US 2303104 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov.24, 1942. H. G. ABBEY WIDE RANGE OIL BURNER Fild March 15, 1940 $2040 6. Aaazx 1N VENT OR.
w. W N
Patented Nov. 24,1942
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE asoam Appllcs t t iz iz l liji rlgi lt, 10224363 3 Claims.
This invention relates to oil burners and has for its object, the provision of a novel construction of burner which will be capable of efficient operation over a wide range.
A feature of the invention resides in the pro-. vision 'of a novel construction of that type of burner in which mechanical and steam atomization are combined to produce a wide range fuel, oil burner which will operate efficiently at moderate pressures.
A further feature of the'invention resides in a novel construction and arrangement of parts whereby a burner of the aforementioned type may be operated either as a pressure mechanical atomizing burner, a steam atomizing burner, or as a combined pressure mechanical and steam atomizing burner.
A further feature of the invention resides in the provision of a novel construction whereby a burner of the aforementioned type is capable of wide range operation upon heavy fuels, and fuels of the type generally known as colloidal fuels.
Other features of the invention relate to certain novel and improved constructions, arrangements and combinations of parts hereinafter described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the advantages of which will be readily understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art.
The invention will be clearly understood from the accompanying drawing illustrating the invention in its preferred form and the following detailed description of the construction therein shown.
In the drawing:
has a threaded portion ll, herein illustrated as a reduced extension of the body portion [0. I
The rear end of the body portion Ill is provided with two internally threaded recesses l2 and I3 and connected respectively to these recesses, there is an oil supply line H and a steam supply line l5.
Leading from the recess l2 and terminating in the forward end of the burner body l0, there is a passage It. This passage l6 extends through the burner body at an angle to the axis thereof, as best illustrated in Figure 2.
Leading from the recess l3 and terminating in the forward end of the burner, there is a passage l1 and this passage is herein illustrated as extending parallel with the axis of the burner body I.
The forward end of the burner is formed with a recess I8 which is circular in form and mounted within this recess, there is an atomizing element 20, the purpose of whichis to impart a swirling motion to the oil before it is delivered to the sprayer plate 21. The atomizing element "is circular in form and is of a diameter to fit snugly within the recess l8 as best illustrated in Figure 2.
The atomizing element 20 may be milled or otherwise formed with a recessed portion 2| which, when the same is in its operative position,
Figure 1 ma view in frontelevation illustrating a burner constructed in accordance with the present invention,
Figure 2 is a longitudinal sectional view thereof on an enlarged scale, theview being taken substantially on the line 22 of Figure 1,
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken at right angles to Figure 2, the view being taken substantially on the line 33 of Figure 2, and
Figure 4 is a detail perspective view of one of the elements of the bumer One practicalembodiment of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, but it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the specific embodiment herein illustrated, but is capable .of such other forms as 50 rightfully fall within the scope of the appended claims.
In the drawing, the reference numeral l0 designates the body of the burner. The burner body is forms together with the rear wall of the recess l8 of the burner body [0, a chamber22 into which fuel oil is introduced from the passage l6. Upon its opposite or front face, the atomizing element 20 may be milled or otherwise formed with a recess 25, which construction results in a main body portion 24 in the form of a partition within a ring-like member 26.- Near its outer edge, the body portion 24 is provided with a circular series of spaced openings 23, the purpose of which will be hereinafter described.
The reference numeral 21 designates a sprayer plate which has its rear face recessed as at 28 to receive the forward edge of the ring-like member 26 of the atomizing element 20. This sprayer plate has a reduced forwardly projecting extension 29 which provides an annular shoulder 30 for engagement by the annular flange 3| of a tip nut or sleeve 32 which in turn has threaded engagement with the threaded portion ll of the burner body I0. By reference to Figure 2 of the drawing, it will be obvious that the tip nut or sleeve 32 retains the several parts in t eir operative positions when it is screwed'hom upon the threaded portion H of the burner body l0.
- Upon its forward face and disposed within the circular series of openings 23, the main body preferably circular in cross-sectional form and V portion 24 of the atomizing element 20 has a I are ilared outwardly as plurality er forwardly projecting spaced lugs ll,
in a curved portion at, which construction provides a wide end It at oneend of the lug, while the opposite end of thelug terminates in a thin or feather edge II by reason of the merging of the curved outer edge It with the straight portion" of the inner. ed e of the lug.
