US 2307730 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 5, 1943.
H. J. HERIBERT GAS MASK Filed Sept. 11, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY m mw m m E w m 0 m Jan. 5;1943. H J- HERlBERT 2,307,730 n GAS MASK Filed Sept. 11, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 1w R Y o 0 E, TH N m m W w M 1 Y H B GAS MASK Filed Sept. 11, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR:
If m w a w fl ATTORNEY Jan. 5, 1943. I H. J. HERIBAERT I 2,307,730 I GAS MASK Filed Sept. 11, 1941 s Sheet s-Shet 4 4 I lNVENTORz.
- a? Herbert jfierz'bert I ATTORNEYS Jan. 5, 1943. H. .1. HERIBERT GAS MASK Filed Sept. 11, 1941 5 Sheet'sSheet 5 INVENTOR 1Z$rberfl Hrz'erl ATTO R N EY Patented Jan. 5, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GAS MASK Herbert J. Heribert, Riverdale, N. Y.
Application September 11, 1941, Serial No. 410,392
The invention relates to an improved protective mask, particularly to a gas mask and to a mold for manufacturing the same.
As generally known, the respiration air contains a comparatively large amount of moisture. This moisture of the exhaled air is condensed and deposited on the visors or eyeglasses of the masks; very troublesome inconveniences are caused hereby, the visibility is reduced, and the condensed moisture greatly interferes with the activities of the mask user.
It, therefore, is an important object of this invention to prevent the deposition and condensation of moisture contained in the respiration air on the visors or eye glasses of the mask.
In order to remedy this deficiency channels were provided in the hitherto known masksconducting the inhalation air in such manner that the same passes the visors before being inhaled. Hereby, a cooling effect is produced supposedly preventing or reducing the condensation of the moisture on the visors. The provision of these channels, however, renders the manufacture of the mask complicated, reduces its operating reliability andincreases the manufacturing costs.
This important problem is solved according to the invention in an extremely simple and eflicient manner by the provision within the inner space of the mask of a chamber projecting from the main body of the same towards the face of the wearer which chamber after the mask is applied seals the protruding lower section of the face on a line extending from a point shortly above the nose tip along the naso-labial lines to the upper part of the chin; this chamber will be hereinafter referred to as protruding chamber whereas the inner mask space covered by the main mask body will be referred to as head chamber. One might say that the invention comprises the combination of two gas masks, the one being the main mask covering as usual the face including the forehead and a part of the head, the other being an additional mask sealing within the head mask the respiratory organs against the parts protected by the head mask. 1
The protruding chamber is formed by a por tion of the main mask body and a wall or partition protruding from the latter towards the face of the user and it seals the face on a line running from ,a point shortly above the nose tip which is connected with the air supply and the exhaling valve. The visors are completely separated from the exhaled air and moisture contained therein cannot be condensed thereupon.
My novel gas mask including the protruding chamber may preferably be. made as one integral body from suitable plastic or elastic plastic materials. I have found that for the manufacture of my improved gas mask vulcanized caoutchouc may be advantageously used. The mask may also be manufactured from felt covered on one or both outside surfaces with a rubber layer.
The rubber layer on the face contacting side may be replaced by a felt layer having a finer structure than the main felt material.
The felt mask having an outer rubber coating may be at the inside impregnated with a chemical, for instance starch, which eliminates the humidity within the mask and produces a cooling effect. The felt rubber mask may be further improved'by applying between the felt and the rubber layer a layer of glue which is impervious to mustard gas and completely prevents the penetration of the same into the inner space protected by the mask. The felt used for the manufacture of the gas mask may be coated with a film forming latex layer on its outside surface or on its outside and its inside surface.
The mask may be manufactured in a suitable mold by a single molding and pressing operation. The manufacture is extremely simple and the manufacturing costs are correspondingly low.
A further object of the invention is the provision of an elongated tubular projection or chamber for the mounting therein of the exhaling valve, the air inlet, the filter tube or the filter.
The provision of this projection chamber does not complicate the manufacture of the mask as the same may be produced as one integral body including the protruding chamber and the tubular projection of the materials referred to above and only one molding and pressing operation is needed to manufacture the finished mask body.
As the chamber for mounting the exhaling valve and the air inlet passage is located directly in front of nose and mouth of the user the space being occupied by the mask isrestricted to a minimum.
It is a further object of the invention to construct the mask body in such a'manner as to proi'ide in the same mounting spaces or recesses for the accessory parts of the mask, such as the ex-- haling valve, the air inlet, the visors, the filter tube or the filter, without employment of the (Ustomary additional securing members.
truding chamber separate passages for the con- I nection of the protruding chamber with the source of filtered air and for the discharge of the exhaled air from the protruding chamber into the atmosphere.
According to a modification of my mask the upper part of the face is left uncovered.
