US 2309722 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
. Patented Feb. 2, 1,943;
UNlTED STATES PATENT-L OFFICE 'ronn'r PREPARATION Benjamin a. Wilkes and Helen a. warm, rm;-
burgh, Pa., assignors to Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation, a corporation of New York No Drawing. Application August'3, 1940,
Serial No. 351,196
8 Claims. (01.167 91) This invention relates to toilet preparations comprising polyalkylene' glycols.
The commonly used hairdressing preparations are oleaginous in nature, as illustrated by semisolid pomades" containing hydrocarbon greases and oils, or by liquid preparations in which min.- eral and vegetable oils are incorporated, usually 1,2 alkylen'e oxides as ethylene oxide and propylethylene glycol and 1,2 propylene oxide may be in a medium containing a large proportion of a1 cohol. Such oily constituents must be applied with considerable care to avoid excessive amounts. Otherwise, there may be imparted elements of stickiness, greasiness and'sheen which ordinarily are not considered desirable. In order to distribute these oily materials uniformly over the hair, without using excessive quantities, it is customary to apply them in the form of very di-v lute solutions. rials are insoluble in water, it, is necessary to employ solvent media of which a considerable part is alcohol, or other suitably active solvent. A further disadvantage of such "oily preparations is that they can not be removed from the hair between successive applications except by shampooing or other detergent processes.
7 In order to counteract drying of the hair as a result of permanent waving treatment or operations, oil is also added to the permanent waving solutions. The alkalinity necessary in permanent waving solutions, seems to remove or modify chemically some of the natural oils during the heating process, leaving the .hair harsh and dried. Only comparatively small amounts of oil can be used, however, because the oil seems to retard the curling of the hair.
Glycerol, glycols and the ethyl ether of diethylene glycol are commonly used in hand 10- tions or face creams as softening agents. These solvents unless used in relatively small amounts and rubbed thoroughly into the skin produce an undesirable moist or tacky feeling on the skin because of the hygroscopic nature. of such solvents.
We have found that the foregoing objections and disadvantages are substantially eliminated, and that improved cosmetic preparations result from the use of the relatively high molecular weight members of the polyalkylene glycols and especially those polyoxyalkylene glycols of the 1,2 series containing not more than three carbon atoms to the oxyalkylene radical and having an average molecular weight not less than about- 400. The polyoxyalkylene glycols, orpolyalkylene glycols, which are used in the compositions of the present invention may be represented by the following formula:
mocnn non Because these oleaginous mate- 'reacted with propylene glycol to give a polyoxycontaining polyethylene glycols dissolved in water or aqueous alcohol control the hair in deflsirable physical fashion and impart thereto a well groomed appearance without such objectionable features as excessive stickiness or oily appearance. Because of their complete solubility in water, these dressing constituents can readily be applied to the hair and uniformly distributed without the use of organic solvents. They can be removed from the hair without employing detergents.
. A new "permanent" is usually required or de-.
sired before the waves of a previous permanen have been entirely removed by growth of the hair. Polyalkylene glycols may be applied directly to the ends of such hair to prevent the extreme drying effect of the recurling operation as well as to avoid too tight a curl. I
Vegetable oils, lanolin, and various other materials are commonly used in creams, liquid face powders and the like for the purpose of softening and conditioning the skin. We have found that polyalkylene glycols can be used in place of, and in addition to, such substances, and the resulting products are superior in the desired properties of softening and smoothing the skin.
A further advantage of the polyalkylene glycols storage over prolonged-periods of time without the occurrence of the separation of an oil phase.
Unlike vegetable oils, they do not develop rancidity.
Example I I the hair in the form of a 2.5% and a 5% solution in water and in a aqueous alcohol (50% alcohol) solution, respectively. These preparations were found to give very desirable grooming action without imparting greasiness or excessive sheen. Daily applications were made over prolonged perlods of time without the appearance 01' any objectionable effects.
Polyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight of about 1500 is a semi-solid substance of petrolatum-like consistency, having a relatively low order of hygroscopicity. Polyethylene glycols of lower molecular weight are also suitable for use in accordance with the present invention, although polyethylene glycols 'of about 1500 average molecular weight, or higher, are preferred because of their non-hygroscopicity. The relatively greater hygroscopicity of the lower members of this series of compounds introduces an element of stickiness, by reason of .water absorption and retention, which is considered to be less desirable in the film-forming constituent of a hair dressing. For a hairdressing preparation the averagemolecular weight should not be substantially less than 400.
