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Publication numberUS2300689 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 3, 1942
Filing dateMar 24, 1941
Priority dateMar 24, 1941
Publication numberUS 2300689 A, US 2300689A, US-A-2300689, US2300689 A, US2300689A
InventorsNagle Perry I
Original AssigneeAmerican Brake Shoe & Foundry
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic priming pump and the like
US 2300689 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

' Nov. 3, 1942.

P. 1. NAGLE 9 AUTOMATIC PRIMING PUMP AND THE LIKE I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fild March '24, 1941 INVENTCR.

Nov. 3, 1942. i P.- l. NAGLE 2,300,639

I AUTOMATIC PRIMING BUM? AND THE LIKE F iled March 24, 1941' 2 Sheets-Sheet z preventing leakage of fluid I the impeller and its housing, as'well as'the Patented Nov. 3, 1942 (UNITED STATE s PATENT OFFICE AUTOMATIC PRIMING PUMP AND rrnE' Perry I. Nagle, Chicago'Heights, 111., assignor to The American Brake Shoe and Foundry Company, New York,

N. 1., a corporation'oi.' Dela-.

Application March 24,1941, Serial No. 384,811

14 Claims. (01. 103-413) The present invention relates to fluid impellirig devices, and more in particular to automatic priming pumps.

Among the objects of the present invention is to provide an automatic priming pump embodying in its structure novel means and an arrangement of parts to assure a fluid-tight assembly at the stufling box for the impeller shaft.

More particularly, the present invention-embraces within its scope a novel arrangement in an automatic priming pump tor the entrance chamber to deliver water, or other similar fluid.

to the impeller on the smiling box side of the device whereby a negative or reduced pressure obtains in the environment of said smiling box through the said stufling box.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel housing construction for an auto-' matic priming pump whereby access can be gained to the impeller housing or shell without disturbcommunicatingwith the passage or passages on the aft side of the impeller and being inclineding the entrance and discharge pipes leading into 7 the housing for the said pump. a

As a still further object of the present tion, the pump housing is formed. to include dis.- charge means having a compartment constituted in part by a separator chamber and in which is disposed a shell or housing'for the impeller chamber detachably and adiustably secured in position with respect to; the housing for the pump whereby the same can be removed-for repair and replacement or adjusted with respect to the impeller because'of wear and the like.

Still a further object of the presentinvention' is to provide a novel housing assembly for an invenautomatic priming pumpwherein theimpeller shell or housing is disposed within the chamber for the impeller, serving to induce, in conjunction with the fluid seal therefor, an ejection of the air or gas on the entrance side of, the pump to the discharge side thereof, whereby the said air or gas is exhausted gradually to bring the fluid to be pumped into the environment of the im peller for normal pumping operations.

More particularly, the present invention contemplates the use'of one or more openings provided in one orsnore of 'the vanes of the impeller, the said openings terminating in the trailing edge of thesaid vane or vanes on one side therebi. and

toward the peripheryof the vane 0r vanes in a direction opposite tothe direction of rotation of the impeller whereby efficient ejection of the air on the entrance side of the impeller is produced in order to start normal operation of the pump without causing re-circulation of the water or fluid within the pump.;which operation would materially decrease the normal efllciency of the said pump.

' While the invention inrespect of its primin performance comprehendsthe use of one or more openings on one or more of the vanes 01 an impeller, nevertheless the ,invention also comprehends the use of a groove in association with said one or more openingsdisposed generally in a transverse direction with respect to the said vane or vanes, which groove is of open-faced. construction on the trailing edge of the blade or blades, I and which is in communication with said opening or openings to provide for somewhat more eiflcient discharge of the air from the entrance to the discharge end of the automatic priming pump.

As a still iurther object of the present invention, the said groove for the opening or openings may be of a width corresponding to the-width or diameter of the opening or openings, or, if desired, may be of a difierent width. As an illustration, the said groove may be of a width greater than the width or diameter oflthe opening or openings.

' The present invention, insofar as it relates to the emciency of operation of the automatic priming pump embodying the openings on the vane or. vanes of the impeller, comprehends an impeller shell or housing so constructedand arranged in .respect to the said impeller as to efllcientlyeffect a discharge of air trom the suction side of thepump and to provide a proper water seal at the discharge end or the'pump whereby, during normaloperation of the impeller, the water on the discharge .side of the pump is not permitted to re-circulate within the confines of theimpeller,

whichoperation would materially decrease the efliciency of the said pump.

