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Publication numberUS2303203 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 24, 1942
Filing dateMar 18, 1940
Priority dateMar 18, 1940
Publication numberUS 2303203 A, US 2303203A, US-A-2303203, US2303203 A, US2303203A
InventorsHarold P Faris, Daniel W Yochum, Russell B Logan
Original AssigneeNat Automotive Fibres Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Carpet
US 2303203 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1942. H.'P. FARIS ETAL 2,303,

CARPET Filed March 18, 1940 HAROLD I? FARIS DANIEL w. YOCHUM RUSSELL a. LOGAN 12 (3M ATTORNEYS Patented Nov. 24, 1942 l UNITED STATES PATENT V OFFICE 'asoazos CARPET Harold P. Faris, Philadelphia, Pa., and Daniel W. Yochum and Russell B. Logan, Trenton, N. 1., assignors to National Automotive Fibres, Inc., Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware Application March 18, 1940, Serial No. 324,734

14 Claims.

to combine a felted fibrous under padding with a woven pile fabric by needling fibers from the felted pad through the fabric and locking them in place by calendering rubber thereto.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a serviceable, economical floor covering characterized by the combination in an integrated article of cemented pile fiberelements and a fibrous base.

Other objects of the invention will be apparent as the description proceeds, and when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing wherein The figure is a section through a fioor covering manufactured in accordance with the present invention.-

The carpet which forms the subject matter of the present invention has a tread surface of generally upstanding individual pile fiber elements. These elements are relatively long and relatively coarse and are attached in such a manner that they form an upstanding pile. We

have found that fibers, such for example as goat or similar animal hair, are entirely suitable for this purpose and further add substantially to the economy of the product. I

In ,order to give the completed article the requisite degree of softness under foot, we combine with the tread surf-ace an under padding of fibrous material, preferably a felted fibrous material such for example as jute. Other fibrous materials may, of course, be employed, but jute has been found to be entirely satisfactory and relatively inexpensive.

In producing the aforementioned tread surface composed of cemented pile fiber elements, it is essential that the same be attached to a supporting woven fabric. While the under padding as a whole is to be soft and resilient, it is desirable that the support for the fibers shall have no substantial stretch. For this purpose we perm'anently attach a woven fabric, such as sheeting,

base. We have obtained best results by attache ing the felted fibrous base and fabric in the following manner:

The woven fabric is placed against the felted fibrous base and portions of the felted fibrous base is needled to the fabric. As is well understood, this needling operation comprises forcing needles through the felted material and the fabric in a manner to draw a plurality of fibers from the felted fibrous base through the woven fabric. Withdrawal of the needles is accomplished without withdrawing the fibers, and the result is that the felted material and the fabric are attached together. As will be readily apparent, the strength of the bond thus created between the felt base and the fabric is not very great. It is accordingly desired to anchor the needled fabric in place.

This is accomplished by calendering a. thin film of unvulcanized rubber onto the surface of the woven fabric at the opposite side thereof from the feltedmaterial. This calendering operation performs two functions: In the first place it serves to lock the fibers which have been needled to the fabric in place... In the second place it provides a smooth surface, which is essential for further processing. The material as thus far completed, comprises the fabric base, an overlying sheet of woven fabric to which the fibrous base is needled, and a surface coat of calendered rubber which is substantially smooth.

In order to apply the tread surface previously referred to, the next operation is to spread or otherwise apply a coat of cement over the unvulcanized, calendered rubber. Preferably, for this purpose, a cement is employed which com prises both rubber and resins in a suitable solvent. A satisfactory cement comprises about 25 parts of reclaimed rubber, 25 parts of ester gum and 50 parts of a solvent. The solvent employed is such that when it is applied to the unvul-. canized rubber calendered to the woven fabric, it tends to soften the upper surface of the rubber so that in effect the cement and the calendered rubbermerge gradually one into the other. By reason of this, there is no distinct plane of cleavage between the cement and the rubber.

I Following the application of the cement the material is vibrated rapidly in a vertical direction, while at the same time the pile fiber elements are sifted downwardly thereon. The pile fiber elements of a coarseness and stiffness substantially the same as goat hair, are preferably cut to substantially predetermined length, which osnaburg, burlap or tobacco cloth to the felted maybe about .200 inch. .Due to the vibration, a

substantial proportion of these fiber elements adhere to the cement in generally upstanding relation. The fibers are not all vertical, nor in fact is any substantial percentage of them arranged in a strictly vertical relation, but the effect of the whole is to provide a pile surface com posed of individual upstanding fiber elements.

ber is substantially softened so that some of the pile fiber elements embed themselves in the uppersurface of the rubber.

