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Publication numberUS2295118 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 8, 1942
Filing dateApr 18, 1940
Priority dateMar 7, 1939
Publication numberUS 2295118 A, US 2295118A, US-A-2295118, US2295118 A, US2295118A
InventorsClair Camille Clare Sprankl Le
Original AssigneeTecalemit Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrical indicating apparatus
US 2295118 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

p 1942- c. c. 5. LE CLAIR 2,295,118-

ELECTRICAL 'INDICATING APPARATUS n Filed April 18, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet l Fig.1.

. Q Index/Z722" Qmz'lle Czdz'ejknmiizgle'la'r v g y- Sept. 8, 1942. i c. c s. LE CLAIR I 2,295,118

- ELECTRICAL INDICATING APPARATUS v Filed April 1 8, 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Iii/denim:

' Ckm zlZe (Zara? rzzaklzg lefzg Patented Sept. 8 1942 UNITED STATES PATENT- OFFICE Camille oral-e Sprankling Le Clair, Ealing, London, England, assignor to Tecalemit Limited, Brentford,Middlesex, England Application April 18, 1940, Serial No. 330,368

In Great Britain March 7, 1939 This invention relates generally to electrical apparatus responsive to a succession of electrical impulses and has amongst its objects the provisionof improved methods of and apparatus for indicating the frequency with which such impulses recur.

One object of the invention is to provide im-;

proved electrical apparatus for indicating the speed of movement of a moving member which is'adapted to cause the emission of a series of electrical impulses at a frequency proportional to the speed of its movement.

A further objectof the invention is to provide electrical apparatus for indicating the frequency of movement of a member, com rising in combination twoparallel circuits adapted to be connected to a source of electric current, means for closing said circuits simultaneously to cause electrical impulses to be generated in both said circuits simultaneously, said means being operated periodically by said member, a heater element in one of said circuits, a constant period electrical relay included in the other circuit, and energized immediately the contact maker is closed,

said relay having normally closed contacts included in the other circuit and adapted to be opened after a constant time lag to breakthe circuit through the heater element, and an indicating device associated with the heater element and including indicating means, the degree of movement of which is dependent upon the rate of supply 'of the said electrical impulses and, therefore, upon the frequency to be indicated.

A more specific object of the invention is to provide such electrical apparatus for indicating the rate of flow of liquid through a liquid meter. p r

In accordance with one feature of the invention, a thermocouple may be utilised and arranged to be heated by the electrical impulses whereby an electro-motive force is generated. The magnitude'of this electro-motive force is dependent on the temperature to which the thermocouple is heated and, therefore, on the rate at which heat energy is supplied. The

greater the number of impulses in a given time,

and consequently the greater the rate of supply of energy, the higher will be the equilibrium temperature of the thermocouple, this being the temperature at which the energy supplied is balanced by the losses by radiation, conduction and by re-conversion into electrical energy. Thus, the potential generated by the thermocouple can be used as a measure of the frequency of the 12 Claims. (01. its-scar with its heater are so arranged that, although the impulses may arrive at relatively long intervals, the electromotive force generated does not fluctuate appreciably. The indications of the thermocouple may be further steadied by the use of inherent damping in the instrument and the inertia of the parts of the latter.

" supply or energy to the thermocouple will only be proportional to the frequency of the recur- It should be noted, however, that the rate of rence of the impulses, provided that the energy of each of the impulses is always the same.

In the ordinary way this maynot alwaysbe so. Thus, in the case where a rotating member is caused to close a contact at each revolution, for

example by means of a cam, the length, and H consequently the electrical energy, of each impulse will be approximately inversely proportional' to the speed of rotati'onof the member.

It is, accordingly, a further object of the invention to provide means for ensuring that the electrical impulses all have a substantially constant energy irrespective of their frequency.

Further objects of the invention will appear in the'course of the following description.

One constructional form of the present invention, applied to apparatus for indicating the speed of rotation of the rotor of 'a'liquid meter which operates in accordance with the rate of flow of the liquid through the meter, is shown on the accompanying drawings, whereon:

Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus;

Figure 2- shows a modified indicating device applicable to a construction employing a heate element, such as that of Figure 1.

Referring first to Figure 1: In this arrangement use is made of a contact maker I having a fixed contact 2, a movable contact 3 carried by a resilient arm 4 and a cam 5 One of these circuits includes the winding of a relay 1, while the other includes the normally closed contacts 8 of 'this relay and the heating element 9 associated with a thermocouple Ill which in this construction is arranged in an evacuated enclosure. The heating circuit also includes a variable resistance II.

