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Publication numberUS2299694 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 20, 1942
Filing dateMar 9, 1940
Priority dateMar 9, 1940
Also published asDE752834C
Publication numberUS 2299694 A, US 2299694A, US-A-2299694, US2299694 A, US2299694A
InventorsGreen Barrett K
Original AssigneeNcr Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Manifolding material
US 2299694 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Ot' 20; 1942- B. K. GREEN 2,299,694

` MANIFOLDING MATERIAL Filed March 9, 1940 /'//M//////W j/ Bax-revu K. Gren Inventor His Attorney Patented Oct. 20, 1942 2,299,694` mNnoLnmG Marsans Barrett K. Green, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to The National Cash Register Company, Dayton. Ohio, a corporation of Maryland Application March 9, 1940, Serial No. 323,155

(Cl. G-236) 19 Claims.

This inventionrelates to manifold paper and more particularly to manifold paper that is proof against smudging.

Most manifold paper now in use has a coating consisting of a waxy solid, containing coloring matter, which is transferred to the surface'of an underlying sheet by impact or pressure. The coating is easily rubbed on on the fingers or onto an underlying sheet by ordinary handling, causing the nnger's or the underlying sheet to be smudged. The underlying sheet, after having the colored coating transferred to its surface, is subject to smudging, if rubbed, and in addition is subject to erasure, because the solid transferred material does not enter into the fibre of the paper but merely adheres to the surface.

It is the principal -object of this invention to provide a smudge-proof manifold sheet.

A further object of the invention is to provide a manifold sheet having a coating of uid transfermaterial which is releasable therefrom, by impact or pressure, so as to be transferred to and to penetrate the underlying sheet.

A further object of the invention is to provide a manifold sheet having a coating that is normally dry on its surface and smudge-proof in ordinary manipulations.

Another object of the invention is to provide a manifold sheet having a solid coating containing fluid inclusionsof coloring matter. Y

Another object of the invention is to provide a manifold paper having a color-producing transfer coating, thevexposed surface of which is free of coloring matter. f

With these and incidental objects in view, the invention includes certain novel features, the essential elements of which are set forth in appended claims and a preferred form or embodiment of which is hereinafter described with reference to the drawing which accompanies and forms a part of this specification. The drawing represents a cross-section of manifold sheet made in accordance with this disclosure, showing, in diagrammatic and enlarged form, the fluid inclusions in the coating.

Gianna/ir. Dzscair'noN unaided eye. 'Ihe fluid in cells I! is either an ink, stain, or other coloring matter, or has suspended or dissolved therein ink, pigment. stain, or other coloring matter, or contains coloring matter in an emulsion. p Upon impact or pressure against the manifold sheet by a printing member or a writing member, the solid coating is lo- 9 cally ruptured through to its surface so that the fluid inclusions will be released at the place fof impact, to be locally absorbed by the underlying transfer sheet according to the contours of the type face of the printing member or according to the contours traced by the writing member. Because the fluid-containing cells 22, 'whose contents are so transferred, are individually small enough to be invisible to the unaided eye, they are supplied in the solid in proiuse quantities so as to cause the transfer thereof to appear as a continuous visible maris, in a mosaic manner. This transferred substance, being fluid, acts as fluid ink acts, penetrating the fibres of the underlying sheet and drying thereon by absorption. For this reason, erasures cannot be made on the underlying sheet without seriously eroding its fibres, and the drying of the fluid leaves the underlying sheet smudge-prooi'.

In making the coating, the ultimate continuous and solid phase of the coating is dissolved in a drying liquid to form a solution into which the ultimate fluid discontinuous inclusions of the coatings are emulsifled. The emulsion is then coated on the manifold sheet and the drying liquid, evaporating, leaves the solid coating with fluid discrete inclusions dispersed profusely therethrough. In selecting the ingredients of the l coating, the solid phaselmust be impervious to the fluid inclusions, chemically inactive with them, easily rupturable by ordinary printing and writing pressures, and subject to having introduced therein plasticizers and hygroscopic control substances to meet special conditions of use and special weather conditions. The dispersed iluid'lnclusions phase must not be affected chemically by or absorbed by the solid phase.

