US 2306131 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 22, 1942. v E, LOSSAU 2,306,131
HYDRAULIC VALVE LIFTING MECHANISM Filed Jan. 29, 1940 l 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Q IN ENTOR. gm Earl L OSSCZLL ATTORNEYS.
Dec. 22, 1942. oss u HYDRAULIC VALVE LIFTING MECHANISM Filed Jan. 29 1940' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Earifiassclu 4 aw na -MW ATTORNEYS.
Patented Dec. 22, 1942 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE HYDRAULIC VALVE LIFTING MECHANISM Earl Lossau, Chicago, Ill. Application .lanuary 29, 1940, Serial No. 316,151
This invention relates to valve operating mechanism for internal combustion engines and the like.
The principal object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved mechanism for operating valves that are used in internal combustion engines and other places where the valve stems vary in length due to environmental heat.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved valve operating mechanism that is provided with means for automatically compensating for elongation and contraction of the valve stems during the operation of the engine. 1
A further object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved mechanism for engaging the plunger's of the operating mechanism for opening the valves of the engine dur: ing its operation.
Another object of the invention isthe provision of new and improved hydraulic'mechanism for operating the valves of internal combustion engines together with novel means for replenishing the liquid in the mechanism and for main-. taining substantially constant pressure on the ing description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which- Fig. 1 is a front elevation of an internal com- It is common practice, in.- the construction of internal combustion engines, to provide tappets, in one form or another, foroperating the valves from a cam shaft but since the valve stem-abecome elongated by heat, it is necessary to provide clearance between the tappets and valve. stems to compensate for the elongation. In-
, creaseof speed or an increase in the temperamm of the surrounding air may cause the engine to run at higher temperatures and this in turn will cause additional expansion. or elongation of the valve stems. At high speeds, ifthere is too much clearance between the valve and the tappet, considerable noise is developed and the timin is not accurate. If sufilcient clearance is not provided, then the elongation of the stem willprevent the proper seating of the valves.
The present invention seeks to eliminate the necessity for the useof tappets by the provision of mechanism whereby a column of oil, under pressure, may be employed for operating the valves direct. In the conventional internal combustion en gine, a cam shaft is employed for operating the tappets, a cam for each tappet. The cam shaft extends along the engine so that the cams come opposite the valves. The friction between the bustion engine showing the invention in position thereon;
Fig.2 is a vertical section of one of the valve actuatingmembers;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a portion of the Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1, with parts broken away;
Fig. 5 is a vertical section of the valve operating mechanism shown in Fig. 6; and
Fig. 6 is a transverse section thereof on the line 66 of Fig. 5.
Referring now to the drawings, the reference,
-a cylinder head I4 in which are mounted the intake. and discharge valves I5 and I6, respectively, for the engine. with a spring I! for seating the same in the usual manner. Since the details of the engine constitute no part of the invention, it is not thought necessary tofurther illustrate or describe the same;
Each valve is provided cam and its tappet is such as to cause considerable wear on the tappet which in turn necessitatesadjusting of the clearance between the tappet and the valve at comparatively'frequent intervals, especially in engines used-in aeroplanes, racing cars, and other high speed engines.
The present invention eliminates this difflculty by the provision of a minimum number of cams or eccentrics mounted on a short eccentric shaft or shaft having eccentrics thereon and provided with ball bearing. contact members for reducing wear between the .parts to a minimum. 1
The mechanism for operating the valves is an attachment that maybe readily applied to the conventional engine of the valve-in-head type. This mechanism comprises what for convenience.
'willbe termed actuating mechanism 20, Fig. 5,
and actuated means or mechanism 20a, Fig. 2 The former forces a liquid through a connecting conduit 48 for operating the latter and the latter in turn operates the corresponding valve, that is, the valve is openedwhen these mechanisms are operated. v
The actuating mechanism is shown in Figs. 5 and 6 and comprises a casing l8 which is adapted to be secured to the cylinder block II in any suitable manner. This casingis in sections and comprises a unit 2| which carries cylinders 24 employed in controlling the operation of the intake valves and which, for convenience of description. will be termed the intake unit or intake valve control unit, and a unit 34 which carboth bands or rings.
' rings 23, 3| and ring 42.
ries cylinders 24a. employed in controlling the operation of the exhaust valves and will termed the exhaust unit or exhaust control unit, Fig. 5. These units are alike except that they are rights and lefts.
