US 2302194 A
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Nw. 17,A 1942.
C. A. DAYTQN ARRANGEMENT FOR THE FRAMING 0F WOODEN STRUQTURES 4 sheets-sheet '1 Filed July 42, 194() fg?. a.
IN1/gro Nov. 17, 1942. c, A DAYTQN 2,302,194
ARRANGEMENT FOR THE. FRAMING OF WODEN STRUCTURES Filed July 2, 1940 "4 SheetsdSheet 2 l/5 W6 f 14 l l 4'5" 9 [e Il.; l5 V3 l 1N ENzoR.
Nov. 17, 1942. K c. A. vDAYTON 2,302,194.
ARRANGEMENT FOR THE FRAMING WOODEN STRUCTURES Filed July 2, 1940 4 snags-sheet 3 @Mya @new INV TOR. v
Nov. 17,Y 194.2, c. A. DAYTON ARRANGEMENT FOR THE FRAMING OF WOODEN STRUCTURES Filed July 2, 1940 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 fffa /I Patented Nov. 17, 1942 iJNiTED sTATE-s PATENT OFFICE ARRANGEMENT FOR THE FRAMING F WOODEN STRUCTURES Clarence Ames Dayton, Rock ulsland, Ill.
Application July 2, 1940, Serial N0. 343,635 (o1. 2li- 94) Y 1 Claim.
My invention relates to an improved arrangement 4for the framing of wooden structures, particularly buildings, and more especially to the inclusion of a metallic member designed to arrange,
support and hold Wooden timbers or members in the proper coordinated positions for the economical erection'of such wooden frame structures.
The present practice in the wooden building construction of supporting the oors, ceilings, and rafters from joists, beams and other cross-timbers set on capped studding results in uneven shrinkage of the structure due to the difference in the shrinkage factors of timbers set end-to-end and edgewise; to the multiplicity of bearing surfaces;
to the factor known as the personal equation--v larly, by nailing, the holding power of the nails is greaterwhen the 'nails are driven at right angles to the surfaces of contact between Vthe timbers than when driven inclined to the surfaces of contact. 'Ihe lateral resistance of nails whenv driven parallel to the fibers of the timber is only 9, or less of that when driven perpendicular to the supported by f ull building height -studding 'wherever possible, reduces the quantity ofV timber required and lessens the labor needed for erection. All this is accomplished. Without any radical departure from current methods of wooden building construction.
The main objectives of my invention are accomplished by the employment of metallic members in the form of a channel, Z, angle, L, or modication of these forms which provide a plurality of spaced recesses for the engagement of studs,
these spaced recesses to be made any desired standard or special spacing; a plurality of seats and guides, adjacent to the spaced recesses, to
receive and support in position the joists, rafters or other cross-timbers comprising the supports for floors, ceilings, roof or other parts .of the structure, which togetherwith the use of certain appurtenances secures benefits in economy of bers. The combination of these factors causes I' cracking of plastered walls, interferes with the smooth operationof doors and windows being a common cause forY the distortion of. door. and
window frames and` reduces the abilityof theA structure to withstand and stresses due' to'wixul, live iloor and roof loads, earth shocks Aand other vihratory elements.