The lugs are preferably formed integral with the'atomizin that the wide end a. of each lug is in juxtaposition to the straight portion 31 of the inner edge of an adjacent lug which construction and arrangement of parts provides tangential passages 4i between adjacent 1W there being four of these passages II in the present embodiment of the invention.
The recess 2! of the atomizing element 2ltogether with the rear face 42 of the sprayer plate 21, provides a chamber 42 and the circular series of openings 28, from the means of communication between the chamber 22 and this chamber 43, while the tangential passages ll establish communication between the chamber 43 and the central area ll within the lugs 25 of the atomizin element 2|.
The two chambers 22 and 43, being in direct communication with each other through the openings 23, form in effect a single fuel chamber within the atomizing element 2., the only outlet of which is a passage leading through the sprayer asoaioa.
element 2. and are also so formed Fuel is passed through the pressure from which it is discharged into the passage It. From the passage It, the fuel is discharged into the chamber'22 from which it 5 passes by way'of the circular series of openings 23 into the chamber 43. From the chamber ll. the fuel asses by way ofthe passages ll between the lugs II into the .area ll within the lugs from which it Why way of the passage through the sprayer plate 21, to the burner orifice OI where it ignites.
Byreason oftheconstruction of theformof the inner edges of the lugs 8|, thefuelas itis discharged from the passaga llis given a violent swirling action sufllcient to atoniise the same to such an extent as to render ithighly combustible as it emerges from the burner orifice and mixu with the air. when operating as just described. the flame takes the conical or so-called umbrella 2 formillustratedbythedashlinesainl igureil of the drawing and so long as suflicient pressure is maintained in the oil line ll, the burner will continue to operate as described,
The foregoing operation is, generally speaking, that of the so-called pressure atomizer burner. As aforementioned, however, this type of burner is not capable of operation over a wide range since reduction of pressure in the fuel line results in incomplete atomization of the fuel, thus giving improper combustion.
The present burner is so constructed as to maintain proper atomization of the fuel even at low pressures in the fuelline and I will now describe the manner in which this is accomplate 21, which passage will be hereinafter more plished.
The outer face of the sprayer plate is formed with a recess l, the rear or bottom wall 41 of which is of flat circular form, and the side walls Figure 2 of the drawing. The sprayer late has a fuel discharge passage which extends therethrough this passage having a cylindrical portion as, which merges into a tapered or conical portion III which in turn terminates in a reduced cylindrical portion II which forms the burner orifice of the burner.
The sprayer plate 21 is of a smaller diameter than the tip nut or sleeve which construction provides a chamber 55 which surrounds the sprayer plate 21 and the atomizing element 2| and into which the steam passage ll discharges.
Leading through the sprayer plate 21, there .are tangential passages It which establish comwith the burner operating as Just described, that is at peak load, and it is desired to reduce the flame, the pressure in the fuel line it is reduced to the desired degree and the steam line best illustrated in 40 i5 is opened up to admit steam to the chamber from which it passes by way of the passage 56 and isdischarged across the burner orifice ii. The steam as it is discharged from the passages 58 impinges upon the-fuel as it emerges from the 5 burner orifice ll with sufficient force to eifect complete atomization of those particles not broken up by the mechanical action of the atomizing element 2| because of the reduction of pressure in the fuel line. It is to be understood that as the pressure in the fuel line is reduced, the pressure in the steam line is proportionately increased to maintain atomization of the fuel at the burning point.
By proportionately increasing the steam pres- 55 sure as the fuel pressure is reduced, complete atomization of the fuel may be had at extremely .low pressures or at any point in between maximum and minimum pressures in the fuel line thus resulting in a burner capable of efiicient wide be range operation.
-When operating'at extremely low pressures, however, the flame changes in its shape from that designated by the dash lines A to that designated by the dot-and dash lines B. This change walls of the recess 0 at points opposite to the 5 in flame shape is caused by reason of the fact discharge ends of the passages for a urpose which will be hereinafter more specifically described The operation of the burner will now be de- When operating at full capacity or load, the burner functions as a mechanicaior pressure atomizer burner and I will first describe the manner in which the burner operates under such conditions.
