US 2306320 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 22, 1942.
G. M. RAPF GLASS BLOCK ASSE Filed OCt. l0,
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/NVENTOR HTTRNEY Dea, 22, 1942. G, M RAPP 2,306,320
GLASS BLOCK ASSEMBLY Filed oct. 1o, 1940 2 sheetsheez 2A l if Wwf.
@TTG/ENE?? Patented Dec. 22, 1942 GLASS BLOCK ASSEMBLY George M. Rapp, Mount Lebanon, Pa., assigner to Pittsburgh Corning Corporation, Allegheny County, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application ctober 10, 1940,*Serial No. 360,541
The present invention relates to assemblages of glass blocks designed to provide panels suitable for use in buildings, and it has particular relation to the provision of relatively horizontal deck structures, such as roofs, ioors, canopies and the like in a building.
One object of the invention is to provide a strong and durable deck structure of glass blocks which will transmit light, which is relatively inexpensive to fabricate, which has relatively low heat conduction, which is relatively free from objectionable drip due to the condensation of moisture beneath or upon the lower surface thereof and the lower surface of which is free from obstructions that might mar the appearance or interfere with cleaning operations.
It has, heretofore, been proposed to employ hollow blocks of glass as a medium for fabricating walls of factories, office buildings, residences and other common types of buildings. Such blocks are characterized by the ability to transmit light and therefore they admit of the elimination or at least the reduction of the space devoted to the conventional form of windows in an ordinary building. Also, by reason of the dead air space within the blocks the transmission of heat from the interior of the building to the outside air or vice versa is greatly reduced. Furthermore, by reason of the composition of the blocks, weathering and deterioration of wall surfaces composed of such blocks is practically nil. In most of the buildings as heretofore fabricated the glass blocks have been employed solely in the vertical walls and partitions, because there has been no convenient and economical method of satisfactorily supporting glass blocks, or sealing between contiguous edges thereof when they were assembled to provide a deck structure such as a roof or floor of a building.
In accordance with the provisions of the present invention it is proposed to overcome the foregoing difficulties by the provision of a glass block having edges so formed as to facilitate arrangement in a deck structure with a supporting grid of reinforced grout enclosing the blocks and maintaining them in position.
For a better understanding of the invention reference may now be had to the accompanying drawings in which like numerals refer to like 4 parts throughout.
In the drawings Figure l is a fragmentary plan View of a portion of a roof or other decl: structure constructed in accordance with the provisions of the invention.
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken substantially upon the line II-II of Fig. l..
Figure 3 is a sectional View taken substantially upon the line III--III of Fig. l.
Figure el is a fragmentary elevational view of a reinforcing structure designed for embedment in the grout or grout grid supporting the blocks.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectional View of an expansion joint between two contiguous panels.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional View of a supporting beam which may be employed as a support between two rows of panels where the span is too great to be covered by the width of a single panel.
A roof or deck 9 constructed in accordance with the provisions of the invention comprises one, or dependent upon its size, a plurality of panels I0, of glass blocks i l. Certain margins of the panels are supported in approximatelyv hori- Zontal position upon ledges or shelves i2 of walls I3, which may be formed of concrete or of units such as stone blocks, bricks or the like assembled in conventional manner, The blocks comprising the panels may include lower halves i5 and upper halves Il, which have fluted prismatic or otherwise roughened or corrugated surfaces, in order'to prevent direct vision and to diffuse or direct the light passing therethrough. The halves of the blocks as shown include side walls I8, which have their lip portions welded together to form a perimetrically extending bead IQ. It is also apparent that the halves of the block may be secured together by soldering or any other convenient method.
The blocks preferably are of the so-called radius type such as are employed in the fabrication of curved walls, vaultings or other arched constructions, in which the lower faces of the blocks are disposed in arc of lesser radius than the outer faces. One face of each block will be of substantially less width at least in one direction than the other face. As shown in Fig. 3, this effect may be attained by forming a pair of shoulders Ztl of the block to project the requisite distance e. g. three-eighths inch be yond the upper shoulder 2l. In vaulted structures the wide shoulders are on the upper side of the block, but in applicants decl; or roof structure they are disposed below. It will also be apparent that the remaining dimension of the wider face may be lesser than that of the corresponding dimension of the opposite face providing a block which might be used in the fabrication of a dome structure. However, most usually it is sufficient ir" the face of the bloei-.r is restricted in a single direction only and in the remaining dimension is equal to that of the opposite face. In a typical block such as shown in the drawings the lower face may be of a width in one direction, e. g. transversely, of 7% inches. In the other dimension the same face is 81/2 the completed' panels are not rnuch over l0 feet inV length measured perpendicularly to the direc,-
tion of the reinforcing trusses and not much over 8 feet wide. However, these dimensions are not critical.
