Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2300016 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 27, 1942
Filing dateApr 3, 1939
Priority dateApr 3, 1939
Publication numberUS 2300016 A, US 2300016A, US-A-2300016, US2300016 A, US2300016A
InventorsNoble Wiley B, Scott George L
Original AssigneeReed Roller Bit Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Directional drilling apparatus
US 2300016 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Och 27, 1942- G. L. scoT'r. ETAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING I APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 5; 1939 Il il? G` l..v scoTT Erm. 2,300,016

DIRECTIONAL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed April 3, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet` 2 Gear Oct; 27, 1942.

[N WEA/70H5 e 1./- Sco BMW @d l Qn-ORME Patented Oct. 27, 1942 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING APPARATUSI George L. Scott, Compton, Calif., and Wiley B. Noble, Houston, Tex., assignors to Reed Roller Bit Company, Houston, Tex., a corporation of Texas Application April 3, 1939, Serial No. 265,669

(Cl. Z55-1.6)

14 Claims.

This invention relates to drilling equipment and has for its general object the provision of means whereby the direction in which a hole is being drilled may be changed and controlled as drilling proceeds.

In drilling deep wells, or the like, particularly by the rotary drilling method, it is frequently desirable to change the direction in which the drilling is proceeding. This may be caused either by a desire that the drilled hole be inclined or directed in a predetermined manner to reach a denite known goal, or by a desire to bring back to the vertical a hole in which the drilling has become deilected from the vertical.

Various means have been employed in the past for deflecting drilling tools so as to change or control the direction of drilled holes,.most of these taking the form of so-called whipstocks or wedge-shaped blocks placed in the bottom of the well hole to deflecta drilling tool in one direction or another from the original well hole. These are objectionable for several reasons, the principal reasons being that they cause a sharp angular change in the direction of the well hole which is likely to cause trouble in subsequent operations, and that the amount of change by the use of a single whipstock is quite limited; the only way additional change can be accomplished is b-y the use of additional whipstocks in succession.

In all previous devices and methods of changing direction of drilling in drilled holes, there is also the disadvantage of having to withdraw the drill stem, put in place the correcting device and then again place the drill stem and drill in the hole before` drilling can be continued. This is a very time consuming and expensive operation, espe- `cially in the case of Wells of extremely great depths, such as are now common in many parts of the world. This operation of running the pipe into and removing it from the drilled hole may have to be repeated not once but numerous times for a single deecting operation, thus multiplying greatly the loss of time and the expense involved.

It is an object of this invention to provide a device which will not require the use of a Whipstock or the like in the well hole.

Another object of this invention is to make possible the deiiection and control of the direction of a drilled hole by the use of equipment, the major portion of which is used in the ordinary well known method of drilling wells.

Another object of this invention is to provide a means for controlling the direction of drilled holes which will avoid the necessity of round trips of the drill stem into the hole.

Another object of this invention is to provide a means whereby a drilled hole may be deilected by either a greater or a lesser amount in one delecting operation.

Another object of this invention is to provide a deflecting device which will normally occupy a straight ahead position with respect to the drilling bit but which when deflected and drilling is begun will continue to lead the bit away from its original course, along substantially a single plane.

Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein is set forth by way of illustration one embodiment of this invention.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal cross section through the upper end portion of a drill collar of an ordinary wire line coring apparatus, showing a core barrel in place therein.

Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the lower portion of the device illustrated in Fig. 1 and having a reamer and core barrel on the lower end thereof.

Fig. 3 is a view illustrating one method of orienting a drill stem and core bit such as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 preparatory to changing the direction of drilling in a drilled hole.

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but illustrating a deflection drilling apparatus in place of the core barrel, the same being constructed in accordance with this invention.

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 2 illustrating the lower end portion of Fig. 4, together with the details of construction of the deflection drilling apparatus.

Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5 but showing the deflection drilling apparatus in use in a reamer body without a drill stem, and with the leading portion of the deiiecting tool in deilected position.

Fig. '7 is a View similar to Fig. 5 but showing a modified form of the invention. l

Fig. 8 is a vertical cross section showing the details of the driving element.

Fig. 9 is a fragmentary front elevation taken at right angles to Fig. 6 and illustrating the spoon shaped deflecting member.

