US 2308650 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 19, 1943. G, DESAGNAT 2,308,650
DECORATIVE WALL COVEBINU Filed Feb. l2, 1941 BY f Z @l N 7L/4MM@ ATTORNEYS Y plane or Patented Jan. 19, 1943 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE :,sossso nscoaa'rxva WALL covaamc Gaston Desatnlt, New York, N. Y. Anuman Ferma-y lz, 1941, serial No. 378,589
4 claims. (ci. zz-z2) The present invention, relates primarily to wall or other surface covering of the type comprising hard or rigid decorative facing material such as glass, tile, marble, porcelain or the like, for curved surfaces, whether concave or convex, for instance, walls, ceilings and like plane or curved interior or exterior surfaces.
Among the objects of the invention are to provide a durable covering of the above type, which shall be highly ornamental in appearance,
Vand which'may be fabricated and installed at small expense.
Another object kis to provide a covering of the character referred to, which includes a supporting or backing fabric that readily conforms to irregularities in the wall structure without detachment thereof from the rigid facing.
Another object is to provide such covering, the backing of which admits of relative displacement longitudinally and transversely for adaptation to irregularities in the wall andjto effect proper registry, which displacement may be of magnitude considerably greater than the inherent distendability of the backing fabric itself.
The invention in the various embodiments disclosed in the present application is concerned essentially with modifications or variants of the subject matter of my prior Patent No. 1,930,740 of October 17, 1933, reissued under No. 21,313 on January 2. 1940: and of-my prior Patent No. 1,976,986 of October 16, 1934, reissued under No. l21,285v on December 5, 1939.
In the accompanying drawing in which are shown one or more of various possible embodiments of the several features of the invention:
' Fig. 1 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale showing the corner of one embodiment of the invention, part of the hard facing being shown broken away moreclearly to disclose the structure ofthe backing material,
Fig. 2 is'a fragmentary transverse sectional view on a larger scale, along the line 2--2 of Fig. 1, showing the wall covering in installed relation,
Fig. l3 is a perspective view of the rear face of the decorative wall covering with an alternating form of backing, l
Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary detail in section on line 4-4 of Fig. 3, i
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, showing the dlstension of the covering, and resultant separation of the facing blocks,
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary rear perspective view of the embodiment of Fig. 3 showing the manner .in which the distension of Fig. 5 occurs,
Fig. 7 is a rear perspective view'with parts broken away, showing a modified form of the invention,
Fig. 8 Vis a sectional view showing one step in the method' of preparing the embodiment of Fig. 7,
Fig. 9 is a perspective view showing a further step in said method, and
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view showing the embodiment of Figs. 7 to 9 installed.
Referring now to the drawing, there is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 covering material involving a decorative rigid plate I0 of' glass or the like prepared as an article of manufacture, with a backing of a particular material characterized by low cost, softness and felting properties and especially useful in mounting panels of the prepared decorative article, such as glass upon wall structures that may not' be absolutely plane but may present minute waves or irregularities.
The inexpensive fabric is ribbed in character and comprises a'set of parallel relatively thicker untwisted strands I I which may be of inexpensive short-fiber cotton or the like with a series of relatively thin transverse threads or strands I2 interwoven thereacross.
The decorative rigid cover plate I0 is adhesively secured to the face of the backing, preferably by meansy of a coating of water soluble glue. Desirably, this glue is a mixture in an aqueous carrier of casein and a filler that imparts a porous character to the dried glue, the degree of porosity depending upon the proportion of filler used. The filler is desirably calcium carbonate, but other fillers such as lithopone, titanium oxide, clay and the like may be utilized to advantage.
The glue is brushed or spread upon the back of the glass or other rigid covering material, whereupon the fabric is laid over it and then the assembly is dried, desirably in an oven at about degrees C. for about one hour. In the gluing operation, the water solvent of the glue may penetrate by capillary action through the fabric backing, but the adhesive ingredient by reason of its colloidal nature, will effectively be retalned'substantially at the outer face of the backing and in contact with the rigid covering. The water wetting through the backing will readily evaporate in the drying oven to leave said backing clean, dry, soft, supple and capillary, thereby to present a large surface for bonding thereto of the mastic Il used for applying said backing to wall W, for effecting secure attachment. Mastic of conventional type may be emto the joints or edges of the tiles.
ployed, made of a good quality of oil, admixed preferably with zinc oxide, white lead and calcium carbonate, and it is spread over the back face of the backing. which in application is then pressed against the wall. u
By reason of the porosity imparted to the Water soluble glue by its filler, the oil of the mastic will penetrate clear through such glue to the rear face' of the glass or other rigid covering material and thus render such water soluble glue thoroughly Waterproof. The casein type of glue is suitable as the bonding adhesive between the backing and the decorative covering, regardless of the character of the latter, whether its rear face be covered with paint, enamel, metal, metal foil or whether it be bare or uncoated.