Between the blocks as shown in Fig. l are disposed bar-like members of concrete o1' the like material providing a grid structure 22. As shown in Fig. 3, the transverse members of this grid are. substantially Wider at the upper face than at theV dimensions expansion joints are desirable between contiguous edges or between certain of the contiguous edges. A suitable joint of this type is illustrated in Fig. 5. 'I'he joint preferably includes a mortar filling 39 between the contiguous edges of the panel, which filling may be covered by a layer 39a of asphalt. This lling may be of Portland cement and sand or other material the same as the other grid members in accordance and are arranged in upper and lower horizontally spaced pairs respectively indicated at 28 and 29, the pairs being interconnected by diagonals 3l, which preferably constitute a single continuous wire appropriately bent to provide angular sections. The apices of the sections are disposed between the wires of the pairs 28 and 29 and are secured thereto by such means as welding or any othersuitable fastening means to provide a sub stantially integral truss beam capable when embedded in cement of safely bearing the loads which may be imposed upon it. These trusses may be suiiciently strong to carry the entire dead load even without reinforcement from the mortar, thus increasing the safety of the stru-cture.
The members 24 also are composed of a hardo cned cementitious mixture but are reinforced by a single rod 32 preferably disposed contiguous to the top of the member and being secured by wrapping Wires or other means to the wires 28 for a purpose which will become more apparent as the description proceeds. The ends of the wire 30 are twisted together as` indicated at 36a.
These rods act as shrinkage and temperature reinforcements, and also serve to tie together the entire grid-work construction. Similarly rods (not shown) may be disposed near the lower edges of alternate members 24 in symmetrical arrangement for purposes of assisting in distribution of loads transversely of the trusses. Y A
The grid as shown in Fig. 2 may be integral with a marginal portion 33, which connes and supports the marginal portions of the panel and which rests upon a ledge portion I2. It may be confined along its vertical face by an abutment 34 of concrete brick ware or other form of masonry. For purposes of allowing for contraction and expansion of the panel a packing 35 of the character of premoulded cork or other more or less resilient material is disposed between the body 33 and the abutment 34. Alevellingup pad 36 also, of cementitious material such as mortar, may be disposed on top of ledge I2.
It is to be noted that the upper faces of the members 23 and 24 terminate substantially (about 3A of an inch) below the upper'faces of the glass blocks, thus providing channels adapted to receive a layer 3l of a sealing material, such as asphalt or the like designed to prevent the pose sibility of permeation of water between the blocks.
The body 33V is likewise provided at its edges with portions 38 of plastic sealing medium such as asphalt. i
In event that a plurality of panels are required in order to provide a roof or deck of requisite with conventional practice. It also preferably includes an expansion strip 40 of premoulded cork or any other suitable plastic or elastic expansion material, which may be so disposed as to divide the cement body 39 into portions 4I and 42. The expansion strip may also be covered by a flashing sheet 42a of flexible metal.
As shown in the drawings the ends of the transverse rods 32 may be extended acrossfrom one panel to the next, but slightly beyond the margins of the latter are broken, as indicated at 43, to provide a joint. Preferably the ends of the rods at the joint are slightly spaced with respect to the ends of the corresponding rods in the adjacent panel. The projecting end portions may also be coated with asphalt or other material designed to prevent adhesion of the cement thereto. Corks 46 or other suitable devices may be disposed upon the projecting end portions of the rods, in order to prevent the cement from com- 0 pletely lling the space between the contiguous ends of the sections.
In event that a plurality of rows of panels are required to deck or cover a particular space, a supporting beam between the two rows may be required. Such construction is shown in Fig. 6. The beam may be of reinforced concrete or other material. It includes a web 41 and shoulders 48 upon each side designed to support the panels. Pads 49 may be disposed on the shoulders and packings 5l of cement and may be disposed between the web 4'! and the edges of the contiguous blocks. Expansion strips 52 may, also, be included in the joint and the joint is waterproofed by a layer 53 of asphalt cr the like.
In the fabrication of a desk structure in accordance with the provisions of the present invention a form indicated generally at 69 is disposed between the vertical walls at the desired level and is supported by any convenient structure (not shown). This form includes a relatively smooth surface formed for example by a sheet 6I of ply-wood or other suitable material, resting upon a framework 62 of timber. The surface is also provided with spacing bars 63 of wood or the like arranged to lit between contiguous edges of the glass blocks and thus to maintain them in proper spaced relation. The spacer strips may be of a thickness of about ,is of an inch or of such thickness as to obtain a neat recessed joint at the lower faces of the members 23 and 24 in the joints between the blocks. The strips are of the width desired in the lower faces of the members 23 and 24. For example, of a Width of approximately 1/2 inch. It is to be understood that the form including the spacing strips 63 is removed after the deck structure has been assembled and the cement between the blocks has suciently hardened to insure adequate strength and rigidity.