The intake unit 2| comprises a pair of circular concentric bands or broad rings 22 and 23, Fig. 3, which are spaced apart to assist in forming an oil reservoir 35, as clearly shown in Figs. 5 and 6 of the drawings. These bands have attached thereto, or integral therewith, the cylinders 24 which have their inner ends attached to, or integral with, the inner band 23 and extend radially outwardly beyond the outer band 22. The bore or each cylinder extends through There isa cylinder 24 for each intake valve of the engine, there being four in the present construction.
, The cylinders 24 have, what will be termed, their forward walls or surfaces flush with the forward edges of the bands 22 and 23 and a front plate 25 engages the front edges of the bands 22 and 23, as shown in Fig. 5, to form an oil-tight joint. The plate 25 is provided with a rearwardly extending hub 26 which fits in the opening 21 within the inner ring 23 of the unit 2|. The cylinders 24 each have, in the rear wall, adjacent the ring 22, an opening 28 for the passage of oil into and out of the cylinder, as will presently appear. 7
The exhaust control unit 34 is a complement of the intake unit 2| and is similar in construction thereto. The cylinders 24a of this unit are mounted on, or cast integral with, a pair of concentric bands 3|, 32 in the same manner as the cylinders 24 of the previous construction. Since the construction of the cylinders 24a and bands 3|, 32 are substantially the same, except rights and lefts, as the cylinders 24 and bands Hand. 23 of the unit 2|, it is not thought necessary to repeat the description at this point further than to say that the cylinders 24a have openings 23 in their front walls opposite the openings 28 of the cylinders 24 for'the intake and discharge of oil from the passage 33 into and out of the cylinders 24a.
The cylinders 24 of the intake unit are spaced forwardly from the rear edge of the bands 22 and 23 and the cylinders 24a of the exhaust unit are spaced rearwardly from the front edge of the bands 3| and32 so that whenthe two units are placed together, as shown in Fig. 5; there will be an oil passage 33 between them, as shown'in the circumferentially relative to each other in order that they may be set so as tocause the plungers 36 and 31 to operate in proper timed relation. Each cylinder of the intake unit is provided with a plunger 36 and each cylinder of the exhaust unit is also provided with a plunger 31, as shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings. Since the plungers and cylinders aresubstantially alike, only one need be described.
The plunger 31 of the cylinder-24, Fig. 5, will now be described. It has its inner end curved in cross-section, as shown at 38, in Fig. 5, and its outer end is hollow for receiving a spring 33 for normally urging the plunger 31 inwardly.
Suitable means are provided for limiting the inward movements of the plungers of both the intake and exhaust units. Asshown, the inner adjacent edges of the inner bands 23 and 3| are rabbeted to form a groove 4| when the parts are assembled. An annular ring 42, having an annular projection engaging in the rabbets, is provided for this purpose. The lateral edge portions of the ring are beveled ofi to form the inclined surfaces 44 and 45 on which the curved surface of the inner ends of the plungers 36 and 31 is adapted to seat for limiting their inward movement.
The outer ends of each of the cylinders of both units are provided with means for attaching communicating conduits thereto. Any suitable means may be employed for this purpose. In the form of the construction shown. the outer end of each cylinder is internally threaded and has attached thereto a threaded head 46' which is provided with an axial internally threaded tapered bore for receiving a threaded stud 41 through which extends a conduit 48 having its lower end expanded and secured in position by the stud 41.
Suitable means are provided for operating the plungers 36' and 31 in timed relation. In the form of construction selected to illustrate one embodiment of the invention, an eccentric or cam shaft 52 having what will be termed the lower portion of Fig. 5. There will al so'be a chamber49 formed in the interior of the casing extending axially thereof and surrounded by the The spacesbetween the cylinders 24 and those between the cylinders 24a,
intake eccentric or cam 54 and spaced angularly 180 therefrom an exhaust eccentric or cam 53 therein is employed for this purpose. The shaft 52 extends axially through the chamber 49 and is mounted in antifriction bearings 55 in a recess formed in the cap plate 26 and itsrear end is enlarged and the enlargement mounted in antifriction bearings 56 mounted in an axial opening in the plate '30 and there are also antifriction bearings 51 mounted within a recess in a casing 56 which encloses a gear 53 that rotates the eccentric shaft to which it is keyed and which is rotated through suitable gearing I00 from the crankshaft III of the engine 3 at one-half the when the parts are assembled, will constitute areservoir 35 between the inner and outer rings of by bolts 50 which clamp the parts together. These bolts extend through openings 60 in the end plates 30 and through the slots forming the oil reservoir 35 so that the units may be adjusted A plate '30 7 speed of said crankshaft. In order to reduce the wear and frictional resistance to a minimum, a suitable antifriction bearing, such as the ball bearing 6|, ismounted on eachof the eccentrics .or cams 54 and 53. These ball bearings are held in position by retainer rings 62 at each side of the ball bearings which engage corresponding grooves in the eccentrics, as is usual in such constructions.