Bearing these inherent characteristics of wooden buildings and their methods of construction in mind, it is the principalobject of my invention superimposed extra load on the -oor system. The
construction not possible by other means or devices for framing wooden structures. These appurtenances include a V-bracket, a U-clip, a U- hanger, a. stretched-Z brace, and a clip-on insulated-plate. The v -bracket is designed to afford additional support and stiffness to the principal spacer support member, Where openings are spanned, Without the necessity for the double studding and header methods usually employed in .the vpresent conventional method of framing around openings. The U-clip is attached to the flange of vthe joist supporting and holdingstud- .spacing unit where it is desired to introduce an additional joist to support a partition or other U -hanger is used in conjunction with two channel sections, between which it hangs with its hands resting on the'channels. It isinserted in the stud spacer recess and' used to support a stud over an opening or other gap in the framing arrangement. The elongated-Z brace' is employed in conjunction with the V-bracket to transfer the to provide afmetallie member or unit which spaces the studs, supports the joistsand rafters intheir proper relationship to the studs, facilitates theerection of these elements of the strucwhole; eliminates the cutting of notches or sawkerfs in studdins or e inthestudding for the introduction' of horizontal ribbands in certain forms of construction, which weaken the studding due to l-the cross-sectional area of the studs at the places Vwhere cut; decreases the tendency for non-uniform shrinkage due to the ture: increases thestability of the structure as a fact that the floor. ceiling and rafr systems are Alili principal reaction of a suspended wooden member to an adjacent xed member in such fashion as to cause it to be firmly held in position .without harmful movement under load. It is alsous'ed in locations where it is desired to transfer. stress as from one unit'` or member. of a structure to another; to Aincrease the resistance to stress and to otherwise increase the strength, rigidity, and ability ofthe structure to resist imposed forces tending to distort, strain, or otherwise. impair the eillciency of the framing. The clip-on insulated y plate is for the-'purpose of creating a fire-stop just below'thedoor level by attaching it to the lower-flange of the j oist supporting stringer. This plate is so designed as to al-most completely fill the space between the studs and the outside and inside walls thus preventing or retarding fire from getting beyond the stop plate.
The present types of framing systems used in erecting wooden buildings are well known. Platform framing is the type most generally employed, except where brick veneer and stucco exteriors are desired. These exterior treatments require balloon framing. My invention is used in erecting a modified type of balloon frame which eliminates the box-sill and the double top plate or cap on the studs 'for the rafters to rest on. An examination of Figure 18 of my drawings will disclose the essential features as well as advantages to be secured by use of my invention in erecting the wooden building frame. It will be noted that with the use of my spacer-Stringer the timbers are positioned so that they are fastened together by nailing across the grain and at right angles to the surfaces of contact between said timbers. In the platform frame most of the nail-- ing is either parallel to the grain or inclined to the surfaces of contact. For instance, the nails holding the top plates or caps to the studs and the joist header to the joists are driven through these 4pieces into the ends of the studs or joints as the case may be. are to be avoided, if the best and strongest frame is desired. Further, nails driven inclined to contact surfaces tend to split the timbers and thus destroy their holding power.- Also, longer and larger nails are necessary becauseof the greater distance to be driven. The longer and larger the nail to be driven, the more time and effort is required to drive it.
If, in certain cases, it is desired to keep floor joists in line, the use of a double set of spacerstringers (one on each side of the studs of interior walls and partitions) will permit the joists to be abutted on one side of the studding instead of having them one on each side of the studding.
Therefore, this invention provides a metal or other structural member for improving, -protecting, strengthening, and expediting the erection of the framed parts of wooden buildings. The exact means of accomplishing these ends are best observed by referring to the drawings forming a part hereof and described as follows:
Figure 1 is a perspective detail view of my spacer unit, including lap type of end connection;
Figure 2 is a perspective, detail view of a tongue and U-type of end connection;
Figure 3 is an end elevational view of the channel type of spacer unit;
Figure 4 is a similar view of the Z-type of spacer unit; I
Figure 5 is a similar view of the type of spacer unit;
Figure 6 is a similar view of the modified channel-type of spacer unit;
Figure 7 is a similar View of the angle-type o spacer unit; l
Figure 8 is a perspective, detail view of the intermediate spacer guide for the angle type of spacer unit;
Figure 9 is an elevational view of the V-bracket which gives additional support to the spacer unit adjacent to openings in the structure frame and end view of the U-clip for spacing and holding joists and beams intermediate the studding;
modified Z- These methods of nailing Figure 10 is a. side view of the V-bracket and elongated-Z attaching clip-on insulated plate to spacer unit;
Figure 15 is a perspective detail view of a U- hanger;
Figure 16 is a detail view showing the application of the spacer-Stringer unit, U-hanger, V-
bracket, and'elongated-Z brace, a' spacer-stringer- Figure 18 is a perspective view showing the' general application of the spacer support unit and the adjacent appurtenances; and
Figure 19 shows a form of rafter and cap plate construction.