Fig. 10 is a horizontal cross section taken along the line lil-I0 of Fig. 9.

The pres-ent invention is adapted to be used in connection with that type of coring apparatus commonly known as wire line coring equipment.

In this type of apparatus, the core bit l having blades 2 is secured to the lower end of the drill collar 3 either with a reamer i positioned between the core bit and the drill collar or with the bit secured directly to the drill collar, as shown in Fig. 5.

The upper end of the drill collar is connected by means of a driver sub 5 to the tool joint 6 which is mounted on the lower end of the lowest section of drill pipe l. The reamer i may be of any suitable type and may or may not be used depending upon the circumstances of the particular case, In the form illustrated, this reamer is provided with substantially vertical roller cutters 8 mounted at spaced points about its circumference and ha 'ing threaded connections between its upper and lower ends for engagernent with the core bit and the drill collar, respectively.

The drill collar 3 has within its upper end a driver 9 in the form of a sleeve which is carried by the lower end of the driver sub 5. This driver is provided with a notch it and the lower end of this notch is formed with divergentrsides Il inclined toward the notch lil so as to guide an upwardly moving member into the notch.

In Figs. 1 and 2 a core barrel i2 is shown in placey this core barrel having a fitting i3 on its lower end with a shoulder lli adapted to seat on a slush ring I5 mounted in the core bit. The lower end of the fitting i3 is threaded to receive the core cutter head i6 and carried within this core cutter head and clamped in place by the fitting I3 is a core catcher Il.

Mounted on the upper end of the core barrel is any suitable type of upwardly opening check valve i8, the same in this instance being mounted in a spring body i9, the major portion of which is of reduced diameter to receive a compression coil spring 2t. The upper end portion of this spring body is formed with key-ways 2l adapted to receive the sliding keys 22 carried by the slip joint 23. The slip joint 23 is carried in the lower end of the sleeve 24, the upper end of which is secured to the carrier body 25. Holes 2E are provided in the sleeve to permit the inflow and outflow of fluid as the spring 26! is expanded or compressed.

The carrier body is slotted above its lower end to receive a latching dog 21, which is spring pressed in a radially outward direction by means of a spring 23 to engage beneath the lower end of the driver 9 and when moved upwardly to iit in the slot Ill. rIhis dog may be retracted by means of a pull bar 2b which is slidably mounted in the upper end of the carrier body and has a pin 363 engaging a slot 3l in the dog. The upper end of the pull bar is provided with a spear head 32 to receive an overshot which is lowered on a wire line to withdraw the core barrel from the core bit.

When .drilling is going on without any core being taken the cutter head I6 is replaced with a center bit which cuts the center of the bottom of the hole.

It will be appreciated that the core barrel is placed in the core bit by simply dropping it into the upper end of the drill stem and pumping it down until it latches in place. It is removed by lowering an overshotl on cable or wire line, which overshot engages the spear head 32 and the core b-arrel is then pulled out by withdrawing the cable.

Referring to Fig. 3 there is shown in place in the core bit .a device/which projects beyond its lower end and carries a surveying instrument 33 of any well known type, which is adapted to make a record of the inclination of the bit as it rests in the hole, as well as the orientation or rotary position of the bit in the hole. Such surveying instrument is, of course, brought into a fixed orientation with respect to the bit by means of a latchng dog like that used on the core barrel above described, which dog is forced into the notch lil to rotate the instrument into proper position in the bit. Either at this time, or before the instrument is dropped into the drill stern, the drill stem is neutralized in order to remove rotary strains which exist in the drill pipe. That is to say, during ordinary drilling, the .drill pipe will actually take on a twist amounting to several revolutions between the top and the bottom. This twist is substantially removed by rotating the drilling stem several revolutions, first to the right, then to the left in succession and gradually decreasing the amount of each rotation until a neutral position is reached.

The surveying instrument is then caused to make its record and this record when the instrument is removed will show the position of the core bit in the hole, both with respect to the vertical and with respect to north and south or some other reference point or points.