A mask of the latter type will be particularly useful for the civilian population, as it incon- B encasing this chamber extends from a point vem'ences the bearer to a far lesser degree and still provides sumcient protection against gas attacks.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an exhaling valve which remains tightly sealed within the mask, has a minimum flow resistance and can be mounted in a comparatively small space.
A further important object of the invention is the provision of means for mounting the visors in the mask body.
It is also an object of the invention to provide a mold for the manufacture of my one-piece gas mask body integrally united with the protruding and the tubular elongated chamber referred to above. The expression mask body used in the course of this specification designates the face covering molded part without the above referred to accessory parts such as the exhaling valve, the visors and the filter or filter tube.
Further objects and advantages of my invention will be apparent from the following detailed description and the drawings accompanying the same of which Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a onepiece gas mask including the protruding chamber, the tubular elongated chamber and th visors,
Fig. 2 is a perspective inside view of the mask, the filter being removed,
Fig. 3 is a section on line 33 of Fig. 1, showing the air inlet and the exhaled air discharge openings provided in the mask body, the exhaling valve casing being omitted,
Fig. 4 is a section on line 44 of Fig. 1, showing the end portion of the mask body for the attachment of the filter,
Fig. 5 is a section on line 5-5 of Fig. 1, showing the device for mounting of the visors,
Fig. 6 is a plan view of Fig. 5 viewed in the direction of the arrow T,
Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view of a further modification of the mask,
Fig. 8 is a perspective view of the mask applied to the head of the user.
In the drawings A designates the main mask body so shaped as to tightly fit the face and the head of the wearer and to embrace a head chamber Aa, Fig. 2, located between the face of the mask user and the main mask body A. Elastic straps 2 are provided to secure the mask on the head of the user.
An important item of the present mask is the provision of chamber Bb, Fig. 2, protruding from the mask main body A towards the face of the user being preferably integral with the mask which is located on the nose bridge at a small .distance above the nose tip, runs downward on both sides of the nose wings, then along the naso-labial lines of the mouth and directly above the chin.
In this manner a chamber is created which upon application of the mask seals the respiration organs, namely the nostrils and the mouth against the residual inner space of the gas mask covering the face, the forehead and part of the head of the user.
The main body A of the gas mask transites at its lower end into the tubular elongated projection C which is preferably integral with the main body of the mask.
Projection C, Fig. 1, forms the mounting space for the exhaling valve 4, 5'for the air inlet 9 and the air filter 22 which may be replaced by a filter tube.
Exhaling valves for gas masks must comply with two vital requirements. They must have a tightly fitting seat within the mask body and they must offer a minimum of flow resistance. These two requirements being of somewhat-contradictory nature, a successful solution of the problem is rather difficult.
My exhaling valve complies with these requirements in a highly satisfactory manner. Furthermore, it needs a small mounting space and it can be manufactured in a simple and cheap manner.
The valve is positioned in part 3, Figs. 1 and 7, of projection C approximately at a place where the protruding chamber and projection chamber meet. It consists of two superimposed elastic discs 4, 5 which are connected with each other at several points of their rims only. Disc 4 is provided with a tubular member 6, Fig. 7, having a peripheral projection 6a.
A collar 1 of rigid material forming valve chamber 16 is located in the upper part 3 of projection C; it is provided with a cover 8 separating the air inlet passage 9 and the air discharge passage l0. Cover 8 carries a tubular projection l2 forming the valve seat and provided with a peripheral groove l2a which interengages with projection 6a.
Due to this construction of the valve exhaled air entering passage I0 passes between discs 4 and 5 and will spread them apart attheir periphery between the points where the discs are connected with each other so that the exhaled air can escape through the thus expanded openings.
If the air pressure exerted on the valve is reduced, the expanded openings are contracted and the two superimposed discs then form a seal.
The air discharged from the valve is conducted to openings l3 (Fig. 3) leading to the atmosphere.
The inlet passage 9, Figs. 1 and 7, of thefiltered air is formed by cylindrical member H of the mask body. Collar I is provided with a sleeve II which snugly fits over member I 4 when the collar is brought into its operating position. In order to further secure the collar in the mask body, particularly if the same is made of felt, sealing ring Ilia is provided. One end of the ring has a sealing lip-not shown in the drawings-which extends through an opening on the other end of the ring; by tightening the sealing clamp 25 (Fig. 4) are provided to secure the filter in the mask body.
A second modification of the gas mask is shown in Fi 3.
In this modification of the invention the main body of the mask does not extend over the forehead and head of the wearer; it reaches only to the nose bridge and leaves the upper part of the face free.
The face contacting border 20 of the mask body A extends from the nose downward over the two cheeks of the wearer and encloses the chin. The maskis connected at 24 with a pair of goggles 2|. Strips 2 are provided to hold the mask in position.
The support and the mounting of the visors in the main body of my improved gas mask is specifically shown in Fig. and Fig. 6.