In the construction of the deck after the form structure has been disposed in position the glass blocks are laid in unstaggered rows with the narrower faces, as shown in Fig. 1. As the blocks are laid, the spacing strips 63 are laid in position to obtain the desired separation at the lower edges. The reinforcement for the grid structure conveniently is assembled as a separate unit over the glass blocks. The reinforcements 2l are simply disposed in position above the wide spaces between the blocks and are secured together by the transverse rods 32 or wires which may be secured thereto by wrappings cf smaller wires or in any other convenient manner. After the reinforcement has been assembled it is lowered into position between the blocks and the ends of the bars may be temporarily supported by suitable chairs 5l resting upon the ledge i2. It will be noted that by reason of the wider spacing of the upper edges of the blocks at the joints designed to receive the reinforcements 2l', the pairs 23 and 2e of wires readily pass into the joints, but would not pass between the lower edges.
Subsequently the cement in a plastic or fluid grout condition is poured into the joints and allowed to flow about the reinforcing beams and g rods. It is desirable that the latter be tapped from time to time and the grout or cement be slightly agitated with a trowel or other instrument as it is poured, in order to insure that the cement constituting it will generally contact with the surfaces both of the blocks and the surfaces of the wires constituting the reinforcement.
In order to promote adhesion between the cement or grout and the surfaces, the edges of the blocks may receive a heavy film of a mixture of a bonding agent, such as a resin, and a granular material. Such mixture might comprise sand in a solution of a plastic such as an alkali resistant paint-like adhesive, which is compatible with the cement grout.
After the grout has been poured to a'desired level and has set sufficiently the faces of both the grout and the portions of the edges of the blocks remaining exposed above it may be given a priming coat of a thin solution of asphalt or the like. Subsequently sealing layer 3l of melted asphalt or other suitable material is poured into the joint and allowed to harden. If desired, the surface may be smoothed down to a uniform level and caused thoroughly to contact with the blocks by ironing or luting with a hot meal tool. Subsequently the supporting framework or form is removed.
It will be apparent that a roof or oor or other deck structure constructed in accordance with the provisions of the invention and including hollow glass blocks as the structural element is of relatively light weight and imposes a minimum of strain upon the walls or other supports. 'I'he blocks also constitute excellent light-transmitting media and adapts the structure to replace conventional skylights in the latter capacity, The construction, although relatively light in weight and comprising but a comparatively thin slab or panel, is quite strong and capable of bearing very considerable load, thus adapting the structure to function as a floor or other loadsupporting deck. The hollow spaces within the blocks reduces heat conduction to a minimum and the grid of reinforced grout or mortar constituting the filling between the edges of the blocks, by reason of relatively low conductivity, prevent excessive heat transfer through the joints between the blocks. Since the reinforcements in the cement between the blocks are of foraminous character and are completely embedded in the cement they do not substantially increase heat transfer through the latter. 'Ihe grid structure between the blocks is flush with or below the level of the faces of the latter, thus facilitating cleaning operations. Since there is no exposed metal in the grid structures there is little or no tendency for moisture to condense upon the surfaces thereof.
The forms of the invention herein shown and described are to be considered merely as exemplary and it will be apparent that numerous medications may be made therein without departure from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. A deck structure for a building, which structure comprises a pair of panels of glass blocks, the panels being laid in edge to edge relation and the blocks in said panels being laid in unstaggered rows and at their upper faces in at least one direction being of substantially less width than in the corresponding direction upon their lower faces, whereby to provide parallel spaced joints which are substantially wider at the top than at the bottom, and jo-ints transverse of the rst-mentioned joints, the joints being filled with a strong hard mortar, the mortar in the nist-mentioned joints having embedded therein reticulated trusses comprising upper and lower parallel wires spaced to be respectively near the upper and lower surfaces of the mortar and transverse wires interconnecting them, said trusses being joined together transversely by rods embedded in the mortar in the transverse joints, said panels being separated by an expansion joint, the rods in the transverse joints of one panel extending across said expansion joint a short distance into the corresponding joint in the contiguous panel, said rods being coated with a material non-adherent with respect to the mortar and the ends of the rods also being spaced with respect to the contiguous ends of the rods in the said adjacent panel to permit expansion and contraction of the panel.
2. A construction as defined in claim 1 in which the upper and lower wires each comprise pairs horizontally spaced and the interconnecting wires provide a series of angles, the apexes of which are disposed between the wires of each pair.
3. A deck structure for a building, which structure comprises a panel of glass blocks, the blocks in said panel being laid in unstaggered rows and at their upper faces in at least one direction, being substantially less in width than in the corresponding direction upon their lower faces, whereby to provide parallel spaced joints which are substantially wider at the top than at the bottom, and joints transverse of the first-mentioned joints, al1 of the joints being filled with a strong, hard cement, the cement in the rstmentioned joints having embedded therein reticulated trusses comprising vertically spaced wires, which are disposed respectively adjacent to the upper and lower surfaces of the cement, the spaced wires being interconnected by a Wire bent to provide a series of angles which are joined at theirapexes to said spaced wires, the trusses being joined by transversely-extending rods embedded in the mortar in the transverse joints.
GEORGE M. RAPP.