The invention is best embodied by the use of finely divided carbon black suspended in a fluid for the fluid inclusion phase, which is then emulsifled in a temporarily fluid continuous phase comprising semi-,solid materials dissolved in a drying liquid. The senil-solid materials of the continuous phase are selected for their properties of being colorless, pliable under pressures ot ordinaryy manipulation, but brittle under rapidly applied pressures and rupturable -by heavy pressures as encountered in the printing arts. The drying liquid is selected so that, after being applied to the paper, it dries quickly, leaving the solid phase with the iluid inclusions dispersed therein. The following formula is given for the proportions by weight of the continuous and dispersed phases of such an emulsion:

Solid coating or continuous phase 75% bil weight 'Ihe dispersed phase of the emulsion may be made as ne as desired, a particle size of ..1 millimeter being sufilciently small to cause a continuous appearance to the unaided eye in the transf er providing the inclusions are supplied in profuse quantities so as to cause them to be about the same distance apart as their diameter. Ordinary emulsifying procedure may be used.

After the application of the above-mentioned emulsion to the manifold sheet, the toluene evaporates, the then solid gum dammar acting to isolate the dispersed iluid inclusions from one another and protecting them from the evaporating and drying effect of the air.

With the proportions given, the impact of the ordinary stroke of a printing member or the pressure of c. writing member is suillcient to cause a rupture of the coating, yet the coating is smudge-proof against ordinary handling.

Because the carbon black is nely divided, it is carried by the suspending uid of the dispersed phase, as the coating is ruptured, into the nbre of the underlying sheet, as is the pigment in ordinary ink, making the transferred coloring matter on the underlying sheet smudge-proof and resistant to erasure.

Dyes may be used in place of such pigments as the above-described carbon black. vFor an example of a dye coloring matter the following formula is given for the dispersed phase of the emulsion coating in place of that given for the carbon black type of coating:

Dispefsed phase 25% Per cent Glycerine 97 Malachite green 3 for it is susceptible of embodiment in various forms all coming within the scope of the claims which follow.

What is claimed is:

1. A manifold sheet comprising a base sheet and a coating on the base sheet having discrete uid inclusions of coloring matter profusely `dispersed therein.


bearing discrete fluid inclusions profusely dispersed therein.

3. A manifolding sheet covered profusely with minute, rupturable, liquid-containing cells, the

liquid released fromsaid cells by rupture being able to visibly affect a second sheet if in contact therewith.

4. In combination, a sheet of paper, and a plastic coatingvon said sheet, said plastic coating containing discrete inclusions of carbon black suspended in a liquid.

5. A manifolding sheet for transferring printing materials to another sheet by impact, comprising aprofuse number of liquid staining discrete inclusions imbedded in a rupturable coating on the manifolding sheet.

6. A'non-smudging manifolding sheet having a coating consisting of a profuse number of minute discrete inclusions of liquid printing ink in a locally rupturable plastic solid medium.

a solution of gum dammar and toluene as a con.

tinuous phase, and carbon black suspended in a glycerol solution as a discontinuous phase.

9. In combination, an impression sheet; a

transfer sheet; and, on said transfer sheet, an intervening lm of solid substance having dispersed therein discrete liquid inclusions of coloring matter, said liquid in said inclusions being transferable to the impression sheet upon rupture of the solid substance in conformance with any impression made on the transfer sheet.

l0. An emulsion for coating paper having a continuous phase which is a solution of Per cent by weight Toluene Gum dammar 5.0

taken three parts, and the discontinuous phase of which is 4- j Per cent by weight Glycerine--- 80 Polyethylene glycol 14 Carbon black, or other pigment 6 taken one part, and emulsliled so that the dis- 50 continuous phase is of a particle size invisible to the unaided eye.

l1. An emulsion for coating paper having a continuous phase which is a solution of Per cent by weight Toluene 50 Gum dammar 50 taken three parts, and the discontinuous phase -0i" which is Per cent by weight 6o Glycerine 97 d Malachite green 3 taken one part.

12. An emulsion for coating paper having a continuous phase which is a solution of A Per cent by weight Toluene 50 Gum dammar 50 2. A manifold sheetv comprising a base sheet and a coating on the base sheet having pigmenttaken one part.

taken three parts, and the discontinuous phase of which is Per cent by weight Glycerine 97 A dye insoluble in toluene 3 13. A manifolding paperv having a colorless coating thereon containing a profuse number of fluid cell inclusions oi' coloring matter, said inclusions being so small as to be invisible to the unaided eye, the said coating holding said fluid of the cells incased against external contact un-v der ordinary handling but, by the cells being ruptured, releasing the iluid of the cells at the point of a printing impact so that the fluid may be transferred to an underlying-sheet.

