US 2303395 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 1 1942. o. R. SCHULTZ ETAL METHOD OF MAKING DECORATED MATERIAL Filed April 20, 1939 ATTORNEY Patentecl l, 1942 Oswald n. Schultz, New York, N. 1., and Henry D. Tucker, Railway, N. 1-,
assignors to Cellu- Type Plate Company, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April 20, 1939, Serial No. 268,914
5 Claims. (01. 41-25) This invention relates to decorated/material of the products of the invention is greatly enhanced by the embossed and colored designs obtainable by the application of the principles of the process.
Objects of the invention are to produce constructional and decorative material having these properties in a simpl and economical manner without the use of thermoplastics, the carefully etched metal dies, and the costly heat and pressure equipment required thereby. Furthermore, the invention permits continuity of operation, which is of distinct commercial advantage.
Another object is to produce unique decorative designs, plain, embossed orin color, on composition board, paper, cloth or other material adapted to receive the same.
Other objects will more clearly appear as we proceed with the description of the invention.
The materials from which the desirable surfacing is obtained and with which the inventhe invention, we may mention the viscous liquid obtainable from the phenolic resin known by the trade name Catalin."
In order to produce the novel products of the invention, we adopt novel molding equipment and procedure. We have discovered that cold set acidified phenolic resin in the viscous liquid or semi-solid state will not mold readily from ordinary metal surfaces, such as copper, aluminum or ferrous metals, due to the fact that the acid in such resins reacts with the metal and creates bubbles of gas which cause undesirable blisters and irregularities in the molded surface. To obviate this difilculty we form the molding matrix from a material which does not produce these undesirable eilects, so that the molded product will be free from undesirable deformations and so that the finished surface will carry the desired pattern in accurate relief. Matrices suited for these purposes may be made in various ways but they are all characterized by the presence of an embossing surface composed of a cellulose derivative such as cellulose nitrate or acetate,
. which surface has no considerable affinity or retion is especially concerned are synthetic resins of the, cold plasticizable or cold moldable type, and which have hardening accelerators incorporated therein. These are well adapted to acquire ornamental impressions when processed according to tlfe present invention, and when solidified and related to a suitable foundation produce the unique and valuable commercial products herein described.
Cold plasticizable resins ofthis type can be molded substantially at room temperature and upon solidification and hardening maintain and preserve the design or impression molded therein. We may use phenolic resin formed by compounding carbolic acid or phenol and formaldehyde such as is commercially availablein the form of a solvent-containing viscous liquid or semi-solid. We may also use derivatives of urea, either alone or in combination with such phenol and resins. The material may have incorporated therein various fillers or other suitable material, but for best ornamental results should have coloring ingredients included therein, as will be hereinafter explained. As an. example of one type of such active capacity for cold moldable resins of the type described and which may easily be stripped therefrom.
Briefly described, the process of the invention comprises providing a suitable foundation or backing, spreading a viscous solution of a cold moldable resin in a suitable solvent upon the backing, rolling the cellulose covered embossed matrix over the applied resin under a pressure which in contradisposition to these used in hot plate methods is only suflicient firmly and evenly to press the matrix into the resin, so that the resin issandwiched between the matrix and the backing. The process proceeds by allowing the resin to set either by allowing it to stand at room temperatures for a suitable time or by placing the assembly in an oven in order to allow the accelerating ingredients to function and the solvent to be driven off more rapidly. The coating is thus very intimately associated with the backing in the form of an integral structure and the matrix is easily stripped therefrom.
The matrix with which the cold moldable plastic is embossed may be prepared in a number of different ways. It may be prepared by transferring the embossed design of a water-swollen gelatinous compound to a backing coated with a cellulose derivative as described in the patent to Schultz No. 2,085,048, dated June 29, 1937. It may be prepared by coating an etched metal plate with material that is suited for use in accordance'with cellulose andusing the coated member as a mathin film oi cellulosic or gelatinous material which has no afiinity for. nor any undesirable efi'ect upon the synthetic resins with which the invention is concerned. Such matrices may be easily stripped from the applied resinous coating after the same has set, and may be used over and over again.
. The invention will be more clearly understood when reference is'had to the accompanying drawinginwhichtheprocessandproductare shown diagrammatically. The thicknesses of the coatings illustrated are of course greatly'enlarged for facility of explanation.
l'ig.1isaviewoiabackingbeingspreadwith a resinous coating;
Fig.2 represents an elevation of a coated backing with a matrix prepared in accordance with the invention being rolled thereon;
adhered to the bottom layer and partially dried thereon. leaving a multi-colored embossed pattern thereon;
Fig. 8 illustrates a modified way of producing a multi-colored design;
Fig.9isairagmentaryplanview oi acoating, like that shown in Fig. 8; and
2 a,soa,scs trix. It maybepi'eparedbytransierringthe l'ig.i0issneievationaldiagrammaticviewoi -designotanetehedmetalplateorrollertoa onewayinwhichtheprocessmaybecarriedmt somewba'tfiexiblebackingbyapplyingasuitable continuouay. oelhiloeicorgeiatinousdopebetweentheplate Bimilarrererenoecharacters rdertosimilar andthebachngsubiectingtheassunblytopres- 5 throughoutthevariousviewsoithedrawmraandtbenstrippimthethmembossedback ingandthespecification.
driedatsuchtemperaturesaswillcaiue hardeningotthereainanddriveofiwhatevervolatile solvents have been incorporated therein. Thematrixmayno'wbeltrippedasindicatedin dentations should now be allowed to set.
