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Publication numberUS2293786 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 25, 1942
Filing dateAug 4, 1940
Priority dateAug 4, 1940
Publication numberUS 2293786 A, US 2293786A, US-A-2293786, US2293786 A, US2293786A
InventorsWorden Ernest C
Original AssigneeBillings & Spencer Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wrench
US 2293786 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 25, 194-2. E. c. WORDEN WRENCH Filed Aug. 4, 1946 //v1//v TOR [777a fC/Voraen Patented Aug. 25, 1942 WRENCH Ernest C. Worden, East Nor-walk, Cnn., assignor to The Billings & Sp tion 01' Connecticut encer Company, a corpora- Application August 4, 1940, Serial No. 351,413

- 13 Claims.

My invention relates to wrenches.

It has among its objects to provide an proved wrench of the so-called torque type and including improved means .for automatically limiting the possible tightening efiect obtainable with the wrench. A further object of my invention is to provide such improved means utilizing fluid pressure and having improved controlling means therefor whereby when a predetermined torque is exceeded, the driving and driven elements of the wrench are automatically disconnected. Still further objects of my in vention are to provide improved mechanism for enabling a suitable liquid as, for example, oil, to be utilized to control the torque exerted by the wrench, and to provide improved oil chambers and improved cooperatingmeans controlling the flow therebetween whereby when during operation of the wrench a.predetermined pressure on the oil in one of said chambers is exceeded, communication is established between said chambers in such manner as to equalize the pressures therein and disconnect the driving and driven parts of the wrench. Other objects of my invention are to provide such an improved Wrench which is of compact form and adapted to be readily and inexpensively embodied ina motor operated wrench in such manner as to enable improved results to be obtained as compared with other wrenches now upon the market. These and other objects and advantages of my improved construction will, however, hereinafter more fully appear.

In the accompanying drawing, I have shown for purposes of illustration one form which my invention may assume in practice.

In this drawing: Figure 1 is a side elevation showing my improved wrench in use;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view of the torque controlling element;

Fig. 3 is a vertical section on line 33 of Figure 2;

Fig. 4 is a partial section similar to Figure 3 but showing the parts in another position;

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Figure 4 but showing still another position of the parts;

Fig. 6 is a transverse section on line 6-6 of Fi ure 3;

Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional view on line 1-1 of Figure 3, and

Fig. 8 is a perspective view member.

In this illustrative construction, I have shown my improved wrench as including a usual reversiof the piston ble, electric motor operated actuator mechanism I of a usual construction. and carrying an adapter 2 rotated thereby and operating to rotate my improved torque controlling element 3 which herein also rotates a turning member, or adapter,

4 acting upon a bolt head or nut, indicated at 5; the several elements cooperating in an improved manner and the element 3 being of'an improved construction, all as hereinafter more fully described.

Referring more particularly to the element '3,- note that the latter herein includes a liquid tight casing adapted to house a suitable fluid as, for

example, oil, and comprisingv cooperating members B and 1. Of these, the member 6 forms a cylinder 8 in which a piston 9 is movable, while the member I is a cover member suitably fixed to one end of the member 6 and connected thereto as by screws ID. This member I also is provided with an axial bore orpassage II there through in which the rod I2 of the piston 9 is longitudinally movable, while it will also be noted that the cover I is herein provided with oppositely extending flanges I3 surrounding the bore I I, and that the outer flange I3 carries a packing nut I4 for compressing a usual packing I5. Herein, the piston 9 also has flanges IIiv and ll of diilerent depth on itsopposite edges, the deeper flange I! being toward the cover I, while a coiled spring I8 acts upon the faceof the piston within I this flange and between this face and a spring abutment plate I 9 pressed against the inside face of the cover 1, the piston 9 normally being pressed by the spring I8 into the position shown in Figure 3.