After the position of the bit has been determined, the drill stem is rotated in order to place the bit in proper orientation with respect to the direction in which it is desired to deflect a hole. For convenience the bit is usually rotated until the notch l@ faces in the direction desired. After this rotation, it is desirable that the drill stem again be neutralized in the manner above described so that there will be substantially no twist in the drill stem and the operator may be sure of the position of the bit. This process is repeated until the bit is found to be in the proper position after the pipe is neutralized. reference has been made to rotating the bit a desired amount, it will be understood that the thing to be properly oriented is the notch in the driver rather than the bit. The bit has been referred to because ordinarily it will not change its relation with respect to the notch in the driver.

After the bit and the notch in the driver have been placed in the desired oriented position, there is then dropped into the drill stem a device illusstrated in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. This device has a latching mechanism at its upper end which is similar to that shown in Fig. l, differing only in the form shown in that the lower end of the carrier body is formed with a socket for the reception of the upper end of a spring 35. This spring 35 surrounds a loose sleeve 35, the purpose of which is to limit the travel of the spring, and the spring is disposed within a sleeve 31 which is connected with the carrier body 34 at its upper end and with the -slip joint 38 at its lower end. Slidable within this slip joint 33 is a packer body 3Q which has key ways 40 in which keys il carried by the slip joint are adapted to slide. The upper end of this packer body projects through the slip joint and receives a nut i2 upon which the lower end of this spring is carried.

Surrounding the packer body is a packer 43 of rubber or similar resilient material, one of the ends of this packer bearing against a shoulder ld carried by the packer body, and the other against a shoulder l5 carried by the slip joint. it willbe seenthat whenthe packerV body 39 While upon the tool.

l is pushed upwardly, it will compress the spring 35 until the sleeve 36 stops the movement, and this movement will at the same time cause the shortening and expansion of the packer 43.

Secured to the lower end of the packer body is a barrelV 45, and this barrel is connected at its lower end with an adapter 41 which forms a continuation thereof. Threaded onto the lower end of the adapter is a coupling 48 having a spherical seat 49 formed therein for the reception of a ball member '50. This collar at points opposite the ball member is formed with vertical slots adapted to receive pins 52 which are inserted into openings in the opposite sides of the ball member to lock the ball member against rotation in the collar 48. After the pins 52 have been put into place, a sleeve 53 is dropped over the end of the coupling 48 to prevent the pins from dropping out. A tubular member 54 having a spherical seat on its lower end, is threaded into the coupling 48 to secure the ball member 5d in proper position.

The ball member is provided with a downward extension 55 having a pilot bit 56 secured to its lower end. This pilot bit is formed with a spoon-shaped lower end, the face of the spoonshape being indicated by the numeral 5l. A

. uid passageway 58 is formed through the pilot bit and opens through the face thereof. At its upper end it connects with a passageway through the extension 55, the ball '50, the adapter 4l and the barrel 46. This passageway opens into the interior of the drill collar through the nut 42 and openings in the sleeve 35. It will be noted that this is above the packer 43 so that when. the packer is expanded iluid pumped downwardly through the drill stem will be forced to ilow through the various parts and emergethrough the pilot bit 55.

Surrounding the extension 55 above the pilot bit is a coil spring 59 bearing at its upper end against a washer 6i) slidably carried by the eX- tension 55. A sleeve 5| is placed over the upper end of the pilot bit so as to surround and protect the spring 59. IThis spring 59 bearing against the Washer 50 tends to hold the pilot bit in axial alignment with the drilling bit and the drill stem.

In lFig. 6, the device just described, is illustrated in use in a reamer body without any drill collar. For this purpose the barrel 46 is omitted and the adapter H is secured directly to the packer body 39. In this gure there is illustrated what takes place when weight is placed The tool will be deflected toward the face of the spoon shaped pilot bit as the pilot bit is forced into the formation. Thereafter, upon rotation of the drill stem, the pilot bit will keep the inclination which it has thus been forced to take and will continue to lead the main bit or deflect it in the same direction as long as drilling is Continued.

In the form shown in Fig. 7, the coupling f4.8 and all the parts carried thereby, have been replaced by a single rigid elementEZ which has the same sort of spoon shaped end 51 as that previously described. This element, however, being rigid, can be deflected only so much as the main bit may be forced into the side of the hole, and once drilling is commenced further deiiection of the drilling apparatus will not take place. This form has the advantage, however, that a number of movable parts have been eliminated and it is less apt to get out of order.