After this, a layer of resin 0! a diilerent color isappliedinathinlayertothebacking l',asin-- dicated at I in Fig. 6. Ihe matrix previously described, containing the set color n, is men rolled the finished article is obtained in the form of an embossed design of color l2 outlined over difie'r- 'ently colored layer I, which gives a very pleasing efiect.
lnl igasandilwehaveshownanotherway of obtaining a multi-colored coating. A transparentcoatingiioiresin isfirstappliedtoa coloredbase i. Anembosseddesign I! cradliierentcoloristhen appliedtothebacking l in the manner indicated in connection with the description of Figs. 5, 6, and 'i, so that the portions i! o! the second color are applied thereon. After the assembly has dried and set, the matrix which 1| carried the second color is stripped 08, giving a design I! of one color laid on a background it of another color. v
In Fig. 10 we have shown one way in which the process may be carried out continuously. A sheet 2| of material such as paper, which is adapted to receive and hold the desired embossed design, is run through a pair of embossing rollers 2i carrying design it, and then subjected to one or more sprays 22 of cellulosic material in order to put a thincoating on the embossed design and to stiffen the paper somewhat. This is dried by driving out the solvents in an oven 23 through which the sheet Miscontinuously carried. The sheet, which i is now a matrix with the coated and embossed design is thereon is then passed over idler 24 andv is carried along at the same surface speed as roller "by conveyor 28. 1 The combined matrix, resin and backing is then carried through oven 30 at the end of which a roller 29 strips the embossed paper 20 from the dried and set coating 3 and the coated and embossed backing is delivered continuously at 3|.
It should, of course, be understood that the cold moldable resinous compound required for use in the process contains hydrochloric, phosphoric, or
other acidic or hardening compounds in order that 30 relatively rapid hardening, whether or not accelerated by heat, may be accomplished. It is important, therefore, to adjust the pH of the resinous composition so that setting may be accomplished within commercially practicable times.
While the time required for setting will vary according to the acidity of the composition, the temperature of the oven and other factors, it is generally expedient that setting times not extend over a period of more than one hour.
Temperatures during and after solidification must likewise be regulated according to conditions. Satisfactory results are obtained with temperatures ranging from 150 F. to 180 F. be-
fore the matrix has been removed from its base. 4
After the matrix has been removed, higher temperatures can be used. Where the matrix is made of gelatinous material even lower temperatures may be necessary. The temperature should,
of course, never be raised to a point where it will blister the phenolic resin or damage the matrix.
It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that beautiful, artistic material can be made by utilizing the principles of the invention in applying a synthetic resin layeror layers of any desired thickness, in which may be contained one or more coloring ingredients so as to give the layers the desired color. Phenolic resins may serve as a backing plate to receive the cold plasticizable phenolic resin which takes the impressions, which surfacing resin may be of such thickness and color as may be considered practicable or as will harmonize or contrast with the color of the base material. The thickness of such surfacing plastic may be as thin as ,6 of an inch or less, but may be much greater, depending upon the depth of the design to be reproduced.
. When objects such as knife handles, medallions, ornaments, buttons, and numerous other articles are cut from a sheet or plate formed from molded 7 material with contrasting colors, unusually attractive decorative effects can be obtained. The phenolic resin can also be further engraved, if desired, to bring out the base color in contrast with the color of the surface material.
It should be noted that the. embossed designs illustrated in the drawing, although they may appear simple and crude, are in actual practice very beautifully and delicately articles that defy accurate description. These fine engravinglike patterns cannot be obtained with ordinary thermoplastic methods without the expense of a number of specially made and engraved dies. With this invention the finest design may be very simply and economically made or reproduced without the necessity of such dies, and without the use of the extensive equipment heretofore required.
The design coating of the invention adheres to the backing with the utmost tenacity, owing to the fact that the resinous material of which it is made possesses a remarkable adhesive and binding strength.
While certain novel features of the invention have been disclosed and are pointed out in' the annexed claims, it will be understood that various resinous layer, mildly heating the assembly thusformed until the resinous compound sets. stripping the matrix therefrom, and again heating the embossed resinous layer on said fiberboard to effect final curing and hardening thereof.
2. The method of making decorative panels consisting of a baseboard coated "with a cold moldable resin having a design embossed therein, which method comprises spreading a layer of cold moldable resinous compound over said baseboard, preparing a flexible matrix having the desired design embossed in cellulosic material, firmly rolling said matrix into said resinous layer, mildly heating the assembly thus formed until the resinous compound sets, and stripping the matrix therefrom.
3. The method of making decorative panels consisting of a relatively rigid fiberboard base sheet coated with a cold moldable resin of the phenolic or urea type having a design embossed therein, which method comprises spreading a layer of cold moldable phenolic or urea resin compound over said base sheet, preparing a flexible embossed cellulosic matrix, rolling the matrix,
into said resin, setting the resin, stripping the matrix therefrom, and heating said embossed resin compound fixed to said base sheet to effect final curing and hardening of said resin compound.
4. The method of making a multi-colored decorative panel comprising applying a coating or an accelerated cold moldable resin of selected color to the surface of a fibrous baseboard, preparing a cellulosic matrix having a design embossed therein, applying a cold moldable resin to the embossed surface of said matrix, removing excess resin from said embossed matrix so that the remaining resin will be contained in the depressed surfaces thereof only, pressure rolling said resincoated matrix into adhering contact with said .4 M m mm a mm