14. A manifold sheet having coated thereon a semi-solid non-transferable substance rupturable by printing pressures, which substance contains discrete fluid inclusions of coloring matter which are transferable to an underlying sheet by arupture of the said semi-solid substance.

15. A manifold sheet having a non-transferable coating thereon which is smudge-proof to ordinary handling but which contains dispersed therin cells of coloring matter which may be freed to eii'ect a transfer by pressures which rupture the coating.

16. A non-smud'ging manifold sheet having coated thereon a semi-solid non-transferable substance containing discrete fluid inclusions of coloringkxnatter in a polyhydric alcohol solution, which fluid is retained against external contact and evaporation by the semi-solid substance until released therefrom by rupture ofthe semisolid substance.

17. A non-smudging manifold sheet having thereon a gum dammar coating containing a dispersion of discrete liquid inclusions of coloring matter in a polyhydric alcohol solution.

18. A manifoldingsheet having a coating containing a discontinuous phase of minute liquid inclusions of coloring matter in a glycerol solution encased in a non-transferable semi-rigid continuous phase of gum'dammar, said continuous phase protecting the discontinuous phase from external contact and evaporation until thecontinuous phase is ruptured to free the liquid inclusions.

19. A manifold sheet having a coating of locally rupturable gum dammar, which coating has therein a profusion of minute discrete liquid-retaining cells containing coloring matter in a glycerol solution, said cells releasing the liquid therein when the coating adjacent thereto is ruptured.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2543181 *Dec 11, 1948Feb 27, 1951Polaroid CorpPhotographic product comprising a rupturable container carrying a photographic processing liquid
US2548364 *Jul 13, 1948Apr 10, 1951Ncr CoPressure sensitive record materials
US2548365 *Jul 13, 1948Apr 10, 1951Ncr CoProcess for making pressure sensitive record materials
US2548366 *Jul 31, 1948Apr 10, 1951Ncr CoManifold record material and process for making it
US2610921 *Apr 18, 1949Sep 16, 1952Joseph R EhrlichTransfer ink
US2616807 *Nov 29, 1946Nov 4, 1952Polaroid CorpSilver halide developer containing a film-forming plastic and a water insoluble finely comminuted solid substance
US2639233 *Feb 1, 1949May 19, 1953Polaroid CorpPhotographic product for forming a transfer image
US2961334 *Jun 4, 1957Nov 22, 1960Little Inc APositive printing, pressure-sensitive material and method of making it
US3001873 *Mar 22, 1956Sep 26, 1961Ncr CoPhoto-printing process and material
US3096189 *Dec 10, 1958Jul 2, 1963Allied Chemical ComporationDuplicating sheet and colored coating compositions therefor
US3111407 *Feb 26, 1960Nov 19, 1963IbmMethods for making record materials
US3249458 *Dec 10, 1962May 3, 1966Brunswick CorpPressure responsive material
US3306747 *Dec 26, 1962Feb 28, 1967Polaroid CorpDiffusion transfer product with microcapsules containing glycerin-water solutions
US4495509 *Jun 9, 1983Jan 22, 1985Moore Business Forms, Inc.Continuous polymeric wall surrounding a colorless dye precursor
US4599271 *Sep 10, 1984Jul 8, 1986Moore Business Forms, Inc.Forming polymeric walls around organic droplets
US4626471 *Feb 25, 1985Dec 2, 1986Moore Business Forms, Inc.With polyfunctional amine curing agent
US4636818 *Jun 5, 1985Jan 13, 1987Moore Business Forms, Inc.Carbonless system including solvent-only microcapsules
US4927802 *Dec 9, 1988May 22, 1990Ppg Industries, Inc.Pressure-sensitive multi-part record unit
U.S. Classification106/237, 106/236, 462/69, 106/239
International ClassificationB41M5/10, B01J13/02
Cooperative ClassificationB01J13/025, B41M5/10
European ClassificationB41M5/10, B01J13/02M