The actuated means or mechanism 20a for operating theintake and exhaust valves of the from the enlarged bore 84 to the outer end of the housing. The bore 64 has mounted therein a spring 11, the inner end of which engages a bearing 66 for the stem 61 of the valve 15. The bearing extends through the cylinder head I4, as shown in Fig. 2. The outer end portion of the the relief valve 85 and conduit 94 into the crank valve stem 61 is provided with an abutment membore. The inner end of the stud 1| isvnormally spaced from the outer end of the plunger 69 so as to form an oil space or chamber 12. The housing 83 is provided with a lateral opening 13 which is in communication with the chamber 12 and has attached therein the upper end of the conduit 48 by a suitablepipe fitting 14.
It will thus be seen that as oil is forced by the corresponding plunger 31 of the actuating mechanism into the tube 48, it will cause oil in the upper end of the tube 48 to flow into the chamber 12 under pressure thus forcing the piston 89 inwardly against the end of the valve 61 for opening the same, as will presently appear.
Suitable means are provided for maintaining oil under pressure within the reservoir 35 for supplying oil to the cylinders of the actuating mechanism. Any suitable mechanism may bev employed for this purpose. In the formof the construction shown, a pump is employed. The pump 15 may be of any suitable form, that shown being of the conventional gear type. The pump ered so'that the oil under pressure from the reservoir will completely fill the cylinder and also f the conduit 48 and the space 65 above the plunger 69 of the actuated mechanismZII. Upon the 15 has its intake in communication with the oil in the crankcase and its discharge in communication with a conduit 16, the upper end of which is secured in a housing 11 attached to the upper wall of the actuating mechanism, as shown in the cylinder out through the opening 29sinto, the reservoir 35. .After the piston .moVesout- Fig. 6. The housing 11 comprises, an upper sec- 1 tion 18 and a lower section 19 which are adapted to be attached to the upper wall of-the actuating mechanism 20 as by means of the cap bolts8l which extend through both sections and are threaded into the wall of the casing for the actu- The lower section 19 is ating mechanism 20. provided with a bore 82 which is in alinement with an opening 83 through the casing of the actuating mechanism 20 and has, on its outer end.
a valve seat 84 on which is seated a relief ball' valve 85.
The upper section 18 is provided with a bore 85 for housing a spring 81 that has a bearing against the relief valve 85. The outer end of the upper section 18 is closed and means are provided in the outer end for regulating the compression of the spring 81. As shown, a stud 88 having a shoulder member 89 for forming an abutment for the outer end of the spring is provided for this purpose. A look nut 9i locks the bolt in adjusted position. The housing is provided with an intake passage 92, inwardly of the relief valve 85, in which the upper end of the conduit 15 is secured. The housing is also provided with another opening 93 above the valve 85 in which is secured the upper end of an overflow pipe 94. the lower end of which is attached to the crankcase so that oil from the pump is forced through the conduit 18, bore 82 and opening 83 into the reserform of the construction shown, the ratio is 3 to 1; that is, the ,plunger 89fmoves three times the voir 35 for maintaining the oil therein under 7 pressure and when the pressure exceeds a predeaccumulate in the housing will be discharged through the relief valve 85.
In the operation of the engine, the oil pump is continuously operated so as to'maintain a predetermined pressure on the oil inthe reservoir 35 as has been already described. As the eccentric shaft 53 is rotated, the ball bearing on.
the eccentrics 53 and 54 will engage the plunger of the intake and exhaust units for forcing these plungers outwardly against the tension of the springs 39 and the springs will return the plungers to their seats on the inclined surfaces 44 and 45 after the shaft has turned the eccenf trics so that the ball bearing does not engage the" plungers. The ball hearings will strike the plungers atan angle to the radius of the bearings and this will cushion the blow .as the outerv ring of the ball bearing will turn when struck The outer ring of and'roll across the plunger.
the ball hearing will rotate in the opposite direction from that of the eccentric shaft.