Disposed within the casing and cooperating with the piston therein is improved oil flow controlling mechanism. As shown, longitudinal ports 20 are also provided on opposite sides of the axis of the piston 9, and eachof-these ports is suitably recessed, as shown at 2 I, to receive a ball 22 adapted to close the port 20 and to be moved away therefrom to permit the oil housed in the casing to pass between spaces 23 and 24 on opposite sides of the piston 9. Herein, the balls 22 are normally pressed into port closing position by suitable springs, illustrated as plate springs 25 suitably flxed at 26 to the piston 8 and disposed in that a valve 2'! extends axially through the piston rod I2 and is adapted to, seat on a conical valve seat 29 in the opposite face of the piston 9 and communicating with the space 23, while controlling the flow of liquid through an axially dis- 1 posed communicating chamber 30 and laterally move longitudinally in the cylinder toward the 49 and 39 pass out of contact with extending angularly disposed ports 3| opening into the space 24. Herein this valve 21 has a stem 32 which is suitably packed at 320. and extends coaxially in an axial recess 33 in the piston rod l2 wherein it is acted upon by a coiled spring 34 acting between an threaded on the end of the stem 32, and a suitable washer in the opposite end of the chamber 33. Herein, this nut 35 is held against rotation in the chamber 33 by a key Way 36, while a turning slot 32b is provided in the projecting end of the stem 32 to permit desired adjustment.

Operatively connected between the piston and easing are also improved means for effecting rotation of one from the other. Here the piston rod 12 is provided on its extremity with a turning portion or squared nut 31 projecting beyond the packing nut I4. Also, the casing member 6 is' provided with a corresponding coaxially disposed and oppositely extending turningportion or squared nut 38. It will also be observed that the piston 9 is provided with oppositely located and oppositely disposed angular cam members I 39 on its face in the chamber 23, these members 39 herein being equally spaced from the ports 22 and arranged relative thereto as shown in Figure 8. The member 6 is herein also provided with a pair of cooperating oppositely disposed cam members 40 raised from the bottom of the cylinder and disposed thereinso as to cooperate with the cams 39.

In the operation of the device, when the sloping faces of the cams 49 engage the sloping faces-of the cams 39 and the squared end 38 is rotated by the motor driven actuator I through the adapter 2, the other squared end 31 will'obviously be rotated therewith, the partsthen being in the relation shown in Figure 3 and the oil pressure in the space 24 acting to maintain these cam faces in engagement. When, however, a predetermined torque is exceeded, cams 39, 40 slip and pressure in the space 24 is built up sufflciently to cause oil to pass down through the ports 3| against the valve 21 and open the latter, permitting the oil to flow into the space 23 tending to equalize the pressure in the spaces As a result, the piston 9 is caused to cover 1, while the cams 39 and 40 are thus automatically moved toward. a nonengaging position as shown in Figure 4. When, however, the pressure equalizes, the valve 21 will close automatically, this occurring substantially as the cams one another this last occurs, the spring angularly. When 3 then also acts automatically to press the piston 9 away from the cover 1 and this movement of the piston automatically opens the ball valves 22 as shown in Figure 5, so that oil also flows through the ports 29 to bring the parts back into the position shown in Figure 3. Thus, the element 3 acts automatically through its cams and associated'hydraulic mechanism, to disconnect the motor operated actuator mechanism I from the adapter 4 whenever a predetermined torque is exceeded, i. e. whenever the valve 21 moves off its seat against the tension of its spring, in such manner that all nuts set by the wrench will be set with the-same torque. Here, of course, it will also be evident that the setting may be adjusted as desired by suitably increasing or decreasing the tension of the spring 34 through an adjustment of the stem 32 relative to the nut 35.

As a result of my improvedconstruction, it is adjustable nut 35' made possible to utilize only a single piston element in such manner as markedly to simplify the structure and reduce the expense thereof while minimizing the amount of alignment necessary and the objectionable efiects of end play of the piston which, in a multi-piston construction, would change the volume of the chambers. Further, in my improved construction, the spring l8 automatically and quickly resets the device so that it is always ready for use following disconnection of the drive. It will also be observed that in my improved construction the automatic release is obtainable in only one direction of operation of the device while the latter provides a positive, drive in the opposite direction, the ends of the cams being adapted to abut to provide such apositive drive. Thus, by merely reversing the power driven actuator, it is made possible to enable the wrench to be used under'diverse conditions markedly extending its field of possible usefulness. Attention is also directed to the fact that the unit 3 may be turned end for and 'without reversing operation and to the further fact that, if desired, it may also be rotated by hand, or by a flexible power connection rather than the actuator I. These and other advantages of my improved construction will, however, be clearly apparent to those skilled in the art.

While I have herein specifically described one embodiment which my invention may assume in practice, it will be understood that this form of the same has been shown for purposes of illustration, and that the invention may be modified and embodied in other parting from vits spirit or appended claims.