Other objects, features. capabilities and advantages are comprehended by the invention, as will later appear and as are inherently possessed thereby. 1 v

Figure 4 is an' enlarged fragmentary view in section "taken in the plane represented by line 4-4 of Figure 3 of the drawings; and

Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view in section of an impeller vane similar to the view of Figure 4 but showing asliglnt modification of one of the features of construction, all in accord-' ance with the present invention.

Referring ,now more in detail to the drawings,

.an embodiment selected to illustrate the invention is constituted by an automatic priming pump for pumping water or otherfluid, which comprises a base 2 adapted tobe mounted upon any suitable foundation and which is'formed with.

the bearing housing 4 in which is mounted a bearing assembly, generally referred to as 6, for an impeller shaft 8 which extends laterally of the bearing housing 4 and has an impeller Ill mounted adjacent its end.

The impeller i0 operates within a housing, generally referred to as [2, which is formed in part by an entrance chamber It having one or more fittings, such as 16, towhich may be connected a conduit or pipe communicating-with the chamber ,i4 and with a source'of water or other similar fluid to be pumped by the impeller ill. The housing I2 is further constituted by a discharge compartment i8 defined in part by the partition wall and inner side wall 22, and in part by the outer side wall 24 formed with the opening 26. The inner side wall 22 has a lateral plate 54 of impeller housing 56 to provide an inlet eye of substantially annular formation embracing the stufllng bomhousing 36 \and communicating on one side with the entrance chamher I 4. It willbe noted that the marginal edges defining the inlet eye have a flow line contour to provide for emcient flow of fluidfrom'the entrance chamber II, and that the said stufllng 'box housing 33 has its inner end of similar contour conforming to the opposed flow line contour to eliminate abrupt and rapid changes in the direction of flow of water from the entrance chamber to the impeller I0.

From the above description it will be observed that the entrance of the pump is on the stuffing box side thereof, one of the purposes -of such design being to create a pressure differential between the discharge and intake sides of the pump to cause directional flow of fluid at the juncture of the stufllng box and shaft toward the discharge end of the pump, thus tending to prevent leakage at the stufllng box. The fluid pressure adjacent the impeller end of the stuffing box may be much less than on the discharge 'side of the pump, and for more efficient operation of the device maybe a negative pressure, thus assuring substantially absolute prevention of flow of'fluid outwardly through the said stufiing'box.

This directional flow of fluid is facilitated by the inclined contiguous surfaces of the impeller and 'stufllng' box housing to .provide the annular restricted clearance space 51 angularly disposed in the direction of fluid flow from the entrance to.. the discharge end of said pump: The provision of the entrance for the pump on the stufllng box side thereof further leads to improved structural characteristics in "that the said pump is much more compact, more readily fabricated with fewer parts, andqfurther provides for simplicityoffset 28 forming the lower part of the entrance chamber H and which is flanged as at 30, the said flange being in substantial alignment with the downwardly depending wall section 32 formed as an inward offset to the wall'3l which defines in part the entrance chamber [4. ,Be-;

tween the qffset wall 28 and the downwardly *1 depending wall section 32 is an axial opening 36 into the side of the pump, through which the impeller shaft 8 extends into the housing l2 and in which is disposed a stufllng box \housing 33 of thegeneralshape as shown and which is laterally flanged asat 40 to provide means whereby the same is connected to the flange an and the downw ardly depending wall section 32 to provide a tight'joint for the housing i2 at that point. r Stuffing box housing '33 has an inner annular bore 42 of a diameter substantially greater than the diameter of the impeller shaft 3 to receive gland packing material embracing the shaft 1 I to prevent leakage through the stufiln'g box.