Assuming that a plunger, such as 31 in Fig. 5, is
at its lowermost position, the opening 29 in the forward wall of the cylinder 24a will be uncovengagement of the ball bearing of the eccentric 53, with the inner end of th plunger 31, the plunger will move upwardly forcing excess oil 'in ward a sufficient distance, it will close the opening 29 and then, on further movement, will force the liquid upwardly into the conduit 48 and since the liquid issubstantially incompressible, this force will be transmitted throughv the conduit onto the oil in the chamber and this in turn will force the plunger 69 'inwardly against the compression of the spring 61- for opening; the
valves-I 5. When the eccentric moves to theposition for releasing'the plunger 31, the spring 39- will seat the piston 31 against the seat 45 and 7 the spring 11 of'the actuating mechanism 20 will seat the valve I5; As soon as;the plunger 31 moves sufficiently to open the passage 29, the oil within the cylinder'24a'will againbe in cornmunication with the oil reservoir and. the pressure in the two, will immediately equalize. The cylinder 24a is preferably oflarger diameter than the cylinders 12 so that the plungers31'will move i only afraction of the distance moved-by the pis-.
tons 69. Any, ratio may .be employedbut in the distance of the plunger 31. w
7 It will thus be seen that by;meanssof this ari rangeme'nt; the oil in the. conduits 48 andactuated mechanism is continuously replenished each a time the corresponding valve is operated because, l
after each operation, the pressure in the entire system is equalized. This is considered an important feature of the. invention because it in-* sures uniformity. inthe .operationof the mechanism. I
is 1, 2, 4, 3 and that the shaft 52 isdriven in the Assuming that the firing order of theengine same direction as the crank shaft Ill and thegear 59, then the operation of the intake valves will berebresented in Fig. 6 by the corresponding numrals l, 2, 4, 3 and the exhaust may-be representcd by 3a, la, 2a and 4a. In other words,
when the exhaust for number 2 cylinder is actuated, -the'intake for valve number 1 would be operated simultaneously or with a slight lag.
The order of valve operation maybe changed as desired since it would only'necessitate changing the wiring for the spark and changing conduits 48 to the proper corresponding casings 63. While-inthe present invention there are two feren't planes, on the same shaft, it is understood I cams or eccentrics, one for the exhaust valves] and one for the intake valves, mounted in dif-- 2,3oe,1a1 I adapted to be filled by a liquid, a plurality of cylinders within said shaft casing and extendin radially across said reservoir each having an' opening in its side wall in communication with said reservoir, said second-named cylinders being arranged radially around a circuit, valve operating means, each means comprising a piston and a cylinder for each valve within said engine casing,
a liquid filled conduit between each cylinder in said camshaft casing and a corresponding cylin der of said means, the piston ofeach means being inwardly of the corresponding conduit and engaging a correspondingvalve stem, a plunger in each cylinder in said cam shaft casing movable to a position to close said opening and beyond .for operating the piston of the corresponding that the cams or eccentrics may be mounted in r the same plane on the shaft which may easily be done by 'a'rranging the cylinders 24 and 24a in a common plane spaced angularly instead of laterally.
member, said 'last-n amed' plungers each being adapted to be engaged by one of said cam ele- It is thought'from the foregoing, taken in con- 7 the construction and operation of my device will -be apparent to those skilled in the art and that changes in size, shape, proportion and detail may bemade without departing from the'splrit' and scope of the appended claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a valve operating mechanism for an internal combustion engine, an annular oil resernection with the accompanying drawings, that] voir comprising a pair of concentric rings spaced apart, cylinders carried by said rings, the bores of said cylinders extendin through both rings, a complementary set of rings spaced apart radially and having 'cylinders rigidly connected thereto, the bores 01' said cylinders extending radially through bothofisaid last-namedf'rings, and'circular end'plates secured to the outer sides of both sets of rings to form an-annular chamber definedby said plates and rings. 1
2.-'-Inafdevice of the class described, a multi- "cylinderginternal combustion, engine, an intake and an texhaust'valvefor each cylinder, an oil reserv'oir in the form of a hollow 'a'nnulus se- Y cured to the said engine and arranged ina vertical plane, a short shaftliaving a pair of eccentric enlargements thereon extending axially through said hollow'annulus, hydraulic mechanisrn iorfoperating' said, valves, said mechanism ments for causingsaid last-named plungers to operate the pistons of the valve operating means by hydraulic pressure through said conduit, and means for maintaining a constant pressure on said reservoir during the operation of said engine.
