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Publication numberUS2306875 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 29, 1942
Filing dateDec 11, 1940
Priority dateFeb 6, 1940
Publication numberUS 2306875 A, US 2306875A, US-A-2306875, US2306875 A, US2306875A
InventorsHeaver Fremlin John
Original AssigneeInt Standard Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electron discharge apparatus
US 2306875 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec, 29, P J. H. FREMLIN ELECTRON DISCHARGE APPARATUS Filed Dec. 11, 1940 /%46/V we 5:40 of //7 mental Patented Dec. 29, 1942 F F E Q .E

ELECTRON DISCHARGE APPARATUS John Heaver Fremlin, London, England, assignor to International Standard Electric Corporation,

New York, N. Y.

Application December 11, 1940, Serial No. 369,518 In Great Britain February 6, 1940 2 Claims.

This invention relates to electron discharge apparatus and comprises an improved method and improved means for setting up an electron beam. It is of particular advantage in electron discharge apparatus utilising the principle of electron velocity modulation referred to more fully in copending British application No. 32,815/39.

Numerous arrangements have been proposed for setting up electron beams particularly in cathode ray tubes. In apparatus using velocity modulation of the electron stream, the power handling capacity is dependent upon the intensity of the stream and the problem arises of setting up electron beams of intensity very large in comparison with that required in the ordinary cathode ray tube. Moreover, the means utilised must not interfere with the disposition of resonators along the electron beam.

According to the invention it is proposed to use a thermionic cathode of large surface area, that is, substantially greater than the required cross-sectional area of the electron beam, and to concentrate the emission from the large area into the necessary narrow beam by means of a magnetic field the lines of force of which converge in the direction of travel of the beam. Electrons leaving the cathode at each point have a velocity component in the direction of the line of force at that point, being under the influence of positive electrodes disposed along and at the end of the beam. They therefore follow closely the lines of force (actually taking helical paths about these lines) and are concentrated into a narrow beam of considerable intensity.

For the setting up of the requisite magnetic field a single multi-turn coil of axial length short compared with its mean diameter may be axially disposed with respect to the beam path.

According to another aspect of the invention an electron discharge device comprises means for producing a stream of electrons, means for modifying the velocity of the electrons in said stream, means for extracting energy from said modified electron stream and a magnetic circuit extending along said stream for producing substantially converging lines of magnetic force in the direction of travel of the electrons of said beam in order to concentrate the beam into a small cross-sectional area.

The accompanying drawing shows one method of carrying out the invention as applied to a so-called Klystron tube.

C is a large surface cathode for emitting electrons which are formed into a beam by any suitable accelerating means, for example, by an accelerating grid G and by the application of a positive potential to another portion of the tube structure, such as the resonators RI, R2, through which the beam is fired. The resonant chamber Bl serves in known manner to modify the velocity of the electrons in the beam. The electrons become bunched due to their changes in velocity. Resonant chamber R2 may then extract energy from the bunched electrons for application to any suitable work circuit. The electrons after passing resonator R2 are then collected by a collector or target electrode T. M is a multiturn coil of rather short axial length the lines of force L from which extend over the cathode C and target electrode T and converge in substantially straight lines along the desired path of the beam from the point where it enters the first resonator Rl to the point wher it leaves the second resonator R2, thus concentrating the electrons into a narrow beam of great intensity.

Divergency of the field and hence of the electrons at the end of the beam path remote from the cathode may be an advantage in permitting the use of a larger collector electrode surface of greater heat dissipation. In order to increase the rate of divergence of the magnetic lines of force extending from within the main focussing coil it may be desirable to provide a further axial magnetic field producing means such as the coil Ml behind the cathode, the coils Ml being fed with direct current in opposite directions so as to form a magnetic neutral point on the axis behind the cathode.

What is claimed is:

1. In an electron discharge device, a large surface cathode for producing a stream of electrons, a large surface collector electrode opposite said cathode, two resonant chambers spaced from one another between said cathode and collector electrodes and having a relatively small perforation in alignment with the centers of the cathode and the collector, one of said chambers serving to modify the velocity of the electrons in the beam passing therethrough, and the second to extract energy from the electrons becoming bunched between the two resonant chambers, and a multiturn coil of relatively short axial length around said resonant chambers and producing lines of force which extend substantially over the entire surfaces of the cathode and the collector electrodes and converge in substantially straight lines, having a small cross-sectional area along a path including the perforations of the two resonant chambers.

2. An electron discharge device according to claim 1 wherein a magnetic circuit is provided beyond the cathode to concentrate the electron beam in the direction of its travel, and a further magnetic circuit, the field of which is in the opposite direction to that of the first magnetic circuit, is provided behind the cathode in order to increase the divergence of the lines of force of the first magnetic circuit at the cathode and to provide a neutral point on the axis of the beam behind the cathode.

J OHN HEAVER FREIWLIN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2447804 *Aug 14, 1947Aug 24, 1948Holst Paul F GElectron beam focusing circuit
US2486398 *May 29, 1943Nov 1, 1949Sperry CorpVelocity modulation device and method
US2539210 *Jan 12, 1946Jan 23, 1951Westinghouse Electric CorpElectronic tube apparatus embodying a cavity resonator
US2572644 *Aug 19, 1948Oct 23, 1951Emi LtdElectron discharge tube
US2651000 *Nov 22, 1949Sep 1, 1953Rca CorpReflex velocity modulated discharge device
US2718606 *Aug 2, 1952Sep 20, 1955Gen ElectricCombination electromagnet-permanent magnet focusing devices
US2841739 *Apr 29, 1953Jul 1, 1958Bell Telephone Labor IncElectron beam systems
US2859364 *May 4, 1956Nov 4, 1958Int Standard Electric CorpGun system comprising an ion trap
US2909691 *Oct 17, 1958Oct 20, 1959Oskar HeilElectron guns with magnetic focusing
US2917645 *Sep 12, 1955Dec 15, 1959Julius Cato Vredenburg InglesbControl method and means
US2936394 *Jul 18, 1955May 10, 1960Hughes Aircraft CoElectron gun
US2939028 *Nov 13, 1957May 31, 1960Gen ElectricElectron gun for a cylindrical capacitor
US2942144 *Feb 12, 1957Jun 21, 1960Sylvania Electric ProdWave generator
US2945153 *Aug 31, 1956Jul 12, 1960Rca CorpElectron beam tube
US3011086 *Nov 29, 1957Nov 28, 1961Applied Radiation CorpMeans for selecting electron beam energy
US3046439 *Apr 29, 1960Jul 24, 1962Gen ElectricField emisssion reflex klystron
US3108222 *Aug 30, 1960Oct 22, 1963Polarad Electronics CorpSpectrum analyzer employing velocity modulation
US3315110 *Aug 12, 1963Apr 18, 1967Sperry Rand CorpShaped-field hollow beam electron gun having high beam perveance and high beam convergence ratio
US3450930 *Nov 14, 1966Jun 17, 1969Varian AssociatesPermanent magnet focused linear beam tube employing a compensating magnet structure between the main magnet and the beam collector
US3930182 *Jun 25, 1974Dec 30, 1975Licentia GmbhTraveling-wave tube having improved electron collector
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Classifications
U.S. Classification315/5.35, 315/382
International ClassificationH01J25/00, H01J25/12
Cooperative ClassificationH01J25/12
European ClassificationH01J25/12