What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed driving and driven turning elements, a fluid tight casing carrying the same and having said elements at opposite ends of said casing and one of said elements fixed to said casing and the other rotatable therein, and operative driving connections between said elements including a piston dividing said casing into two compartments and fluid pressure controlled valve means on said piston for controlling the flow of fluid between said compartments and releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined torque is exceeded.

2. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches including a fluid containing casing comprising cooperating casing members, one including a cylinder open at one end, and the other forming a closure for the open end of said cylinthe scope of the der, oppositely directed turning elements carried by said casing, one carried on the exterior of one casing member and the other turning element rotatably mounted in the other casing member and having a piston in said casing dividing said casing into two compartments, valve means on said piston controlling the flow of fluid between said compartments, spring means acting on one side of said piston, and cooperating detent means carried on the opposite side of said piston and on the wall of said casing confronting said opposite side of said piston.

3. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a fluid containing casing carrying said elements comprising cooperating casing members, one including a cylinder and having one of said forms without deturning elements on the exterior thereof, and the other closing said cylinder and having the other turning element rotatably mountedtherein, said last mentioned turning element carrying a piston in said cylinder dividing said casing into two compartments, valve means on said piston controlling the flow of fluid between said compartments, spring means acting on one side of said piston, and cooperating lug means between the opposite side of said piston and one of said casing members, said lug means having cooperating sloping engaging surfaces engageable in one relation of the parts to transmit power from one turning member to the other.

4. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a fluid containing casing carrying said elements comprising cooperating casing members, one including a cylinder and having one, of said turning elements on the exterior thereof, and the other closing said cylinder and having the other turning element rotatably mounted therein, said last mentioned turning element carrying a piston in said cylinder dividing said easing into two compartments, valve means on said piston controlling the flow of fluid between said compartments, spring means acting on one side of said piston, and cooperating lug means between the opposite side of said piston and one of said casing members, said lug means having cooperating sloping engaging surfaces engageable in one relation of the parts to transmit power from one turning member to the other and cooperating shoulders engageable in another relation of the parts to effect a positive drive upon reverse rotation of one of said turning elements.

5. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a casing carrying the same having one of said elements fixed thereto and the other rotatable therein, and operative driving connections between said elements including fluid pressure controlled means in said casing releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined torque is exceeded and having a piston and cylinder carried by different turning members and cooperating driving cams in said cylinder, one of which is on said piston.

6. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a casing carrying the same having one of said elements fixed thereto and the other rotatable therein, operative driving connections between said elements including fluid pressure controlled means in said casing releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined torque is exceeded and having a piston and cylinder carried by different turning members, spring means in said casing biasing said piston' to one end of said cylinder, and cooperating driving cams on said piston and. on said end of said cylinder having sloping surfaces normally pressed into engagement by said spring means.

'7. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a casing carrying the same having one of said elements fixed thereto and the other rotatable therein, and operative driving connections between said elements including fluid pressure controlled means in said casing releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined torque is exceeded, and having a piston carried by one turning element and movable in a cylinder carried by the other, and pressure controlling valve mechanism carried by said piston and operative to equalize the pressures on opposite sides of said piston when a predetermined torque is exceeded.

8. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a casing carrying the same having one of said elements fixed thereto and the other rotatable therein, and operative driving connections between saidelements including fluid pressure controlled means in said casing releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined torque is exceeded, and having a piston carried by one turning element and movable in a cylinder carried by the other, and pressure controlling valve mechanism carried by said piston and operative to equalize the pressures on opposite sides of said piston when a predetermined torque is exceeded, and including an axially located spring pressed valve controlling the communication between-opposite sides of the-piston and having adjusting means adjustable from the projecting end of the piston rod. I

9. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a casing carrying the same having one of said elements fixed thereto and the other rotatable therein, operative driving connections between said elements including fluid pressure controlled means in said casing releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined torque is exceeded and having a piston carried by one turning element and movable in a cylinder carried by the other, and pressure con-' trolling valve mechanism carried by said piston and operative to equalize the pressures on opposite sides of said piston when a predetermined torque is exceeded, said valve means including an axially located'spring pressed valve controlling the communication between opposite sides of the piston and having adjusting means adjustable from the projecting end of-the piston rod, and cooperating spring pressed valves carried on the body of the piston and also controlling the communication between the opposite sides thereof.

10. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a casing carrying the same having one of said elements fixed thereto and the other rotatable therein, operative driving connections between said elements including fluid pressure controlled means in said casing releasing the driven element from the driving element when a predetermined-torque is exceeded and having a piston carried by one turning ,element and movable in a cylinder carried by the other, pressure controlling valve mechanism carried by said piston and operative to equalize the pressures on opposite sides of said piston when a predetermined torque is exceeded, said valve means including an axially located spring pressed valve controlling the communication between opposite sides of the piston and having adjusting means adjustable from the projecting end of the piston rod, co-

operating spring pressed valves carried on; the body of the piston and also controlling the communication between the opposite sides thereof, and spring means normally urging said piston to one end of said cylinder. v

11. A torque controlling driving device for wrenches including a fluid containing casing comprising cooperating casing members, one including a, cylinder open at one end and the other closing the open end of said cylinder, oppositely directed turning elements carried by said casing,

one on the exterior of one casing member and the other turning element rotatably mounted in the other casing member and having a piston in said cylinder dividing said cylinder into fluid containing compartments, spring means acting on one side of said piston, cooperating lug means between the opposite sides of said piston and one of said casing members, and port and valve other casing member and having a piston in said cylinder dividing said cylinder into fluid containing compartments, spring means acting on one side of said piston, cooperating lug means between the opposite sides of said piston and one of said casing members, and port and valve means carried by said piston controlling the pressure flow oi fluid between opposite sides of the latter,

including oppositely movable valves carried by said piston.

13. A torque controlling driving device for 'wrenches having oppositely directed turning elements, a fluid containing casing carrying said elements comprising cooperating casing members, one including a cylinder having one of said turning elements on the exterior thereof, and the other closing said cylinder and having the other turning element rotatably mounted therein, said 'last mentioned turning element carrying a piston in said cylinder dividing said cylinder into fluid containing compartments, spring means acting on one. side of said piston, cooperating lug means between the opposite sides of said piston and one of said casing members, and port and valve means carried by said piston controlling the pressure flow of fluid between opposite sides of the latter including oppositely movable valves carried by said piston and one being axially disposed and having adjusting means adjustable from the end oi the piston rod and the other comprising spring pressed ball valves carried by the body of the piston.

ERNEST C. WORDEN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2430691 *Jun 27, 1944Nov 11, 1947Jeffrey Mfg CoOverload release clutch
US2436947 *Feb 2, 1945Mar 2, 1948Elox SocOverload release clutch
US2461447 *Jun 30, 1943Feb 8, 1949Siesel Josephine MYielding drive
US2513460 *Mar 26, 1945Jul 4, 1950Goodrich Co B FFriction and positive clutch for tool drivers
US2536225 *May 18, 1946Jan 2, 1951Rice Frank TLimit torque gauge
US2565579 *Jun 7, 1946Aug 28, 1951Thorner Robert HAutomatically releasing coupling for the transmission of torque
US2642778 *May 9, 1945Jun 23, 1953Campbell Ernest FFuze setting apparatus
US2684141 *Nov 4, 1950Jul 20, 1954Owens Illionis Glass CompanyHydraulic coupling
US2842240 *May 6, 1952Jul 8, 1958Adele M StevensAir and magnetic releasable torque transmitting apparatus
US2857793 *Jun 1, 1956Oct 28, 1958RenaultTorque-limiting tool holder for machine tools
US2973676 *Jul 31, 1958Mar 7, 1961Nelson Gorman RSliding piston-type fluid motor-operated nut running tool
US3116617 *Dec 12, 1961Jan 7, 1964Ingersoll Rand CoFluid impulse torque tool
US3596647 *Feb 3, 1969Aug 3, 1971Heisler Clarence JElectric starter mechanism for small gasoline engines
US4535540 *Mar 14, 1983Aug 20, 1985Morgan Michael J"Hole-in-one" metal punch drive unit
US4635731 *Dec 13, 1984Jan 13, 1987Chicago Pneumatic Tool CompanyImpulse tool
US6308786Dec 15, 2000Oct 30, 2001Philip N. BestgenPneumatic powered winch actuating device
US7354230Dec 7, 2004Apr 8, 2008Lynn BaumanBit holding apparatus for use with a power tool
US8132990Feb 27, 2008Mar 13, 2012Lynn Everett BaumanBit holding apparatus for use with a power tool
Classifications
U.S. Classification464/25, 192/46, 279/144, 123/179.26, 81/57.42, 464/39, 464/26, 81/475
International ClassificationB25B23/14
Cooperative ClassificationB25B23/14
European ClassificationB25B23/14