The carpet is completed by vulcanizing the rubber. This also causes the cement to set so that the fibers are firmly anchored in place.

Carpeting of this nature may be produced in a continuous process in a very economicalmanner. For example, the fiber base and the woven fabric may be needled to ether as they advance past a needling station. The fiber base and the fabric may then advance to calendering rolls, at which point the thin film of rubber is calendered to the woven fabric, thus locking the needled fibers in place and providing the necessary smooth surface for further processing. The material may continue to advance past an applicator for applying the cement to the surface of the calendered rubber. The application of the individual pile fibers may also take place in the same continuous process by advancing the material beneath a sifter or other device for directing the fibers downwardly onto the advancing cement coated surface. The necessary vibration may be produced in various manners, but satisfactory results have been obtained by advancing the material on a canvas conveyor over a series of rotating beaters. preferably in the form of polygonal bars rotated at high speed. The conveyor which advances the carpeting may be under sufficient tension to insure rapid vibration by reason of the rotation of these bars. Of course, if preferred, other types of vibrators may be substituted, such for example as electrically actuated, vertically movable elements.

The process just described results in a complete useful article, but preferably we prefer to treat the under surface of the felt base with a suitable binder. This is to prevent separation of the loose fibers from the felted base. This may be accomplished, for example, by spraying the under surface of the felt base with a suitable cement, such for example as a rubber cement or dispersion. This treatment of the lower surface of the felt base serves the double function of preventing separation of loose fibers therefrom and also of providing a surface which is substantially non-slipping when applied to wooden floors for example.

We have further found that the carpet is improved where the woven fabric which is needled to the felt base is initially sized to give it some stiffness. Ordinary size, such for example as starch, may be employed. This gives the completed productsubstantial body, which has been found very desirable.

Carpets made according to the present invention compare very favorably with ordinary woven carpets. They are of substantial thickness and have a desirable softness under foot, due in large measure to the presence of the felt under pad. Their surface appearance approximate very closely the appearance of ordinary woven carpets, due to the upstanding relation of the pile fibers.

The texture or "feel of the carpet under foot is substantially improved by reason of the aforementioned arrangement of the pile fiber elements. As previously stated, these pile fiber elements are cut to predetermined length from relatively coarse or stiff fibers. Fibers of this nature are employed for the reason that they are economical and also because they exhibit superior wearing qualities. They also have sufdcient body or mass to cause them to embed themselves substantially into the cement, as previously described. I1; will be appreciated that if all of these fibers were arranged in strict parallelism and were substantially vertical, the result would be an undesirable texture -under foot. Under these conditions, when a person stepped on the carpet, there would be a distinct phase of resistance during which the weight applied would be supported by the vertical fibers. As more weight was applied the fibers would suddenly collapse. It is readily apparent that such a condition would be highly undesirable.

According to the present arrangement the fibers are all arranged more or less at random and only a very small percentage of the fibers are strictly vertical. It may be stated in general that the fibers extend upwardly in all angles from These heaters are zero to 90, with a substantial majority of the fibers arranged at angles of between 10 and 80 to the surface ofthe fabric. Accordingly. when a person steps on this carpet, the small percentage of fibers which is strictly vertical is insufiicient to oppose much resistance to the downward movement of the foot. .The other fibers being already inclined, merely bend under the application of weight so that there is no definite resistance followed by a sudden breaking down or collapse of the fibrous tread.

We consider this to be an important feature of the present invention, and, as will be recognized, it is useful whether employed in combination with the specific felted fiber base illustrated herein or in combination with bases of other padding material, or without any integrated base whatever.

The figure is a more or less diagrammatic section illustratingthe arrangement of parts of our improved carpet. In this figure the fiber base, which is preferably felted, is indicated at I0, and the reinforcing woven fabric II is attached thereto by needling, some of the fibers of the base I0 being carried through the fabric II as indicated at l2. The calendered rubber which is applied to the outer surface of the fabric II and which locks the needled fibers I! in place is indicated at IS. The cement which is applied to the calendered rubber I3 is indicated at M, and

the pile fibers are shown at l5. While we have illustrated a distinct plane of cleavage between the cement I4 and the rubber II, it will be appreciated that in fact these two merge one into the other. As previously described, we have indicated the pile fibers as generally upstanding but as having an average inclination substantially less than At I. we have indicated the lower surfacing applied to the base II, which as previously described may be applied in the form of a spray or rubberous material.