' an aperture or opening 52 formedin the back The gland material is compressed-and maintaine d'in its operative relation with the shaft 3 by way of the glandfollower l8 adjustable axially,

of the impeller shaft by means of the gland ad- 'justing mechanism 43; While other details of construction for the gland adjusting mechanism,

well as the bearing 3,; are shown inthe drawings, more detailed referencethereto is not made inasmuch as the same do not'form any part of the present contributions in the art.

in the construction and arrangement of the gland adjusting 'mechanismand provision for its inspection, as wellas a novel arrangement for the control of any fluid which may leakithrough the stufllng' box to prevent'damage to any of the parts of the pump in the event said fluid has corrosive or other deteriorating properties.

' The impeller It may be of open vane construction or of the shrouded type and of any number of vanes, but in the present illustration the said impeller is of the shrouded type provided with the hub "screw-threaded upon the end of the impeller shaft 8, and further including the opposed walls Gil and 62 between which are disposed the arcuate-shaped blades 64 having their roots adjacent. hub 53 to providesubstantially-axially disposed passages at that point communicating with the annular inlet eye adjacent thereto. These vanes or blades, four being shown in the present illustration, provide a plurality of pasc'osages, such as $6, extending from'the inlet eye ripheral surfaces such as 68 at 'and 02.

to the periphery of the impeller or runner and which blades or vanes'terminate to provide pethe trailing edge of the vanes .disposed between'the side walls II,

The impeller constituted by a circular wall 10 extending later- The housing l2at' the walls fland 22 is aper- M tured as at 53, which aperture is aligned with.

The present invention provision of novel means for gaining access to ally from the side wall and which has a radi-' ally and inwardly extending marginal wall 12 defining an opening 14 slightly greaterin diam eter than the diameter of the impeller l0,,whereby the said impeller ill can be removed through said openinglh i l h s also directed to the housing a shell as is further 2,soc,oso

effecting the results to disclosed.

' the impeller m for its proper adjustment, to gether with proper adjustment for the impeller shell or housing 58, without in anyway disturbing the entrance and discharge pipes for the be hereinafter more fully 1 While the groove. of a widthgreater than the dimension of the opening 86in the direction of rotation of the impeller, nevertheless the width of the groove may.

conform to the width of, the opening, all as shown in Figure 5 0f the drawings, wherein the transcured in any desired manner as by bolts, brackets or the like, to the walls 28 and 22 whereby adjustment of said shell canibe effected. In. fur therance-of this inventive thought, the openings 28 and! are closed by a closure 82 stepped as at 84 and 86 to provide a shouldered fitting for the openings 26 and 14, respectively, This closure member 82 may be-secured to the housing in any desired manner, but preferably in accordance with the connections shown in application, Serial No. 384,807, for Fluid impeller housing assemblies,

filed March 24,1941; It will therefore be clearly apparent that the closure member 82 provides verse groove 98 is of the same width as the opening I00, or if desired; said groove may be of less width than said opening.

As is well understood in the pump art, selfpriming pumps operate to progressively and by degrees exhaust the air or other similar gas from the entrance side of'the pump in order tofrender the pump operative to draw fluid being pumped from the suction side thereof and to discharge a common fitting for the discharge compartment l8, as well as the impeller shell or housing 58,. and that whenever necessary; access can be readily and easily gained into the impeller housing or shell withoutdisturbing in any way, the

J entrance and discharge pipes for the device.

The laterally disposed wall .18 of the impeller shell or housing hereinbefore referred to as substantially circular for convenience, is in fact sub,-

. stantially in the shape of a volute formed with a discharge opening or throat as at 88 defined in part by a tongue 98 dis p ed in contiguous relation to the periphery of the runner or impeller Hi for-a purpose to be hereinafter more fully described. Ihe impeller shell or' ,housing is mounted in the pump with respect to the .impeller whereby the wall 18 is disposed in respect to the periphery of the runner or impeller to prowidth in a counter-clockwise direction from tongue 90, and whichpassage communicates with This general scheme of operation is characteristic the same on the discharge side of the pump.

According to, the .present invention, this opera-' tion is effected through the medium of the openirigs 86 on the trailing edge of the. vanes 64 and which communicate on the aft side ;of the impeller with passages 68 and in turn through the inlet eye with'th entrance chamber 14 a 'd the duct orducts leading therein and exten ng 'to the source of water or other fluid to be pumped.