The principal advantages which I claim for my invention are the elimination of a large amount of the measuring, cutting, and tting of the parts comprising the average building framed of wood. Reducing such items will save material. will lessen labor time, and will result in speedier erection of the frame, which, at the same time, will be stronger because the studs are full wall height and the iioor system is tied into the wall in such a manner that the entire frame tends to be an integrated unit rather than being com# posed of several independently framed units resty ing one upon the other.
One of the advantages which I claim for my invention is its use in framing a structure where the oors of the rooms are'at different levels, or it is desired to Ycantilever any part of the structure. The placing of a oor at, practically any level on the studs is facilitated to a degree not possible with any other method now in existence.
Another advantage is that the quantity of nails is reduced since a shorter and often a smaller nail can be used with equal or greater capacity due to the fact that the thickness of the metal unit, through holes in which the nails to hold the unit to the studs are driven into the wood member, is but a fraction of the wooden member 1t replaces. Withthe use of a shorter and smaller nail, less time and effort are required to drive it, which reduces the labor cost as well as the material cost.
Another advantage is that since the frame of the structure tends to act as a. unit under my method offraming, it is not necessary to lay the sub-ilooring diagonally as is generallydone in current building practice and neither is it necessary to sheath the exterior of the frame diag onally in order to anchor the second story to the first story as should always be done in the type of construction employing the Western or lPlat stallation of heating or Ventilating pipes or ducts.
Electrical conduits,'laundry chutes, etc., can be installedy more easily. Also the wall and floor systems are not weakened as would be the case inlother methods of framing which requires the omission or cutting of an essential tie plate upon which the structure depends for strength.
Still another advantage is that with the trend of air-conditioning toward the circulation of air ,through th'e walls and floor systems the use of my inventionwill lfacilitate the incorporation of such 4an air-conditioning scheme into the building plan.
Another advantage is that where the walls are insulated by the use of insulating blankets, etc., which fit into or fill the spaces between the studs, there need be no gaps at the floor levels such as usually occur in framing systems known as the platform or western frame and the braced framea.
' The method of framing which my invention facilitates is definitely more shock-resisting and when used in regions subject to extremely violent windstorms or earthquakes, the use of diagonal sheathing of the exterior walls and sub-oors will further strengthen the frame unit against distortion or collapse under such conditions.
The present trend toward the pre-fabricated type of dwellings which is constructed in a factory and shipped to the building site ready for speedy erection has, to a considerable extent,
been brought about by the high labor costfor the dwelling built wholly from raw materials at the site. It is an order to aid both the man who desires to build at a reasonable cost and the mechanic who does the work, that I assert and contend that my invention will usefully Vserve both parties and oset'to a considerable degree the inroads being made by the pre-fabricated type of.
not cut the full width of the flange. The grooves I3 depressed in the'v web add stiffness and thus allow the use of lighter metal for forming porated into the frame plan a bridge-like truss Y to support the framework above openings which will eliminate largely the shortcomings -of the flatarch currently in luse with its p oor and irregular contacts between composing members with the consequence that when loaded, settlement and readjustments occur to oset the stresses and strains imposed'thereby. This condition is reilected in the'cracks appearing in the wall plaster over the corners of windows and doors and often, also, in the ceiling plaster in the proximity of these openings.