Carpeting oftl istypeisusefulinhomesas ordinary domestic carpet, as carpeting for stairs, as carpeting in automotive vehicles, or wherever conventional woven carpeting is employed. Its durability is very great due to the fact that the fibers which form the tread surface are long wearing and are permanently bonded to the supporting fabric by means of the cement disclosed herein. The carpeting may be given any desired color by coloring the individual pile fiber elements previous to their attachment to the carpet, or by a suitable coloring operation subsequent to their attachment to the fabric. If desired, a cement which is employed to bond the fibers to the carpet may be similarly colored, although it is ordinarily found that the fibers may be attached sufficiently thickly so as to completelyconceal the cement. If desired, the surface of the carpet, after completion, may be givena pattern by a suitable printing operation.

While we have illustrated and described a single embodiment of our carpet, this has been done solely to'enable those skilled in the art to practice our invention, the scope of which is indicated by the appended claims.

What we claim as our invention is:

1. A floor covering comprising a felted fiber base, a woven fabric surmounting said base and needled thereto whereby a plurality of fibers from said base extend through said fabric to the upper surface thereof, a layer of rubber calendared to the upper surface of said fabric and vulcanized thereto so as to lock in place the fibers that explace, applying a coat of cement over said rubber, flocking said cement coated surface with relatively long, coarse, fibers while vibrating the assembly, and vulcanizing said rubber.

3. In a fioor covering, a base fabric, a tread surface comprising a multiplicity of individual woven'fabric, a fiber base needled to oneside of said fabric, a ply of rubber calendered to the other side of said fabric and vulcanized thereto, a tread surface cemented to said rubber, said tread surface comprising individual pile fiber elements a majority of which have an average length of about .200 inch and have about the coarseness and stiffness of goat hair, said pile fiber elements arranged in a generally upstanding random relation, the majority of said pile fiber elements extending at angles between and 80 to the surface of said fabric.

, fabric disposed in surface to surface relation upon pile fiber elements cemented at one end to said base fabric, said pile fiber elements being of a coarseness and stiffness sufficient to render them suitablefor use as upstanding pile forming elements in a floor covering and being arrangedin a random upstanding arrangement wherein said pile fiber elements extend in different directions and at different angles to said base fabric.

4. In a floor covering, a base fabric, a tread surface comprising a multiplicity of individual pile fiber elements cemented at one end to said base fabric,. said pile fiber elements being of a coarseness and stifiness sufiicient to render them suitable for use as upstanding pile forming elements in, a floor covering and being arranged in a random upstanding arrangement, the majority of saidpile fiber elements being at angles between 10 and 80 to the plane of said fabric.

5. In a fioor covering, a base fabric, a tread surface comprising -a multiplicity of individual pile fiber elements cemented at one end to said base fabric, the majority of said pile fiber elements being about .200 inch in length and having the coarseness and stiffness of goat hair and being arranged in a random upstanding arrangement wherein said pile fiber elements extend in different directions and at different angles to said base fabric.

6. A floor coveringv comprising a reinforcing 7. In a fioor covering, a base fabric, a tread surface comprising a multiplicity of individual pile fiber elements cemented at one end to said base fabric, at least a large proportion of said pile fiber elements being of a coarseness and stiffness sufficient to render themsuitable for use as upstanding pile forming elements in a floor cov ering and being arranged in a random upstanding arrangement, the majority of said pile fiber elements being at angles between 10 and to the plane of said fabric, said pile fiber elements having an average length on the order of .200 inch.

8. A floor covering comprising a woven fabric, a felted fiber base beneath said woven fabric and needled thereto whereby to provide a plurality of groups of fibers extending through said Woven fabric through the upper surface thereof, a coat of rubber calendered to the upper surface of said fabric so as to interlock the fibers extending through said fabric in place and to provide a smooth upper surface, said rubber being vulcanized to said fabric, and a tread surface of individual upstanding pile fibers adhered to said rubber coat.

the upper surface of said-base, portions of the fibrous material of the base being needled through the woven fabric to prevent the base from stretching, a relatively thin layer of rubber composition disposed in surface to surface relation and adhered to said woven fabric so as to hold in place the portions aforesaid of the base that are needled through the fabric, a layer of cement disposed in surface to surface relation and adhered to the layer of rubber composition, and a mul-' titude of individual relatively long, coarse and stiff pile fiber elements imbedded in and extending upwardly from the layer of cement so as to provide a tread surface, the individual fibers being arranged at various angles to the layer of cement.