As is "conventional in this art, priming of a pumpis effected in the presence of water or other similar fluid initially retained within the pump housing and which, upon operation of the impeller thereof, is discharged into the discharge compartment from the entrance chamber .18,

of the present device in that said water or other fluid within the housing l2, upon operation of the impeller 10, is drawn through the inlet eye to the impeller and, under the rotational action ofsaid impeller, is discharged through the throat 88 into vide a fluid passage 92 gradually increasing in V the discharge throat or opening 88' substantially beneath theimpeller i0 adjacent the bottom of the discharge compartmentl8. In accordance with the arrangement of the various elements .hereinbefore described, the upper'part of the discharge compartmentl8 serves'as'a separator chamber, about which reference will be made hereinafteni a.

As clearly shown in Figures 2,3 and 4 of .the drawings, each ofthe blades or vanes 68 at itstrailing edge is provided with a transversely disposed groove 94 communicating with acentrally disposed opening 98 which is angularly disposed'q' and inclined toward the periphery of the runner or impeller in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of said impeller which, in th lilustration, is in a-counter-clockwise direction.

While a single groove anda single opening are shown for the purposes of illustration,nthe in-' vention comprehends a-plurality of arrangements for such elements; that is to say, a plurality of grooves, together with a plurality of openings; may be provided for one or more of the vanes or blades for the runner or, if desired, one or more -of the blades or vanes may be provided with one or more openings without the grooves and with out the inclination or angularity disclosed, all in accordance with the present invention, andfor the discharge compartment 88. Since this impelleris operating at high R. P. the water maintained within the impeller housing 58 and within passageway 92 takes the form of a resil-' ient body seeking. to flow or gravitate toward the center of the impeller, but which is prevented.

from' doing so by the rapid progressive passage of the trailing edge of the impeller vanes or blades over the inner annular surface thereof. qThis rapid rotat'ional movement of the impeller, according to the present theory of operation of the device disclosed herein, creates a positive pressure'in the fluid body within passageway 92 and l a negative pressure on the aft side of the vanes or bladesq thus providing; through the medium of the openings -98, an ejector action for discharge of air orpthergas from the suctionv or intake'side of the impeller to the discharge side of the pump,

thus gradually. and progressively removing the air or gaseous body from the suction side of the pump to-permit fluid drawn into the entrance chamber M- to be acted upon by the impeller forthe proper operation of the pump. The air or.

other gaseous body-is ejected from the aft side of the pump into the environment of'the trailing edge of the vanes or blades in rather small and minute quantities and is discharged inthe form of bubbles not or ily'into the body of fluid within passageway 82,'but through the discharge throat 88 where the same is discharged into the separator chamber and the discharge duct connected thereto. In-order to facilitate the latter operation, it is desirable to locate-tongue 99 in contiguousuelation to the trailing edges of the vanes or blades as the same'rapidly rotate past the same,

in their normal orbital movement, whereby the tongue acts to discharge these accumulated of Figure 4 is shown asbeingbubbles from the trailing edges of the blades, or

in other words, serves to create awiping action for their proper discharge to the separator chamber. While satisfactory results have been ob-,

tained without the use of the grooves, nevertheless greater priming efliciency is secured when the same are provided'in conjunction with the grooves, the said grooves apparently facilitatin a more eiiicient ejectingof the air or other gas because of their disposition throughout the entire width of the blade or vanes.

According to the present theory of operation,

a wall of water or other fluid to be pumped ismaintained in the passage 92 because of the rapid rotation of the impeller blades, which action of the impeller prevents any re-circulation of the water or other fluid into the passages between the blades or into the suction end of the pump, thus greatly increasing the emciency of the pump.

Furthermore; any air or other gas ejected through openings 96 from the suction side of the pump which may be discharged in the form of bubbles due to the somewhat turbulent state of "the fluid or liquid in the passageway 92 at the interface of the trailing edge of the .blades or vanes, is discharged, through opening 12 formed,

aft side of the vane adapted to cooperate with in the impeller shell or housing 56 on the upper side thereof, into the separator'chamber, thus preventing the formation of an air interlock which might be formed and which, if formed,

would prevent effective operation of the device.'

As in application Serial No. 384,808, for Fluid impelling devices, filed March 24, 1941, the gland ingly prevent damage to other parts of the do vice.