In carrying out my invention, I provide a metal member or stringer I (Figure 1), preferably in the formv of a h'annel, although for certain applications it may be in the form of a Z I4 (Figure 4) or an angle vI1 (Figure 7) or any of the modications of these forms indicated or suggested in" shown in Figure 1. The stringer I may be fabricated in any desired'length-usually a multiple of the specified stud spacing with 4the ends made as at `6. Stringer I in such form is particularly suited for use since-it is symmetrical about the longitudinal'central line of the web, except for the ends 6. The stringeris stronger when 5 is 75 stringer I without sacrifice of strength which makes for economy of material and ease of handling due t'o the reduction in weight of long sections. End connection `Iia--Ib Figure 2 is designed especially for stringers to be used in erecting load-bearing partitions since 6a will slip .through slot 8 where the partition adjoins the outside wall. Stud thrust plate` 1 is formed by cutting the ange Ia., Ib, I4a, I4b, I5a, or the flange and web in the case of I1, at'the centerline and along the web at the designated stud spacing interval and bending each section of the `ilange thus freed into position as shown in Figures 1, 2, or '8. The recess thus formed for receiving th'e stud will be called a. stud recess. In cases where extra stiffness is required 1 may be spot welded or. continuously welded to web I where they adjoin. Slot 8a is cut through web I in such manner as to insure that where tongue 6a is inserted in slot that it will just clear the stud in recess 2. Stringer I will be made either with or without slots 8a and grooves I3. Stringers I with ends 6 can intersect at right angles at the ends there- Stringers I5 and I1 are for special applications involving framing timbers intersecting at other than at right angles to the studding. See Figure 18. Stringer'I5 is .used for supporting attic floor joists55 and roof rafters '56. For
using stringer I5 in this manner seat 4 for joists is either fabricated at'the plant or bent on the job (with special tools furnished) to be at right angles to face I5. lThe balance of flange 15a except for joist seat 4 is either fabricated at thev plant or bent on the job to the proper angle to receive the rafter which is spotted in place by nailing 66 through holes IIJ in rafter restrainer 5. The rafter is firmly anchored to the stud by nailing 61. My method of construction eliminates the cutting or notching of the rafter to provide for proper seating on the cap plate used in the usual`type of framing,
Spacer-stringer I1 Figure 7 is a lighter and cheaper type of unit for use 'in vlocations Awhich do not justify the sturdier channel stringer I or Z stringer I4. All of the features of Stringer I, so far as' they are applicable, will be incorporated in Stringer I1. l
The spacer-stringers are fastenedto studs 53 bynails 20 driven through holes 3 or I2. If additional anchorage is desired to resist forces acting transversely, nails 2| are driven through holes II in stud thrust plates 1 into studs 53, (See Figures 1 and 9.)
Holes 9 in'the spacer-stringers are for anchor wires for metal lath and other purposes. If desired for specialinstallations .the surface of the stringers can be treated or have anchorclips vattached so that plaster and other types of wall treatments will adhere'. n
In the various figures indicating applications of units of my invention, I havenot attempted to draw in all the features sh'own on'the 'detail drawings of the units. All of the units comprising my invention are so designedthat they can bepressed, stamped or fabricated from single sheets of material.
The U-clip 30 is held to la between its spring clip part 30h and flanges 30a which keep the U-clip'from tilting. By vnailing through holes 3| into the joist, the joist is prevented from slipping (See Figure 19.)
endwise until the framing is flooring laid.
` The V-bracket 32 is h'eld to flange Ib between spring clip 33 and ange 32o. V-bracket 32 is nailed to stud 53 by nails 38 through holes 31. V-bracket 32 is formed from a single sheet of metal. Flanges 32a and B2b are welded at their intersection with 32d, Flange 32c is a continuation of 32a which is bent around to meet 32h a? indicated and welded to 32h and to the web o 32.
The Z-brace 40 is designed to transfer loads from one stud to another as illustrated in Figures 16 and 18. It can also be used in stiening the house framing shown in Figure 18 by using it between the studs near the corners of the house as the cut-in braces in the braced-frame type of construction. The brace is so designed completed and the that when parts 40a are fastened by nailing 44 through holes 4I into studs 53 the anchor-edge ends 42 are forced into the studs, so that the load from the stud, as in Figure 18, is transferred through the brace to the studs on either side. The grooves or ribs 43 in the'Z-brace 48 are to increase the stiffness and reduce the likelihood of piece 40 bending or collapsing under load.