. burner. orifice is deflected by the steam-discharged into the recess 4' from the tangential v vpassage S8 and is forcibly impinged against the side walls 48 of the recess 48 which action, due to the tangential position of the passages 4!, im-
parts a swirling action to the fuel resulting from 76 its forcible projection against the side walls 40 of the recess 48. This swirling action, together with the forcible impingement of the fuel against the side walls 48 of the recess 48 serves to subject the fuel to both a mechanical and steam pressure action which insures complete atomization thereof even at extremely low pressures in the fuel line.
. As the fuel is forcibly impinged against the side walls 48 of the recess 46, the said side walls act as baflles serving to eflect a breaking up of such particles of the fuel as have not been broken up of the burner, it is only necessary to increase the pressure in the fuel line and proportionately, decrease the pressure in the steam line until maximum pressure in the fuel line is reached at which time, the steam will be entirely out off and the burner will operate as a pressure atomizing burner.
In the illustrated embodiment of. the invention, there has been no means illustrated for controlling the pressures in the fuel oil supply line l4 and the steam supply line l5. It is to be understood, however, that suitable valves will be employed in these lines and that the operation of these valves may be by way of example, manual, automatic, or synchronized depending upon the type of installation made.
Although an air register has not been herein .illustrated, burners of this general type employ such devices to introduce air at the burning point and it has been found that with the burner herein illustrated, -an air register may be operated at much lower velocities than is the common practice and that under certain operating atomizing element, sprayer plate, and tip nut or sleeve being so constructed and arranged as to provide noncommunicating fuel and steam chambers having communication respectively with the fuel assage and the steam passage aforementioned," an outwardly flared recess upon the outer face of the sprayer plate, said recess having a flat bottom wall, a fuel discharge passage leading through the sprayer plate and terminating at its outer end in a burner orifice in the bottom wall of the outwardly flared recess, and steam passages leading tangentially through the sprayer plate substantially in the plane of the flat bottom of said outwardly flared recess for projecting steam across the path of the fuel discharged through the burner orifice.
2. An oil burner comprising a burner body having a fuel passage and a steam passage, leading therethrough, an atomizing element, a sprayer sleeve being so constructed plate, a tip nut or sleeve for retaining the atomizingelement and sprayer plate in operative position upon the burner body, said burner body, atomizing element, sprayer plate, and tip nut or and arranged as to provide noncommunicating fueland steam chambers-having communication respectively with the fuel passage and the steam passage aforementioned, an outwardly flared recess upon the outer face of the sprayer plate, said recesshaving a flat bottom wall, a fuel discharge passage leading through the sprayer plate and terminating at its outer end in a burner orifice in the bottom wall of the outwardly flared recess, and steam passages leading tangentially through the wall of the outwardly flared recess of the sprayer plate for projecting steam across the path of the fuel discharged through the burner orifice,- and forcibly conditions, eflicient operations may be had even without an air register.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that by impact with atomization by steam, is a feature of this invention which has not heretofore, to my knowledge, been attempted.
Having thus described my invention what I claim is:
1. An oil burner comprising a burner body having a fuel passage and a steam passage leading therethrough, an atomizing element, a sprayer I plate, a tip nut or sleeve for retaining the atomizing element andsprayer plate in operative position upon the burner body. said burner body.
impinge, said fuel against the side walls of the outwardly flared recess upon the outer face of the sprayer plate.
3. An oil burner comprising a burner body having a fuel passage and a steam passage leading therethrough, an atomizing element, a sprayer plate, a tip nut or sleeve for retaining the atomizing element and sprayer plate in operative position upon the burner body, said burner body, atomizing element, sprayer plate, and, tip nut or sleeve being so constructed and arranged as to provide a fuel chamber within the atomizing element having communication with the fuel passage and a steam chamber surrounding the atomizing element, said fuel chamber and said steam chamber being isolated with respect to each other, an outwardly flared recess upon the outer face of the sprayer plate, said recess having a flat bottom wall, a fuel discharge passage leading from the fuel chamber through the sprayer plate and terminating at its outer end in a burner orifice in the bottom'wall of the outwardly flared recess, and steam passages leading from the steam chamber through the sprayer plate and terminating at their discharge end substantially in the plane of the flat bottom wall of the outwardly flared recess of the sprayer plate whereby to pro- Ject steam across the flat bottom wallof the recess and across the path of fuel as it is discharged from the burner orifice and forcibly impinge the fuel against the side walls of the outwardly flared recess as it is discharged from the burner oriflce.
HAROLD G. ABBEY.