10. A floor covering having a relatively soft base of felted fibrous material, a woven fabric disposed in surface to surface relation upon the upper surface of said base, portions of the fibrous material of the base being needled through the woven fabric to prevent the base from stretching, a relatively thin layer of rubber composition disposed in surface to surface relation and adhered to said woven fabric so as to hold in place the portions aforesaid of the base that are needled through the fabric, a layer of cement disposed in surface to surface relation and adhered to the layer of rubber composition, and a multitude of individual pile fiber elements imbedded in and extending upwardly from the layer of cement so as to provide a tread surface.

11. The method of making a floor covering which comprises the steps of sizing a sheet of woven fabric to give it stiffness, placing the sized woven fabric in surface to surface relation upon a relatively soft, felted fibrous base, needling portions of the fibrous base through the fabric to prevent the base from stretching, calendering a relatively thin layer of unvulcanized rubber onto the woven fabric to hold in place the portions aforesaid of the base that are needled through the fabric, applying to the layer of rubber a layer of cement containing a solvent tending to soften the adjacent surface of the rubber so that the cement and calendered rubber merge together, vibrating the assembly in a vertical direction, sifting a multitude of individual relatively long and coarse pile fiber elementsonto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated so that a substantial proportion of said fiber elements will imbed themselves to a substantial degree in said cement and in some instances also in the softened rubber in generally an upstanding relation thereto, subjecting the assembly to heat to vulcanize the rubber and harden the cement, and applying a resilient binder to the under side of the felted fibrous base to prevent separation of the fibrous material thereof.

12. The method of making a floor covering which comprises the steps of placing woven fabric in surface to surface relation upon a relatively soft felted fibrous base, needling portions of the fibrous base throughthe fabric to prevent the base from stretching, calendaring a relatively thin layer of unvulcanized rubber onto the woven fabric to hold in place the portions aforesaid of the base that are needled through sembly to heat to vulcanize the rubber and harden the cement.

13. The method of making a floor covering which comprises the steps of placing woven fabric in surface to surface relation upon a relatively soft felted fibrous base, needling portions 7 tical direction, cutting to a predetermined length the fabric, applying to the layer of rubber a layer of cement, vibrating the assembly in a vertical direction, directing downwardly onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated a multitude of individual relatively long and coarse pile fiber elements so that a substantial proportion of said fiber elements will imbed themselves to a substantial degree in said cement at various angles thereto, and subjecting the asa multitude of relatively coarse pile fiber elements, directing downwardly onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated the cut pile fiber elements so that a substantial proportion of said fiber elements will imbed themselves to a substantial degree in said cement at various angles thereto, and subjecting the assembly to heat to vulcanize the rubber and harden the cement.

14. The method of making a fioor covering which comprises the steps of placing woven fabric in surface to surface relation upon a relatively soft felted fibrous base, needling portions of the fibrous base through the fabric to prevent the base from stretching, applying a relatively thin layer of unvulcanized rubber to the woven fabric to hold in place the portions aforesaid of the base that are needled through the fabric, applying to the layer of rubber a layer of cement, vibrating the assembly in a vertical direction, directing downwardly onto the cement while the assembly is being vibrated a multitude of individual relatively long and coarse pile fiber elements so that a substantial proportion of said fiber elements will imbed themselves to a substantial degree in said cement, and subjecting the assembly to heat to vulcanize the rubber and harden the cement.

HAROLD P. FARIS. DANIEL W. YOCHUM. RUSSELL B. LOGAN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2515847 *Apr 13, 1945Jul 18, 1950Carl W WinklerSurfacing material
US2706324 *Mar 13, 1953Apr 19, 1955Mohawk Carpet Mills IncPile fabrics and method for making them
US2791268 *Sep 1, 1955May 7, 1957Mendelsohn Samuel HAutomobile seat and back pad
US2913803 *Oct 22, 1957Nov 24, 1959Artloom Carpet Company IncPile faced fabric
US3060072 *Nov 16, 1959Oct 23, 1962Bigelow Sanford IncBacked carpet and method of producing the same
US5445860 *Jun 22, 1994Aug 29, 1995Gff Holding CompanyElastomer applied to primary backing in non-contiguous form to provide voids; backing can be tufted without primary backing fibers being immobilized
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/90, 156/279, 524/925, 28/112, 156/148, 428/95, 156/73.6, 524/274, 524/915, 427/206, 428/96
International ClassificationD04H11/00, D04H13/00
Cooperative ClassificationB32B25/10, D04H13/003, B32B2310/028, B32B5/06, Y10S524/925, D04H11/00, Y10S524/915, B32B2319/00, B32B5/26, B32B2471/02, B32B2305/18
European ClassificationD04H11/00, B32B25/10, B32B5/06, B32B5/26, D04H13/00B3