It is important that the voltage of the current source should remain accurately constant, while it is desirable that the current through the heater of the thermocouple should be accurately adjustable. This can be arranged conveniently if the potential is tapped off a potentiometer l2 connected in series with a battery or other electrical supply source 6 and with a barretter l3. A switch [4 is preferably included in the circuit to prevent wastage of current when the apparatus is not in use.

The relay 1 is so constructed as to have a relatively high speed of operation. In other words, the time lag between the moment when the relay is energised and when it opens its contacts 8 is small as compared with the time for which the contacts 2 and 3 of the contact maker remain closed, even at the highest operating speed of the member driving the cam 5. Moreover, this lag is arranged to be accurately constant for any given voltage applied to the relay winding.

When the device is in operation, the cam 5 rotates and closes the contact maker l which completes the two aforesaid parallel circuits, one through the normally closed contacts 8 of the relay 1 and through the heater 9 of the thermocouple, and the other through the winding of the relay 1. gisation of this winding causes the relay to operate to open its contacts 8 and break the circuit throughthe heater of the thermocouple, this occurring before further rotation of the cam 5 has allowed the contact maker lto open,

Thus, it will be seen that the duration of the electrical impulse supplied to the heater is quite independent of the speed of rotation of the cam and depends only on the constants of the relayand the potential applied across its winding. In practice, therefore, the energy supplied to the heater at each impulse is constant.

A sensitive milli-voltmeter IDA. is connected to the thermocouple to measure the potential generated by the latter, which potential is dependent on the frequency of the impulses, and consequently on the speed of rotation of the liquid flow meter. If desired, the voltmeter may be calibrated to give a direct reading of the rate of flow of the liquid either alone or in combination with the voltage indications.

It will be apparent. however, that in place of a visual indicator, such as a voltmeter, any other electrical or electro-mecha-nical device or apparatus which is responsive to the potential generated by the thermocouple may be connected to the latter and will then be responsive to the speed of rotation of the liquid meter and to changes in the rate of liquid flow.

If desired, the apparatus may also include an electro-magnetic counter or integrator I5, the circuit of the operating winding l6 of which may be taken from one end of the potentiometer through the contacts 2 and 3 of the contact maker I and back to the potentiometer. The counter may be of any suitable type.

The above construction is not limited to the used of a cam-operated contact maker, but any other suitable means may be used to provide what After a short inherent time lag the enerthe liquid if the apparatus is applied to a liquid.

to convey heat ,to the bulb of a sensitive thermometer, which may beof the mercury, alcohol or other type, and which could be calibrated to give a direct reading of the frequency of movement of the member (or of the rate of flow of flow meter) either alone or in combination with temperature indications.

In the modified indicating device shown in Figure 2, use is made of a potentiometer indicated generally by the numeral 26, the potentiometer or bridge circuit including a source 01' electric supply 21, resistances, R R, R and R and a sensitive galvanometer I0 The resistance R is electrically insulated from, but is adapted to be heated by the heater 9. The variation of the resistance R is thus dependent upon the heat imparted to it by theheater 9 and, there? fore, upon the frequency of the electrical impulses applied to the heater, the speed of rotation of the cam 5 and the rate of flow of the liquid through the meter. Variation of the heating of the resistance R will thus result in the variation of the reading of the galvanometer Ill.

The constructional forms of the invention described above are all applied to liquid flow meters. It is to be clearly understood, however, that the invention is adapted to be used to indicate the frequency of movement of any moving element whether rotating, reciprocating or oscillating. A

I claim:

1. Electrical apparatus for indicating the irequency of movement of a member, comprising in combination two parallel circuits adapted to be connected to a sounce of electric current, means for closing said circuits simultaneously to cause electrioal'impulses to be generated in both said circuits simultaneously, said means being operated periodically by said member, a heater element in one of said circuits, a constant period electrical relay included in the other circuit and energized immediately the contact maker is closed, said relay having normally closed contacts included in the other circuit and adapted to be opened after a constant time lag to break the circuit through the heater element, and an indicating device associated with the heater element and including indicating means, the degree of movement of which is dependent upon the rate of supply of the said electrical impulses and, therefore, upon the frequency to be indicated.

2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the said indicating device consists of a galvanometer adapted to be operated by the electromotive force generated by a thermocouple which is heated by said heater element.

3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said indicating device consists of a thermometer adapted to be heated by said heater element.