The clip-on insulated plate 45 is attached to flange Ib of stringer I and thuscreates a re' stop by closing the space between the studs and the inside and outside Walls. The sheet metal plate is made as shown with recesses 41 to receive stud thrust plate 1. Section 45a will be made so as to be removable from plate 45 in the event it is desired to install plate 45 on a length of Stringer I where V-bracket 32 is already attached to Ib by 33. Section 45a of 45 is just slightly longer than spring clip 33 so that by removing 45a clip-on insulated plate 45 will fit around 33 and 32e without interference. 45h is an insulating coat of asbestos bers or other reproof insulating material glued to 45.
The U-hanger 80 is used in conjunction with double stringers I spanning long openings as illustrated in Figure 16. U-hanger 88 is designed to fit into stud recess 2 of Stringer I as shown in Figures 16 and 17. Holes 84 are placed so that when U-hanger 80 is in position they line up opposite holes 3 in Stringer I thus permitting the end of stud 53 to be anch'ored against slipping out from between sides 8l. In order that the alignment of the studs 53 will notbe disturbed when U-hanger 88 is used, the hanger is designed so that the overall dimension between the' outside faces of 8l is the same as the width of the stud 53. This method requires that each side of the stud be notched suflciently where it sets into the U-part of 80 so as to maintain the prescribed stud alignment. The short pieces of studding 68 are for supportingthe exterior sheeting and the interior lathing, plasterboard, etc. Spreader pieces 'I0 are used to assist in preventing ilexure of the studs under load thus shifting the burden of support to the outside Z-brace 40 in Figure 16 which transmit the loads to the full stud.'
With reference to Figure 18 it will be noted that spacer-stringers I are used to space studs 53 and 58 and support floor joists 54 at the second floor. The V-brackets 32 are used to support the stringer I on either side of opening X for windows and Z-braces 48 are used to assure transfer of load on stud over opening to the studs on either side. This application should only be used for a single stud. If two or more studs are required to be supported over an opening in the framing plan, then the arrangement detailed in Figure 16 or a modcation thereof may be used. The application of spacer-Stringer I5 to space studs and to support rafters 56 is also shown in Figure 18. Note also the use of spacer-Stringer I1 at the third floor interior partition where the loading will be less than elsewhere in the structurel Each appurtenance contributes to the .full utilization of the Stringer unit. The unit could be made with many of the appurtenances incorporated as a part of the unit but it would not be as economical to manufacture or use, i. e., the clip-on insulated plate, Figure 13, might be made a part of the lower flange of the stringer unit. The Vbracket and the U-clip might also be attached to th'e Stringer unit. A double-type stringer unit incorporating the features of the U-hanger could also be made. The only appurtenance which could not conceivably be made in combination with and as a part of the Stringer unit is the Z-brace, Figure 12. This latter ap purten'ance is essential when the Stringer unit is supporting the floor and wall systems over openings in the wall framing.
Figures 16 and 18 show hoWI employ the Z- brace in the wall system rather than in the floor system.
While the forms of the invention herein shown and described are to be taken as the preferred embodiments of the same, it is nevertheless to be understood that minor changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as claimed.
In a building construction having vertical studding and horizontal rafters, a channelshaped stringer having upper and lower edge anges for connecting the rafters to the studding, inwardly directed pairs of spaced guide anges struck out from the said upper and lower edge flanges providing openings in the upper and lower edge flanges for receiving 'said studding, outwardly directed flanges struck out from the upper and lower edge flanges of the stringer at opposite sides of the Stringer and equi-distantly spaced from said inwardly struck-out guide flangesA a distance substantially equal to the width of the rafters whereby the outwardly struck-out anges may be connected to the rafters to form a rigid connection.
CLARENCE AMES DAYTON.