In operation, when it is desired to change the direction of drilling, there is rst dropped into the hole a surveying instrument 33 in the manner above described. The directional drilling device, such as shown in either Figs. 5, 6 or 7 is then dropped into place and pumped down until it latches in position. When it has been properly oriented with respect to the drill, by means of the latching dog entering the notch I0, the entire drill stem is lowered to spud the projecting nose of the deflecting tool into the formation. Because of the shape of this nose, it will be deilected in the manner above described and when drilling is started, it will deilect the direction of drilling so long as drilling continues. When the desired amount of deection has been obtained and the drill is operating in the desired direction, drilling will be stopped and the deflecting apparatus removed by means of a wire line. The center bit will then be replaced and drilling Will proceed.

It will be seen from the foregoing that a means has been provided which is capable of accomplishing all of the objects and advantages sought by this invention.

Having described `our invention, we claim:

l. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a deecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the .bottom of a drilled hole and deilect said bit in a predetermined direction, said `der'iecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole and means for holding said deilecting member in non-deflected position and in rigid alignment with said bit.

2. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a deilecting member carried by and projecting in advance o'f said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deflect said bit in a predetermined direction, said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole, said deiiecting member having a fluid passageway therethrough opening at the lower end thereof and means for holding said delecting member in non-deflected position.

3. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a deflecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deiie-ct said bit in a predetermined direction, said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole, said deflecting member having a fluid passageway therethrough opening at the lower end thereof and means for holding said delecting member in non-deilected position and in rigid Ialignment with said bit.

4. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, and a deflecting member carried -by said drilling bit and projecting in advance th-ereo'f, said deflecting member having a spoon shaped lower end, whereby upon contact with the bottom of a .drilled hole said deecting member will tend to move in the direction of the face of thespoon, said deflecting member having a fluid passageway therethrough opening at the lower end thereof.

5. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a deiiecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deflect said bit in a predetermined direction, said deflecting member having its lower end forme-d in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact With the bottom of a drilled hole, said deiiecting member having a fluid passageway therethrough with its outlet disposed so as to direct fluid in the direction of the Ideflection of said member and means for holding said deflelcting mem'ber in nondeflected position.

6. In a device for changing the direction olf a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a deflecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deflect said member in a predetermined direction, said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deiie'cted in a predetermined direction upon being forced into the formation at the bottom of the drilled hole, said deflecting member having a fluid passageway therethrough opening at its lower end in a direction toward which said deflecting member will ibe deflected and means for holding said deflecting Vmember in non-deected position and in rigid alignment with said bit.

".1. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, and a deflecting member carried by said drilling bit and projecting in advance thereof, said deiiecting member having a spoon shaped lower end, whereby upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole said dcflecting member will tend to lmove in the direction of the face of the spoon, and said member having a uid passageway therethrough opening through the fa'ce of said spoon.

8. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, and a deilecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deiiect said bit in a predetermined direction, said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deected in a predetermined Idirection upon `contact with the bottom of a drilled hole and having a joint therein above the lower end for permitting such deflection without deflection of the drilling bit.

9. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a ideflecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling .bit to engage the bottom of -a drilled hole and deflect said bit in a predetermined direction., said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole, and means yieldably urging said deflecting member downwardly Within said drilling bit.

l0. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, in combination with a drilling bit, a deecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deflect said bit-in a predetermined ldirection, said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole, means yieldably urging said deflecting member downwardly within said drilling bit, said deflecting means having a fluid passageway therethrough opening at the lower end thereof and means above the lower end of said deflecting member for deflecting fluid into said passageway.

1l. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a deflecting member carried by and projecting in advance of said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deflect said bit in a predetermined direction, means for normally holding said deflecting member in non-deflected position in axial alignment with said drilling bit, means forming part of said deflecting member for causing said deecting member to move to a position out of axial alignment with said drilling bit, whereby upon rotation of said drilling bit and said deflecting membei, said deecting member will continue in said position out of alignment with said drilling bit and lead said drilling bit in a path having continually greater deiiection from the original Idrilled hole.