While I have herein described and upon the drawings shown an illustrative embodiment of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereto but may comprehend other constructions, arrangements of parts, details and features without departing from the spirit of the invention.

"I claim: A V

1. In an automatic priming pump, the combination of a housing having entrance and discharge means, an impeller disposed in said housingand having its passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication with said means, said passages being defined circumferentially by openings formed between the edges of adjacent vanes, said housing having a tongue interposed between said entrance and discharge means, one or more of said vanes being provided with a'trailing edge having a peripheral surface with one 'or more openings therethrough to the aft side of the vane and communicating with said passages and adapted to cooperate with I said tongue for priming the pump.

2. In an automatic priming pump, the combination of a housing having entrance' and discharge means, an impeller disposed in said housing and having its passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication with said means, said housing having a tongue interposed between said entrance and discharge means, one or more of said v'anesbeing provided with a trailingedge having a peripheral surface witi at least one transversely disposed groove formed thereinand one or more openings communicating with said groove and extending therethrough .to the said tongue for priming said pump;

3. In an automatic priming pump, the combi-- nation of a housing having entrance and-discharge means, an impeller disposed in said housing and having its passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication with said means, said housing having a tongue interposed between said entrance and discharge means, one

or more of said vanes being provided with atrailing edge having a peripheralsurface, with at least onetransversely disposed grooveformed therein and one or more openings communicating with said groove, said one or more openings being inclined toward the peripheral surface in a 'direc-- tion opposite to the direction of rotation of said impeller and extending through to the aft side of the vane and being adapted to cooperate-with said tongue for priming the pump.

4. In an automatic priming pump, the combination of a housing having entrance and .discharge means, said discharge means. having a compartment constitutedin part by a separator chamber, an impeller shell disposed in said compartment and having an opening communicating with said separator chamber, said opening'being defined in part by a tongue, and: an impeller disposedinsaid shell and having its passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication 'with said entrancmmeans ,and said separator adjusting mechanism 48. may bev inspected by chamber through the opening in said shell, one

or more of said vanes being provided with a trailingedge having a peripheral surface with one or more openings therethrough to the aft side of the vaneadapted to cooperate with said tongue for priming the pumps.

5. In an automatic priming pump, thecombinationof a housing having entrance and discharge means; said discharge means having a compartment constituted in part by a separator chamber, an impeller shell disposed in saidcompartment and having an opening communicating with said separator chamber, and an impeller disposed in said shell and having its passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication with said entrance means and said separator chamber through the opening in said shell, the discharge opening for said shell being disposed at the lower portion of-said compartment and-being defined in part by a tongue, one or more of said'vanes being provided with a trail-,-

ing' edge having a peripheral surface with one or more openings extending therethrough and to nation of a housing having entrance and discharge means,-said discharge means having a compartment'constituted in part by a separator chamber, an impeller shell disposed in said compartment and having communication with said separator chamber, and an impeller disposed in. said shell and having its passages formed by thevanes thereof in operative cpmmunication with said entrance means and said separator chamber throughthe opening in said shell, the discharge opening for said shell being disposed at the lower portion of said compartment and being I defined in {part by a tongue disposedlin juxtaposed relation to the trailing edge of said vanes, one or more of said vanes being provided aid- Jacent the periphery thereoifwith one or more openings 'extendingfrom the trailing edge there'- through and communicating with a passage on the aft side of the impeller, saidone or more openings extending toward said periphery in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of said impeller; j

7. In an automatic priming pump, the combination of a housing having entranbe and discharge means, said discharge means having a compartment constituted in part by a separator chamber, an impeller shell disposed in said compartment and having communication withsaid v separator chamber, and animpeller disposed in said shell and having its passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication with said entrance means and said separator chamber through the opening in said shell, the disadjacent vanes, one or more of said vanes havcharge opening for said shell being disposed at the lower portion of said compartment and being defined in part by atongue disposed in juxtaposed relation to the trailing edge of said vanes, one or more of said vanes being provided with at least one transversely disposed groove formed with a passage on the other side of said one or more of said vanes. v