For this purpose an annular casing 30 is provided having a groove 3|. Upon the visors 32 being inserted in the groove the hitherto straight edge section 33, shown in dotted lines in Fig. 5, is bent down upon the visors, whereby they are firmly held in casing 30. The latter is provided at its inner side with a dentated ring 34. After casing 30 has been pressed into opening 35 of projection 36 of the mask main body A, the edge of projection 36 hereby entering into a groove of casing 30 the casing is secured in its position by bending the teeth of the dentated ring 34 onto face 31 of the casing.
This casing is easily exchangeable and permits a simple replacement of the visors or eye glasses. It assures a tight fitting in the projection 36 of the gas mask body A and offers no protruding parts where poisonous gas might infiltrate.
The mounting of the exhaling valve carrying collar 1 in projection C is accomplished in the following manner:
The valve 4, 5 is pressed over tube I! of collar 1. The main body of the mask is turned inside out in order to open up the valve chamber and to create a free access thereto. Hereupon, the collar 1 including the exhaling valve is pressed into the valve chamber whereby annular projection 40 of the mask body A enters into groove of the collar. Now the main body of the mask is returned in its original shape and the projections 42, 43 of the mask body slip over the collar.
A firm and tight fitting seat of the exhaling valve is hereby obtained and a minimum of fiow resistance is created for the exhaled air which is directly conducted into passage I0 fiows through the valve and passes through openings [3 into the atmosphere.
In order to mount the visor casing 30 in the projecting part 36 of the mask body A the visors 32 are inserted into the front groove 3|; hereupon, the edge section 33 is pressed upon the visors. The casing is then pressed into opening 35 whereby the border section of projection 36 enters into a peripheral groove of casing 30. Hereupon the teeth of the dentated ring 34 are pressed down on face 31 of casing 30.
The invention also comprises a mold for the manufacture of my improved gas mask body from elastic and plastic materials such as vulcanized caoutchouc or synthetic resins, which mold may also be used for the manufacture of other moldable articles.
By the application of my new mold the difficulties are obviated which are hitherto experienced in the employment of steam or electrically heated molds.
As generally known the steam heated molds used for the manufacture of articles from plastic materials are very heavy and the heating of the molds to the required operating temperature requires an extremely long time, e. g. 20 to 30 minutes for the manufacture of gas mask bodies of the present type.
If molds are used which are heated by electrical resistance, a plurality of resistors is required in conformity with the varying thickness of the layers to be molded or of the caoutchouc to be vulcanized.
This application of resistors of different heating capacity is difficult and tiresome as each register must be individually placed in the metal of the mold parts and in the main and auxiliary cores which must be accurately positioned in the vicinity of the sections of the article to be molded and heated.
Furthermore, it has been found that the resistors the handling of which creates losses of time and labor lose their original heating efiiciency already after several weeks of use.. The resistors must then be replaced.
Naturally, the price of the molded articles, for instance the rubber gas mask body is correspondingly increased.
It is the purpose of my invention to avoid these drawbacks particularly in the manufacture of gas mask bodies from plastic elastic materials such as vulcanized caoutchouc.
It is a further object of my invention to reduce the weight of the molded rubber mask, to simplify and greatly accelerate the molding procedure and to reduce the molding time.
The duration of the heating time for the vulcanisation of the mask body referred to previously may be reduced by my improved mold to approximately 5 minutes for the manufacture of masks of the present type.
With these objects in view the heating of the mold sections or parts is effected in accordance with my invention by a liquid heating medium such as hot oil or other suitable heated liquids.
For this purpose cavities and hollow spaces are provided in the mold parts and in the main and auxiliary cores which cavities have a suitable form and volume in accordance with the parts of the gas mask to be heated and vulcanized.
These cavities are filled with the heating liquid such as oil. They are provided with fill-openings of suitable shape, these openings being located at the outside of the mold and the cores in such a manner that the oil is prevented from flowing out through the fill openings. Stoppers or other closing means may be provided to close the openings.
The heating of the heating fluid charged into the cavities of the mold parts or of the cores may be accomplished in different ways, for instance by circulating or thermo-syphoning methods or by means of electrical resistors which are directly inserted into the heating liquid whereby the position of the resistors may be permanently fixed or the resistors may be removable.
For the manufacture of a one-piece gas mask from vulcanized caoutchouc according to my invention the mold may be mounted on a horizontal press in such a manner that the two mold shells are integral with the press plates which latter are displaceable in relation to each other on the main core. This core is secured between the two plates in such a manner as to permit the positioning and the closure of the mold and the pouring of the caoutchouc to be molded and vulcanized by the mould shell. The heating of the mold and of the cores is effected by hot oil in the manner referred to above and by insertion of electrical resistors into the oil, the heat being conducted from the oil to the mould shells.
Various changes and modifications may be made to the details of construction of the invention without departing from the broader spirit and scope thereof, as set forth in the following claim.
A protective gas mask consisting of felt with a film forming latex layer and superimposed by a rubber layer.
HERBERT J. HERIBERT.