed through the gates mechanism. The material will conseward pull.

knittedto provide-asingle-walled'bag, or in the 66 and 6'! and the circuit through the solenoid I5 opened, the gates will close under their own weight, to provide a closure for the hopper ready for the next operation.

In timed-relation with the above describedaction, the circuit through the motor 6| is similarlyactuated by the timing mechanism I31, to cause a slidable movement of the dispenser 35 to the right. This will bring compartment 36 above opening 42, to deposit the contents into thehopper 32 in the manner above set forth. The aperture 45 however will be in registry with the opening 41 of the conveyor system, so that the product tobe packaged will now be deposited through aperture 45 into compartment 31. In this manner the dispenser 35 is slidably oscillated to alternately receive and discharge the materials to be packaged.

It will be observed that the forming guide 54 is inwardly curved. This serves the function of event it is desired to apply a printedimpression to the outer-surface-of the double-layer bag above describedthe stamping mechanism of Figure 11 may be employed. The segment tsa contains an aperture I55 adapted to receive therethrough the stamp I51 pivotally movable from an inoperative to an operative'po'sition as shown. Linkage I58 operatively connectedto'the stamp is .associated with actuator rin'gcam 84 through the medium of member 159; With each revolution of cam 84, the member I59'will thus actuate the stampinto the operative position againstthe guiding the tubes 22 and 23 constituting the walls ofthe bag being formed, inwardly towards the center during the gathering operation, thereby aiding in forming the bottom portion of the bag in a neat and presentable manner.

After the gathering and stapling operation has been completed and the material deposited into the sealed bag, the weighted bag serves to provide the necessary downward pull upon the tubes of fabric being knitted by the machines. This eliminates other mechanical devices conventionally It is only after the weighted bag has served its function above described, that it is preferred to effect the severing operation betweenthe upper and lower bags. It is for this reason'that the knife I24 is disposed at a predetermined level below the gathering mechanism 16. After thelower bag is severed, it is only the contents of the upper bag I48 that serves to provide the down- In order to properly identify'the contents, a

1 system of labelling may be employed. Figure 8 shows one form thereof in which a magazine I49 containsa stack of labels I50 adapted to slide downwardly through an aperture I5I sufliciently wide to permit no more than one such label to move therepast. A motor I41, operatively conhencesuch that as the two tubes converge to-- gether at the lower cylinder, an identifying label is deposited therebetween at predetermined intervals. It is understood that this particular arrangement is adaptable for use with large and coarse stitching so as to permit any written sub- Ject matter on the labels to be readily visible.

In the event however only a single tube is outer wall 23 of .the bag being formed.

It is thus apparent that with the useof the system abovedescribed', various types and grades of'm aterial can be conveniently and continuously packaged and, if desired, identified, in bags formed of knitted materials containing no lateral seams whatsoever. This apparatus is adapted to knit'a double-walled bag as illustrated, a singlewalled bag, or a multiple-walled bag of any desired number of layers. Where two or more knitting machines are cooperatively employed to form a multiple-walled knitted tube in accordance with my invention,-not only is suchafabric of greater strength than a single-walled fabric, but it may be made with the outermost and innermost exposed surfaces of predetermined texture and designs. This is the'equivalent of a twofaced fabric hitherto unknown in the knitting industry. v

It is of course understood that other additional forms andmodiflcations of the apparatus and adaptations of the method constituting this invention can be employed beyond and in addition to those hereinbefore described, all within the scope of the appended claims.

What I claim is: I

1. In. a packaging apparatus, yarn feeding means, a hollow cylinder, means on the cylinder coacting with said feeding means for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed,

and dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the casin over the bottom closure thereof.

In a packaging apparatus, a circular series of knitting means adapted to fabricate a tubular casing, a hopper axially disposed with respect to the knitting means, the botttom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed, and dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the casing over the bottom closure thereof.

3. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing. athering means engageable circumferentially with a portion of the casing for drawing said portion together, sealing means engageable with the drawntogether portion of the casing for forming a closure at such portion, and dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be depositedwithin the casingover thesaid'clo sure thereof,

4. In a packaging apparatus, a circular s'eries casing upon the bottom closure thereof, and severing the casing at a portion thereof below the botof knitting means adapted to fabricate a'tubular casing, a' hopper axially disposedr'with respect to the knitting means, the bottom of thehopper being adapted to communicate with the interior "of the casing, spaced sealing means engageable between the'said .two adjacent portions for severing the cas g at said region. 7 a 5. In a'packaging apparatus, two, knitting machines each containing a circular series of knitting means adapted to fabricate a tubular casing, one of said machines being above the other andin axial alignment therewith whereby the casings formed thereby will be in adjacent concentric relation, a hopper axially disposed with respect to the said knitting means, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the inner casing, means engageable circumferentially with a portion of the outer casing for sealing thetwo concentric casings at said portion whereby a bottom closure will be formed, and dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be'packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the double-walled casing over the bottom closure thereof. V

6. In a knitting apparatus, a plurality of hollow cylinders, knitting elements operatively associated with each of said cylinders for fabricating-a tubular casing, the cylinders being in superposed relation and substantially in axial alignment whereby the casings formed will ,be in adjacent concentric relation, and means operatively associated with at least one of the cylinders for fastening together said concentric casings.

7. In a method of packaging, the steps of continuously knitting a tubular casing, and at predetermined times successivel'y sealing a portion of the knitted casing to form a bottom closure, depositing the material to be packaged into the casing upon the bottom closure thereof, and severing the casing at av portion thereof below the bottom closure.

8. In a method of packaging, the steps of continuously knitting a tubular casing, and at a predetermined time sealing two adjacent portions of the knitted casing whereby there are formed at the upper of said portions a bottom closure ,for the casing thereabove and at the lower of said portions a top closure for thecasing therebelow, depositing the material to be packaged into the casing upon the said bottom closure thereof, and severing the casing at the region between the top and bottom closures, whereby a sealed casing unit will be detached from the easing thereabove. V V

9. In a method of packaging, the steps of continuously knitting a tubular casing, and at a predetermined time embracing circumferentially a predetermined portion of the casing, drawing said portion together, sealing said drawn-together portion to form a bottom closure for the casing, depositing the material to be packaged into the tom closure. I

10; In method of packaging, t" e steps of continuously knitting a tubular casi g, and at predetermined,times successively sealing a portion of knitted casing toform a bottom closure, depositing the material to bepaokagedinto the casing upon/theb ottom closure thereof, holding the filled portion of t e casing suspended from the subsequently knitted portion thereof whereby the weight of-the material will operativel urge the entirecasing ,idownwardlm/sealing the casing above the filled portion thereof, and detaching the sealed anti filled portion of the casing from the portion thereabove.

ll. In a packagin p'paratus,a :hollow cylinder, knitting element operatively associated with the cylinder for fa icating a tubular-casing, a hopper centrally isposed within the. cylinder, feeding means ada tedto discharge into the hopper the material 1; be packaged, gathering means below the hopper engageable circumferentially with a portionof the casing for drawing said portion together, sealingmeans engageable with the drawn-together portion of the casing for forming a closure at such portion, andretractible closure means at the bottom of the hopper adapted to release the material therein for deposit within the sealed casing, said feeding means, gathering means, sealing means and retractible closure means being operatively associated with said knitting elements.

12. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for-fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associated with the cylinder,

a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder,

feeding means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged, sealing means below the hopper circumferentially engageable with a portion of the casing and adapted to form a bottom closure therefor, and retraotible closure means at the bottom of the hopper adapted to release the material therein for deposit within the sealed casing, said sealing and closure means being operatively connected to said cam ring and the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, ro-

tatable yarn feeding means, a substantially cylindrical hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, bearing means operatively associated with said yarn feeding means and the outer surface of the hopper, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to'seal the bottom of the casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed, and dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material'will be deposited within the casing over the bottom closure thereof.

'14. In a packaging apparatus, two hollow cylinders, knittingelements operatively associated with each of said cylinders for fabricating a tubular casing, the cylinders being in superposed relation' and substantially in axial alignmentwhereby the casings formed will be in adjacent concentric relation, a cam ring on eachof said cylinders for operating said knitting elements, transmission means connecting said cam rings whereby both rings will operate simultaneously, a hopper extending downwardly into said cylinders from a level above the upper cylinder to a predetermined level within the lower cylinder, the bottom of the hopper'being adapted to communicate with the interior'of the inner casing, means engageable circumferentially with a portion of the outer casing for sealing the concentric casings at said portion whereby a bottom closure will be formed, and dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the inner casing over thereof.