Instead of the casein as the adhesive ingredient of the glue, liquid silicate of soda sometimes known as' water glass may be used where the rear surface of the hard decorative covering is bare or uncoated. The liquid silicate of soda glue would be admixed with filler of calcium carbonate, lithopone, titanium oxide, clay or the like, just as with the casein glue, and would be applied in the manner above described. The liquid silicate of soda appears to have some etching effect on glass and would, therefore, not be used with transparent or translucent glass, but its use would be recommended Where the glass, devoid of any coating on its rear surface, is opaque or nearly opaque or opaline in character, so that any such slight etching effect would not be visible through the exposed face of the glass. The decorative rigid cover plate l is, of course, converted into a panel assembly by any desirable method of cutting the plate into tiles or units, for instance, as disclosed in my prior patents referred to. A
The backing of the embodiment disclosed in Figs. 1 and,2 has adequate compressibility to conform to the minor irregularities in the wall structure and yet when compressed by force exerted against the hard decorative material presents a relatively flat front face for the substantially mathematically plane rigid back of the latter. 'I'he backing also affords yield under shock, vibration or expansion between the front face thereof to which the hard front panel is affixed and the rear face at which it is secured to the wall.
In the embodiment of Figs. 3 to 6 the de corative covering is in the form of -a panel of tiles similar to those disclosed in my prior patents above identified, said tiles being desirably square or rectangular in form. The backing in this embodiment is made of any of a wide variety of woven fabrics, the weft and warp strands of which are Ihowever in bias relation with respect 2| and 22 respectively as shown, desirably extend at an angle of 45 relative to the tile joints or edges 23. While any of a wide variety of woven fabrics is suitable for the intended purpose it is generally preferred to use swanskin or canton flannel which is a cotton fabric having a substantial nappe 24 on one or both of its faces.
The tiles are desirably attached to the backing of this embodiment by the same water soluble cement used in the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2J so as to maintain the dry soft capillary character of the nappe exposed at the rear and thereby afford a large superficial area of contact with respect tothe mastic used for securing the covering to the wall.
While the tiles may be individually applied, lit is 'ordinarily preferred to secure a continuous Said strands` individual tiles may be produced by cutting and y grinding in substantially the same manner as the panels of glass. For instance, after a large size sheet has been attached to the supporting fabric, the plate may be broken along lines delineating the individual tiles, such lines having been imparted to the plate in the course of fabrication of such plate.
By reason of the bias relation set forth ofthe backing strands 2| and 22 with respect tothe edges or joints of the tiles, the length of strands intervening between adjacent edges 23' and 232 of contiguous tiles is over 40% greater than if the strands ran parallel to the edges of the tiles.
To that extent, at least, the distendability of the fabric is enhanced (even disregarding the inherent' extensibility of the threads), since the strands may under tension be displaced in the gaps between the tiles to substantial parallelism with thertile joints and this will occur without impairing the security of the bond of the individual tiles with respect to the backing.
Such distentlon of the panel will be uniform at the various parallel joints between the rows of tiles making up the panel so that the decorative appearance of the installed covering will not be impaired as it would be were the spacing between tiles rendered non-uniform by any such distentlon.
In Fig. 6 is clearly shown the mode of relative displacement of rows of tiles, to involve both relative separation and relative longitudinal shifting as suggested by the arrows. As appears in this figure, when the panel is distorted, the strands in the interval between adjacent tiles change their inclination relative -to those portions thereof that are rigidly alxed to the surfaces of the tiles. The desired relative separation or longitudinal displacement of the tiles is thus effected, without loosening of the tiles from their backing.
In addition to the adaptability just set forth. it will be noted that by reason of the relatively thick-napped character of the canton annel or similar material used, the same has felting char-y acteristics to permit compression for conformation to irregularities or waviness in the wall structure.
In the embodiment of Figs. 7 to 10 the backing material l0 may be of paper. desirably of kraft paper. 'I'his paper is prepared with perforations extending in longitudinal and transverse rows, the respective rows being spaced to circumscribe the various areas of tile to be i affixed thereon. As shown in Fig. 7, perforatiles, the perforated paper ridges forming minute folds as at 33 between adjacent'tlles. The mastic 34 penetrates through the apertures 3| in the application to the wall and fills the intervals between adjacent tiles, the mastic also penetrating through apertures 3l' in the back of the tiles for enhanced security of mount thereof upon the Wall.
A desirable method for fabricating the decorative covering embodiment of Fig. 'l is shown in Figs. 8 and 9. According to this embodiment a platform 40 is employed with .a series of parallel longitudinal grooves 4l transversed by a corresponding series of transverse grooves l2 determining rectangular 4areas corresponding to 15 the sizes of tile. The .backing of strong paie.' such as kraft paper or the like is laid upon the platform with respective lines of perforations 3l preferably, but not necessarily, aligned with the troughs of the grooves and the barking material is pressed, as for instance by means of a ribbed die 43 to extend'in fold lines along such perforations into the recesses o! the respective grooves. The linesof perfoiatioris 3l, if aligned with thegtroughs of the grooves, enhance the penetrationof the mastic tothe spaces between adjacent tiles, but equally good results are secured without the necessity of aligning such perforations` to be immediately below the grooves. A flat continuous panel M of glass or other hard decorative material is adhesively secured to the exposed face of the backing mounted in the manner set forth in connection with the embodiment of Figs. land 2, and shown in Fig. 9. Thereupon the panel is. cut with a bevelling tool, if desired, longitudinally and transversely at 45 along the lines determined by lgrooves Il and I2, to divide the sameinto the desired tiles. Upon removal from the platform of the structure thus prepared and distending the same to flatten out the folds of backing material lthat had entered the grooves 4I and 42, the tiles will become separated longitudinally and transversely, resulting inthe product shown in Fig. 7 and previously described.