12. A fluid impeller comprising a' plurality of vanes providing passages therebetween, a trans versely disposed groove formed'in'the trailing in the trailing edge and adjacent the periphery thereof, and one or'more openings extending from said trailing edge therethrough and-communicating witha groove and'a passage on the aft side of the impeller. I 8. In an automatic priming pump, the combination of a housing having entrance and discharge means, said discharge means having acompartment constituted in part b'ya separator chamber, an impeller shell disposed insaid compartment and having communication with said separator chamber, and an'impellerdisposed in edge of one or more of said vanes,-and said one or more of said vanes having one or more open- .ings therethrough communicating with a groove on one side of said one or more 0I 'S8id vanes and with a passage on the other side of said one or more of said vanes, said one or more openings being inclined. toward said trailing edge in adirection opposite to the direction of rotation. of

said impeller.

said shell and having 1 1 passages formed by the vanes thereof in operative communication with said entrance means and said separator chamher through the opening-in said shell, the discharge opening forsaidshell. being disposed at the lower portion of said compartment and being defined in part by a tongue disposed in juxtaposed relation to the trailing edge of said vanes, one or more of said vanes being provided with-at least onetransversely disposedgroove formed in the trailing edge and adjacent-the periphery thereof. and one or more openings extending from said trailing edge therethrough and communicating with a groove and apassage on ,the' aft side of the impeller. said one ormore openings extending toward said periphery in a direction .opposite to the direction of rotation of said impeller. r

13. A fluid impeller comprising a plurality of vanes providing passages therebetween, a trans- 'versely disposed groove formed in the trailingedge of one or more of said vanes, and said one or more of said vanes having one or more openings therethrough communicating with a groove on one side of said one or more ofsaid vanes and with a passage on the other side of said one or more of said vanes, said one or more grooves having a width different than the maximum direction.

14. In an automatic priming pump,-the com- 1 bination of an impeller housing" having intake and discharge chambers, an impeller shaft extending into-said housing, an impeller removably mounted on-the end of said shaft within said discharge chamber an impeller shell disposed with- -9.'A fluid impeller "comprising a plurality of.

vanes spaced to provide passages therebetween and having said passagesdeflned circumferentially by openings-formed between the edges of. adjacent vanes, one or more of said vanes being provided with a trailing edge having a peripheral surface with one or more, openings theretlirough i 10. A fluid impeller comprising. a plurality of vanes spaced to provide-passages therebetween and hav s said passages (leaned circumferencommunicating with ,one or more of said pas in said discharge chamber and embracing. said impeller. said housing and shell having entrance means axially and centrally disposed with respect to said impeller and having openings on the side assembly for said .shaft on the same side of the as said entrance means, said entrance means comprising an annular pmge surround-'- ing the shaft at the "junction of the impellerand stufiing box-whereby the suction eflect of the pump tends to" eliminate leakage aloha said shaft and a closure for the openingsof said housing and shell at the end 01' said shaft removabiy se-; cured to said housing;

v. Psaarr. morn.

tially by openings formed between the edges of 1 on one side of said one or more of'said vanes and width of said one or more openings in the-same I opposite said shaft forintroduction of said impeller into said shell and for removal of the same therefrom; said impeller and shellhaving means cooperating'to prime said pump, a stuiling box I I

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2580347 *Oct 29, 1946Dec 25, 1951Barnes Mfg CompanyCentrifugal pump
US2612846 *Jul 30, 1947Oct 7, 1952Megator Pumps & Compressors LtVenting and draining means for pumps
US2761393 *May 19, 1950Sep 4, 1956Thompson Prod IncSubmerged booster pump assembly
US2845870 *Apr 22, 1955Aug 5, 1958Borg WarnerFuel booster pump
US5697848 *May 12, 1995Dec 16, 1997Capstone Turbine CorporationCompound shaft with flexible disk coupling
US5964663 *Sep 19, 1997Oct 12, 1999Capstone Turbine Corp.Double diaphragm compound shaft
DE1163677B *Mar 8, 1958Feb 20, 1964Alfred S Marlow JunSelbstansaugende Kreiselpumpe mit Wasservorratshaltung und einer Hilfsansaugoeffnungim Schneckengehaeuse
Classifications
U.S. Classification417/72, 415/216.1, 415/230, 415/169.1, 415/56.6
International ClassificationF04D9/00, F04D9/02
Cooperative ClassificationF04D9/02
European ClassificationF04D9/02