'15. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubularcasing, a cam ring operatively associated with the knit,- ting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed relation therewith, a hopper centrally "disposed within the cylinder, feeding means adapted to" discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged, sealing means below the hopper circumferentially engageable with a portion of the casing and adapted to form a bottom closure therefor, and retractible closure means at the bottom of the hopper adapted to release the material therein for deposit within the sealed casing, cam means on said actuator ring operatively connected to said sealing means, and electro-mechanical means operatively connecting said cam ring means.

the bottom closure with said closure nected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed relation therewith, a. hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, feeding means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged, gathering means engageable circumferentially with a por tion of the casing for drawing said portion together, two-wire staplers flanking said gathering means and each engageable with the casing in a region adjacent said gathering means and adapted to apply a wire staple thereabout, whereby the upper of said staplers will form a bottom closure fo'rthe casing thereabove and the lower of said staplers will form a top closure for the casing therebelow, and cam means on said actuator ring operatively connected to said staplers 16; In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associated with the knitting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed 'relation therewith, a hopper centrally disposed within the. cylinder, feeding means adapted to discharge intothe hopper the material to be packaged, sealing means below the hopper circumferentially engageable with a portion of the casing and adapted to form a bottom closure therefor, said sealing means containing wire to secure a wire fastener about the casing to fastening means adapted 7 form said closure, cam means'on said actuator 7 ring operatively connected to said fastening means, and retractible closure means at the bottom of the hopper adapted to release the material therein for deposit within the sealed casing.

1'7. In a packaging apparatus,a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associatedwith the knitting elements, .an. actuator ring cooperatively connected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed relation therewith, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, feeding means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged, gathering means engageable 'circumferentially with a portion of the. casing for drawing said portion together, wire stapling means operatively engageable with said drawn-together portion of the casing and adapted to apply a wire staple thereaboutlto form a bottom closure for thecasing, and means on said actuator ring for actuating said stapling and gathering means.

. 18. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinpackaged; retractible closure means at the botand said gathering means.

19. In a packaging apparatus. a. hollow cylinder, knitting'el'ements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associated means below the hopper .circumferentially. en-l gageable with a portion of the casingandadapted to form a bottom closure therefor, cutting means engageable with the sealed casing, below the bottom closure thereof, and cam-means on said actuator ring I ing means and cutting means.

20. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylin der, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associated with the knitting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed relation therewith, .a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, feeding means adapted to discharge into thehopper ther'naterial to be packaged, sealing means below the hopper circumferentially engageable with a portion of the casingand adapted to form a bottom closure therefor, feeding means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be tom of the hopper adapted to release the material therein for deposit within the sealed casing, cam means on said actuator ring cooperatively associated with said sealing and cutting means,

1 and electro-mechanical means operatively .con-

der, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular. casing, a cam ring operatively associated with the knitting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connecting said camring with said feeding means and said hopper closure means.

21. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cyl- 'indenthe bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottomof the .casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed,- dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the materialto be packaged whereby said material .will be deposited within the casing over the bottom closure thereof, and marking means engageable with a predetermined portion of the casing for forming an identifying mark thereon, said marking means being coactively associated and in predetermined timed relation with said knitting elements.

2 2. In a packaging apparatus, two hollow cylinders, knitting elements operatively associated with the knit-. ting elements, "anactuator ring cooperatively operatively connected to saiid seal with each of said cylinders for fabricating a tubular casing, the cylinders being in superposed relation and substantially in axial alignment whereby the casings formed will be in adjacent concentric relation, label dispensing means, and guide means communicating between said dispensing means and a region between the two casings at a predetermined point above their juncture, whereby,,a label from said dispensing means will be fed in between the two casings, said label dispensing means being operatively associated and in predetermnied timed relation with said knitting elements.

23. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing whereby a. bottom closure will be formed, dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the casing over the bottom closure thereof and urge by its weight the entire casing downwardly, and friction means in engagement with said casing opposing the action of the weight of the material whereby the tension in the casing will be reduced.

24. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a'tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed, dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the casing over the bottom closure thereof, and an annular forming guide member disposed within the casing below the hopper and above the sealing means and curved inwardly towards the axis of the cylinder, said guide member cooperating with the sealing means to provide a smooth bottom portion for the casing.

25. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed, dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the casing over the bot tom closure thereof, an annular forming guide member disposed within the casing below the hopper and above the sealing means and curved inwardly towards the axis of the cylinder, said guide member cooperating with the sealing means to provide a smooth bottom portion for the casing, and annular resilient means disposed about the outer surface of the casing and frictionally holding the casing against the said guide member. I

26. In a packaging apparatus, av hollow'cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing whereby a bottom closure will be formed, dispensing means adapted to discharge into the hopper the material to be packaged whereby said material will be deposited within the casing over the bottom closure thereof, an annular forming guide member disposed within the casing below the hopper and above the sealing means and curved inwardly towards the axis of the cylinder, said guide member cooperating with the sealing means to provide a smooth bottom portion for the casing, and marking means engageable with the outer surface of the casing and adapted to bring it into pressing engagement with said guide member for forming .an identifying mark thereon,, said marking means being coactively associated and in predetermined timed relation with said knitting elements.

27. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associated with the knitting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed relation therewith, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, feeding means adapted to discharge into the hop-' per the material to be packaged, gathering means engageablecircumferentially with a portion of the casing for drawing said portion together, fastening means engageable with said drawntogether portion of the casing for forming a closure thereat, said gathering means comprising a plurality of arcuate segments circumferentially disposed about said casing, means to move said segments radially inwardly towards the axis of the cylinder, and means to retract said segments outwardly.

28. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a cam ring operatively associated with the knitting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connected with said cam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined timed relation therewith, gathering means engageable circumferentially with a portion of the casing for drawing said portion together, fastening means engageable with said drawn-together portion of the casing for forming a closure thereat, said gathering means comprising a plurality of arcuate segments circumferentiaily. disposed about said casing, a rotatably mounted annular cam plate adjacent said segments and containing a plurality of cam slots corresponding in number to said segments, each of the segments being provided-with a follower in engagement with an adjacent one of said slots, means on said actuator cam adapted to rotatably actuate said cam plate from its normal position through a predetermined arc, the direction of said slots being such as to guide said followers and segments radially inwardly toward the axis of the cylinder; and means to return said cam plate to its normal position.

- 29. In a packaging apparatus, the combination according to. claim 28, each of said cam slots containing an innermost portion extending for a predetermined distance circumferentially with respect to the cylinder axis, whereby the seg-- ments will remain stationary while the followers thereof are in engagement with said innermost portions of the cam slots.

30. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, acam ring operatively associated with the knitting elements, an actuator ring cooperatively connected with saidcam ring and rotatably operable in predetermined time relation'therewith, gathering means engageable circumferentlally with a portion of the casing for drawing said portion together, fastening means engageable with said drawn-together portion of the casing for forming a closure thereat, feeding means communicating -with the interior of the sealed casing for depositing therein the material being packaged, cutting means engageable with the sealed casing below the said closure thereof, means on said actuator ring operatively engageable with said gathering, fastening and cutting means, said cutting means containing a rotatably mounted circular blade, a pivotally mounted arm supporting said actuator ring for rotatably actuating the blade and pivotally moving said arm towards the easins blade, and means on said 31. In a packaging apparatus, a hollow cylinder, knitting elements operatively associated with the cylinder for fabricating a tubular casing, a hopper centrally disposed within the cylinder, the bottom of the hopper being adapted to communicate with the interior of the casing, means to seal the bottom of the casing 'whereby a bottom closure will be formed, and feeding means communicating with the hopper and adapted to deposit therein the material to be packaged, said feeding means containing an oscillating dispenser having therein two compartments, said dispenser being movable alternately to two positions whereby each of said compartments is alternately in communication with said hopper,

reciprocating actuating means operatively connected with said dispenser and operable in predetermined timed relation with said knitting elements, and means to convey the material to the dispenser.

a ,I. LAWRENCE LESA VOY.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification66/1.00R, 53/563, 66/190, 53/452, 53/575, 141/313, 101/41, 53/172, 222/361, 66/9.00R, 53/576
International ClassificationB65B9/13, B65B9/10
Cooperative ClassificationB65B9/13
European ClassificationB65B9/13