, 4.,In'a valve operating mechanismfor an lnternal'combustion engine, a casing, a, short shaft having eccentrics thereon within said casing, anti-friction bearings on said eccentrics, an an' nular oil-filled reservoir extending around said shaft and spaced therefrom, cylinders extending radially through said reservoir and having ports in the side walls thereof in communication with said reservoir, pistons within said cylinders engaging said anti-friction bearingsyvalve operating plungers, cylinders for said plungers, oil-filled conduits forming liquid columns between said pistons and plunger-s whereby when said shaft is rotated for reciprocating said pistons the reciprocomprising conduits for containing oil; one for each valve, an inner amen outer cylinder and I plungenat the inner and outer endsflof each of" said conduits; respectively, the plungers f at the inner ends'of said conduits being';arranged radially ma circle around-said'sliaft; said'inner cylindershaving' ports in the sidewalls incom munication "with said reservoir and adapted to be opened'and closed by said inner-pistons in timed relation,': and" a ball'bearing secured .on'
cation'of said pistons will intermittently open and close said ports and will operate said plungers in response to the operation of said pistons while said ports are closed, and means for maintaining a substantially constant pressure of the oil within said reservoir.
5;In an internal combustion engine having a cylinder casing providedwith a plurality of cylinders andintake and exhaust valves for each cylinder, a casing secured to the front end of said cylinder casing, said second-named casing being provided with radially arranged cylinders,
pistons in said last-named cylinders, said secondnamed casing-having a reservoir containing a liquid in communication with each of said lastnamed cylinders when the cooperating piston is .at a predetermined position in its cycle of operation, a valve perating plunger, a cylinder for said plunger, a liquid column 'between each i for operating said pistons for operating said"- valves through said liquid columns and said each eccentric" enlargement and having its outer races engaging said inner plungers ,forioperating the same for hydraulically operating the outer;
plungers for opening a the corresponding. valves.
I I 3. 'In an 'internal combustion multi-cylind'er fengine having an engine "casing surrounding the engine, intake and exhaust valves for said en- .glIle, a camshaft casingsecuredto an fe'nd of said engine casing-and comprising-facentral hollow portion, 'a comparatively short horizontally arranged shaft rotatably mounted-insaid hollowv portion, eccentric cameler'nentsibn said shaft, all the cam elements'being'ai'ranged intwo vertical planes, a :liquid reservoir formed by 'said shaft casing isolated from said hollow portion and plunger and its corresponding piston, cam'means plungers, said reservoir surrounding and spaced from said cam means, and" means including a pump and a relief valvefor supplying oil from v the crank case of said engine to said reservoir and 'for maintaining the volume and pressure on said'reservoir substantially constant while said.
pistons-are inoperative during the operation 0 said engine, 6. Inan internal combustion engine, a cylinder block comprising a cylinder head, a set of intake and a set of exhaust valves slidably mounted in said head, a Short shaft, a Pair of eccentrics carried by said shaft, 9. ball bearing for each eccentric, each ball bearing having its inne'rrace rigidly mounted on the corresponding eccentric, hydraulic means including a body of liquid and a liquid column for each valve for operating the latter, means for placing the liquid column intermittently in communication with said body of liquid, said means comprising cylindersarranged radially around said shaft, two sets of reciprocating'plungers for said cylinders arranged radially about the outer races oi! said ball bearings and engageable therewith for operating said liquid columns, two sets of plungers engaged by the outer ends of said liquid columns for opening said intake and exhaust valves in timed relation to the operation 01 the first-named plungers, spring means for closing said valves, and means for automatically maintaining said body of liquid under a. substantially constant pressure during the operation or said engine, and adjustable means for varying such pressure.