- 4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said indicating device consists of a galvanometer in a potentiometer circuit, which also coming both said circuits simultaneously to a source of electric current, so as to produce electrical impulses in said circuits, the movable contact of the contact maker being operated intermittently by said member, and a constant period electrical relay included in one of said circuits and energized immediately the contact maker is closed, said relay having normally closed contacts which are included in the other parallel circuit, .in which latter is also included means responsive to a predetermined quantity of electrical energy caused to act in said means each time an electrical impulse is created when th -relay is energized, and said contacts being opened after a constant time lag independent of the time during which the said contact maker is closed.

circuit also including a heater element associated with a resistance of a potentiometer circuit, which latter also comprises a battery or equivalent and a sensitive voltmeter for indicating the potential difference due to the heating 01' said resistance, the temperature to which the latter is raised being dependent upon the rate at which the electrical impulses are supplied to said heater V element.

generated by the thermocouple consists of a volt- 6. Electrical apparatus for indicating the fre- A quency of movement of a member, comprising two parallel circuits, a contact maker for connecting both said circuits simultaneously to a source of electric current so as to produce elec-, trical impulses in said circuits, the movable contact of the contact maker being operated intermittently by said member, and a constant period electrical relay included in one of said circuits and energized immediately the contact maker is closed, said relayhaving normally closed contacts which afe included in the other parallel cincuit, and are opened after a constant time lag independent of the time during which the said contact maker is closed, said other parallel circuit also including a heater element associated with a thermo-couple, means being connected to the latter which is responsive to the electromoe tive iorce generated by the thermo-coupleand which is adapted to indicate the rateat which heat energy is supplied and therefore the frequency to be indicated.

7. Electrical apparatus for indicating the ire and energized immediately the contact maker is closed, said relay having normally closed contactswhich are included in the other parallel circuit, and are opened after a constant time lag independent or the time during which the said contact maker is closed, said other parallel quency of movement of a member, comprising meter calibrated to give a direct reading of the frequency of movement of said member.

9.-Apparatus as claimed in claim 6, wherein means are provided whereby the voltage of the source of electric current shall remain substantially constant. i

10. Electrical apparatus for indicating the frequency of movement of a member, comprising an electric circuit, a constant period relay in said circuit, said relay comprising normally closed contacts adapted to be opened after a constant timelag from theenergization of the relay, 9. second circuit in parallel'with the first mentioned circuit and including said normally-closed contacts, switch meansactuated periodically by said member and adapted to connect and disconnect both said circuits simultaneously to and from a source of electric current, said relay being energized immediately said switch means is operated to connect said circuits to said source, electrical impulses being/produced in both said circuits simultaneously, means which are included in said circuit including said normally-closed contacts and are responsive to the predetermined quantities of electrical energy produced in said circuit by said electrical impulses, and an indicating device including indicating means for indicating the rate or supply of said quantities of energy and, therefore, the ireq-uencyor movement of said member.

11. Electrical apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein said means responsive to the predetermined qnantitiespf electrical energy consists of a heater element associated with a themecouple, and wherein said indicating device consists of a galvanometer responsive to the electromotive 'force generated by said thermo-couple.

-12. Electrical apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein said means responsive to said predeterm ned quantities of electrical energy consists of a heater element, and wherein said indicating device consists of a galvanometer in a potentiometer circuit, which also includes a source of electric current, and a resistance associated with, and adapted to be heated by, said heater element.

CAMILLE CLARE SPRANKLING LE 0mm.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2476025 *Jun 9, 1945Jul 12, 1949Gen ElectricPrecision frequency meter
US2892526 *Jan 14, 1954Jun 30, 1959Raytheon Mfg CoApparatus for control of machine operations
US3172497 *Jan 21, 1963Mar 9, 1965Stoner Jr Thomas AElectrical control and indicating system for motor vehicles
US3346810 *Mar 16, 1964Oct 10, 1967Ferro Mfg CorpSpeedometer unit including an electroosmotic pump actuated indicator
US3396333 *Apr 13, 1965Aug 6, 1968Smith & Sons Ltd SOdometer system for vehicles employing a frequency divider
US3437926 *Apr 18, 1966Apr 8, 1969Comstock & WescottPulse responsive electrical meter circuit including means for producing pulses of predetermined current value
US3477022 *May 16, 1967Nov 4, 1969Gen Motors CorpElectronic speedometer and odometer control circuit
US3480207 *Jun 15, 1966Nov 25, 1969Strohmaier KarlCentrifuge with efficiency measuring device
US4488440 *Mar 7, 1983Dec 18, 1984International Telephone & Telegraph CorporationMicropower circuit
Classifications
U.S. Classification324/171, 324/76.39, 340/670, 192/84.1, 324/106, 340/870.18, 377/21
International ClassificationG01F15/06, G01P3/48
Cooperative ClassificationG01F15/06, G01P3/48
European ClassificationG01F15/06, G01P3/48