12. In a device of the character described, in combination with a drilling bit, a member carried by said drilling bit and a universal joint connecting said member With said drilling bit, said member having its forward end formed with a spoonlike shape whereby upon contact with the lower end of a drilled hole said member will be deflected in the direction of the face of said spoon and upon operation of said drilling bit it will continually lead said drilling bit in the direction of such initial deflection.

13. In a device for changing the direction of a drilled hole, a drilling bit, a -deecting member carried by and projecting in advance of and in substantially axial alignment with said drilling bit to engage the bottom of a drilled hole and deflect said bit in a predetermined direction, said deflecting member having its lower end formed in such a manner that it will be deflected in a predetermined direction upon contact with the bottom of a drilled hole, means for holding said deflecting member in non-deilected position and in such axial alignment, and a further means for rigidly securing said deiiecting member in projecting position.

i4. In a device of the character described comprising a member adapted to be carried by a drilling bit, means for mounting said member on said drilling bit with a portion of said member projecting ahead of the bit in normal axial alignment therewith, said member having its forward end shaped to be deflected in one predetermined direction with respect to said mounting means upon coming in contact with the bottom of a well hole, whereby upon continuing of the drilling operation said member will serve to lead said drilling bit in the direction of said deflection, and a further means for rigidly securing said deflecting member in projecting position.

GEORGE L. SCOTT. WILEY B. NOBLE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2685431 *Oct 1, 1951Aug 3, 1954Eastman Oil Well Survey CoHydraulic pilot reamer for directional drilling
US5450913 *Oct 1, 1993Sep 19, 1995Gold Star Manufacturing, Inc.Continuous soil sampling system and method
US5778991 *Aug 29, 1996Jul 14, 1998Vermeer Manufacturing CompanyDirectional boring
US6357537Mar 15, 2000Mar 19, 2002Vermeer Manufacturing CompanyDirectional drilling machine and method of directional drilling
US6491115Jan 22, 2001Dec 10, 2002Vermeer Manufacturing CompanyDirectional drilling machine and method of directional drilling
US7559379 *Aug 10, 2007Jul 14, 2009Hall David RDownhole steering
US7866416Jun 4, 2007Jan 11, 2011Schlumberger Technology CorporationClutch for a jack element
US7967083Nov 9, 2009Jun 28, 2011Schlumberger Technology CorporationSensor for determining a position of a jack element
US8011457Feb 26, 2008Sep 6, 2011Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole hammer assembly
US8225883Mar 31, 2009Jul 24, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole percussive tool with alternating pressure differentials
US8267196May 28, 2009Sep 18, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationFlow guide actuation
US8281882May 29, 2009Oct 9, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationJack element for a drill bit
US8297375Oct 31, 2008Oct 30, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole turbine
US8297378Nov 23, 2009Oct 30, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationTurbine driven hammer that oscillates at a constant frequency
US8307919Jan 11, 2011Nov 13, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationClutch for a jack element
US8316964Jun 11, 2007Nov 27, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationDrill bit transducer device
US8360174Jan 30, 2009Jan 29, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationLead the bit rotary steerable tool
US8408336May 28, 2009Apr 2, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationFlow guide actuation
US8499857Nov 23, 2009Aug 6, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole jack assembly sensor
US8522897Sep 11, 2009Sep 3, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationLead the bit rotary steerable tool
US8528664Jun 28, 2011Sep 10, 2013Schlumberger Technology CorporationDownhole mechanism
US8950517Jun 27, 2010Feb 10, 2015Schlumberger Technology CorporationDrill bit with a retained jack element
US20070272443 *Aug 10, 2007Nov 29, 2007Hall David RDownhole Steering
US20080296015 *Jun 4, 2007Dec 4, 2008Hall David RClutch for a Jack Element
US20090183919 *Jul 23, 2009Hall David RDownhole Percussive Tool with Alternating Pressure Differentials
US20110048811 *Jun 27, 2010Mar 3, 2011Schlumberger Technology CorporationDrill bit with a retained jack element
CN101563520BDec 4, 2007Apr 10, 2013施拉姆伯格技术公司System for steering a drill string
Classifications
U.S. Classification175/75, 175/258, 175/391, 175/332, 175/291, 175/236, 175/398, 175/335
International ClassificationE21B7/08, E21B7/04
Cooperative ClassificationE21B7/04
European ClassificationE21B7/04