7. Inan internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders, an intake and an exhaust valve for each cylinder and a crank case for containing lubricating oil, hydraulically operated mechanism for independently operating said valves, said mechanism comprising an annular receptacle containing oil, a cylinder for each ,valve extending radially into said receptacle and having a port in its side wall, a plunger for each cylinder, a piston in contact with each valve, a column or oil between said plunger and piston for each valve, means for operating said plungers for alternately opening and closing said ports and for reciprocating saidoil columns for operating said valves, and means including a pump and a spring-pressed check valve opening in the direction or flow of oil through the last-named means for supplying oil from the crank case of said engine to said mechanism and for maintaining a constant pressure onthe oil within said receptacle.
8. In an internal combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders, intake and exhaust valves for said cylinders. hydraulic mechanism for operating said valves, means for operating said mechanism, said mechanism comprising an annular reservoir for containing oil, two sets of cylinders extending radially into said reservoir, both sets being arranged around said reservoir in separate vertical planes adjacent to each other, each of said cylinders having a port in its side wall in communication with the oil in said reservoir, a piston for each of the-last-named cylinders, an intake and an exhaust valve for each or the first-named cylinders, means including conduits and hydraulic columns of oil within said conduits for operating said valves by said pistons, respectively, means including a pump for automatically maintaining a constant super-atmospheric pressure on the oil in said reservoir during the operation of the said engine, a conduit between the crankcase of, the engine and-the upper portion of said reservoir, a supply conduit between the pump and said reservoir, means for controlling the amount or pressure on the reservoir, said means comprising a spring-pressed valve in said first-named conduit above the reservoir adapted to be opened when the pressure within said reservoir exceeds a predetermined amount, and means for operating said pistons in a predetermined order for causing the operation of said intake and exhaust valves; 7,
9. In an internal combustion engine having intake and exhaust valves, an annular casing secured to the front end of said engine and having a liquid reservoir therein, valve actuating plungers within said reservoir, means including a pair of eccentrics for operating said plungers by said engine, valve operating pistons, hydraulic means including conduits and a column of oil for each, conduit engaging'the corresponding valve for operating the same and for operating said pistons when said plungers are operated, cylinders extending through said casing for said plungers, said liquid reservoir being in communication with each cylinder at a predetermined position in the movement or said plungers, a liquid within said reservoir, means including pump mechanism for automatically maintaining a super-atmospheric pressure on said reservoir, a conduit in communication with the upper portion of said reservoir; a pressure operated valve within said conduit for conducting air and liquid from said reservoir when air accumulates therein and the pressure therein rises above a predetermined amount, and means for adiusting the pressure at which said valve will open.
' 10. In a valve operating mechanism for an internal combustion engine comprising actuating pistons, actuated plungers adapted to engage the valves of said engine, a plurality of liquid ,columns for transmitting force from said pistons to said plungers for operating said plungers, aliquid reservoir, means for placing the columns of liquid, first one and then the other, independently of one another, in communication with the liquid in said reservoir tor replenishing loss of liquid in said columns, a housing extending upwardly from the upper portion or said reservoir and in communication therewith, a conduit connected to the base of said housing above said reservoir, means including a pump for continu ously discharging a liquid into said housing through said conduit, an outlet in communication with said housing above said reservoir, and
an adjustable pressure relief valve in said outlet above said reservoir for maintaining a constant pressure on the liquid within said reservoir and for permitting the discharge of air that may be pumped into said reservoir.
11. In a device of the class described, a multicylinder internal combustion engine, intake and exhaust valves for each cylinder, an oil reservoir casing formed by two hollow annular members engaging each other, side plates engaging the outer faces of said members and cooperating with said members to form said reservoir, one of said members having a set of cylinders extending radially through said reservoir for the intake valves of said engine and the other member having a second set of cylinders extending through said reservoir for the exhaust valves of said engine, a ,anism comprising a piston and a cylinder for I each valve mounted adjacent to each valve, a
conduit between each cylinder of each set and the corresponding last-named cylinder, said conduit and reservoir containing oil, means for adlusting one of said membersangularly relatively to the other, a short'shaft, a pair of eccentrics on said shaft, a pair of ball bearings having their inner races fixedon said eccentrics, the outer race of ball bearings engaging said plungers for operating the corresponding pistons for operating the intake and exhaust valves of said engine,
respectively, said reservoir extending around said eccentrics and spaced therefrom.
\ EARL LOSSAU.
plunger for each cylinder, actuated mech-