While a Lacking of paper or like material of close texture, and desirably of some capillarity has been illustratively shown, it will be understood` that other backing materials of low cost may be applied by the method shown in Figs. 8 and 9. Where material of openv texture or open mesh such for instance as muslin is employed, additional perforations such as those at 3| are not required.
While in the embodiment of Figs. l and 2, the backing material has been shown applied to a continuous or uninterrupted rigid panel facing and therefore would not be subjected in the course loi installation to longitudinal or transverse distension, it is to be understood that the backing material showny in Figs. 1 and 2, if made of a sumciently good quality of fiber for uniform distensibility. could be used advantageously asvthebackin'g for a covering structure such as that shown in the tiled embodiment -of Fig. 3'. I
The water soluble glue herein specified for attaching the decorative rigidA facing to the flexiblelbacking, and thewaterfproof, mastic specined forsecuring the vbacking of the article to thewall cooperate-to particular advantage where they are used in connection 'with the combination set forth and claimed in my prior Patent No. 1,976,986, reissued Decembei'f, 1939, as Re. No. 21,285. 'Where-the loose texture backing claim as new and material of tricot or the like specied in said prior patent is employed, thewater-proof mastic will eompletely'permeateand penetrate the backing as the covering material Ais applied to the wall, and ywill even penetrate through the water soluble glue and render entirely water-proof the bonding between the backing and the rigid facing.
My novel ydecorative material has a very extensive practical application for use. in exteriors, for instance, as store fronts and the like, where it is subject to the elements. -'A substantial waterproof installation is secured by reason of the permanent character of the bond'betweenl the decorative material and backing on the one hand, and lbetween the composite decorative4 coating and the surface to which it is applied by mastic, on the other hand, such bonds being capable of withstanding not only the ordinary effects of rain, sleet, and snow, but the infiuence'of other atmospheric constituents that may be produced by gases, fumes, and vapors. whether alkaline or acidic. i
As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently widely different embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope of the claims. it isintendd that `all matter contained in the above description ox" shown in', the accompanying drawing shall be interpretadas illustrative and not in. allimiting sense.
Having thusdescribcd'my invention, what I t is 4desire to secure by Letters Paten 1. A decorative covering structure adapted to be directly secured to a wall or other surface..
comprising a plate of rigid material and a ilexible backing sheet to which saidplate is glued by water soluble cement," said plate being constituted of a multiplicityof spaced units in jointed relation, said backing sheet being inherently of small distendibility' longitudinally and transl versely` thereofl and havingv exposed portions thereof. extensible longitudimlly and transversely in the regions between neighboring edges of adJacent units, to a sumcicnt degree to permit elongation of the covering structure and corre'- sponding separation between adjacent units.
2. A decorative covering structure adapted to be directly secured .to a wall or .other surface comprising a rigid plate and a exible backing sheet to which said Plate is glued. said plate being constituted of a multiplicity of units in iointed relation, said backing comprising a, flexible wovenfabric, the various strands longitudinally and transversely of said fabric extending on the bias with respect to the edges of said units,- said units throughout the rear surfaces thereof being rigidly secured to said fabric, whereby. by reason of v the bias direction ci the strands tbe'covering direction of the unit edges.
3. A decorative ,coverinsistructure adapted to vbe directly secured to a wall or other surface.
comprising a rigid plate cada iiexlbie backing sheet -tc which sus 4parte is glued, said plate being constitutedof'a multiplicity of unitsin jointed relation, said backing sheet beingof flexible but substantially nonedistendiblematerial, the backing material .having folds intermediate the neighboring longitudinai and .transverswcdxesof adiant units. Iwhereby to `unire extra-mm1 in said non-distendible material .to permit slight change in thefcourse of installation in the l niacin!r between adiacsitimi. y-f;
'4. method iii-:calunnia minions a decorative surface covering of the type including a iiexible fabric backing having hard decorative facing tiles thereon, which consists in spreading water soluble glue with porous mier in an aqueous carrier upon the rear surface of the facing material, laying the fabric thereover and drying the assembly under heat, whereby the water constituent of the glue that penetrates the backing fabric is evaporated. leaving said fabric clean,
supple and porous save for the outer surface 10 thereof that adheres to the facing, applying waterproof mastic to the rear face o! the backing and pressing the covering against the surface to be covered, whereby the mastic will penetrate the backing as well as the porous water soluble glue at the outer face thereof, thereby rendering waterproof the fabric of the backing as well as the water soluble glue thereon.