Polyethylene glycols having an average molecular weight of about 4000 and higher are waxysolids which tend to flake off the hair unlessplasticized with a suitably compatible and watersoluble material,
The polypropylene glycols may also be used. Those having an average molecular weight of about 500 or more are relatively water insoluble, and are preferably applied as hair dressings from aqueous solutions containing a sufllcient proportion of ethanol, dlethylene' glycol monoethyl is insoluble at about 95 F. or above.
ether, or other water-soluble solvent of relatively low hygroscopicity, suitable for dermal application, to insure physical homogeneity.
Example II The water solubility of the polyethylene glycols gives them a decided advantage over theuse ofoils for this purpose because the polyethylene glycols are readily rinsed from the hair as desired.
Example III About three ounces of polyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight of about 4000 was added to about a gallon of a permanent waying solution having the necessary alkalinity. The addition of the polyethylene glycol prevented the hair from becoming dry during the heating and assisted in the curling process, rather than retarding it, as does the addition of oil. The hair was curled tighter in the usual heating time in one of the waves, and curled as desired in other waves by decreasing the length of the heating time. In each wave, where the polyethylene glycol was used in the permanent waving solution the curled hair was soft and sufllciently pliable to be set in a broad wave by the fingers even where it had originally been curled tighter than was desired. Ordinarily, in permanent waving operations, the hair will not finger wave as desired but springs back into small waves. Polyethylene glycols of average molecular weight less than 4000 are also suitable for use but the average molecular weight should not be lower than about 400. A polyethylene glycol of petrolatum-like consistency, having an average molecular weight of about 1500, is preferred however.
having a viscosity of about 420 Saybolt seconds 7 at 78 F. was added to about a gallon of hair waving solution having a suitable alkalinity to give a mixture of the following composition:
Polypropylene glycol fiuid ounce- 3.0
Sodium sulfatederivatlve of 3,9-diethyl tri-' decanol-6 ....do-- 0.1
Aqueous morphollne solution (16%% morpholine) to make..- ..gallon 1 This polypropylene glycol having an average molecular weight of about 400 is soluble in water at room temperature (about 65 to F.) but On heating the hair during the waving, this polypropylene glycol was thrown out of solution and was more readily taken up by the hair. The curled hair was soft and pliable. This solution is particularly suited for waving dry hair because it not only prevented the hair from becoming drier but the curled hair seemed to be even less dry than it. was prior to waving. Polypropylene glycols of higher and lower viscosities may also be employed, but those having properties substantially identical with those of the above polypropylene glycol are preferred, however.
Example V Cosmetic preparations for softening and conditioning the skin were prepared as follows:
Vanish- Cleans inB ing cream cream Pound: Pounds Stearlc acid 50. 0 29.0 Polyethylene glycol (average molecular weight about 4000) 8. 0 Triethenolamine... 3.8 Mineral oil (white) 50, 0 Diethylene glycol monoethyl other. 10. 0 Water 100, 0 Perfume...
These products were found to effect improved softening and conditioning of the skin. The presence of polyalkylene glycols in the vanishing cream formulation imparted a more desirable consistency or body thereto and improved its behavoir as a powder base. The cleansing cream functioned in excellent manner for its intended purpose and was distinguished by a less pronounced sensation of residual "oilness on the skin following its removal therefrom with cleansing tissue in the conventional manner. Polyalkylene glycols having a molecular weight of about 1500 or lower may also be used with good results but the average molecular weight should not be substantially below about 400. Excellent results have been obtained with the polyethylene glycol present in amounts from about 3% to about 15% by weight, although other quantities may be used.
Example VI Hand lotions were prepared as follows:
Emul- Mucilag' sion lnous W0 WP Stearic acid 15.0 Mineral all (white) ,Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. 25.
Quince seed mueilage l7. 5 40. 0 Polyethylene glycol (average molecular a ght bout 4000) g 2. 5 26.0 5.0 380. 0 25. 0
These products were found to soften and smooth badly chapped hands, and to keep the hands in excellent condition without any undesirable moist feeling. Although other amounts of polyalkylene glycols may be used, from about 1% to by weight gives good results.
Example VII A liquid powder was made by stirring face powder into an aqueous solution containing about of polyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight of about 4000. When the re- I sulting product was applied to the skin, an even film of powder was obtained that adhered well without having a caked appearance. The product produced a more even film of powder which dried more readily with better adherence of the powder and without the undesirable moistness caused by the hygroscopic solvents, as is the case with other liquid powders usually containing alcohol and glycerine.
The polyalkylene glycols used in the compositions of the present invention may be made by sodium hydroxide catalyzed reactions. In the hair dressing preparations the polyethylene glycols of a petrolatum-like consistency are preferred because they have a low order of hygroscopicity and are sufficiently plastic to remain on the hair when dry. To these polyethylene glycols of petrolatum-like consistency which are preferred in the hair dressing preparations, a theoretical or calculated average molecular weight of about 1500 has been assigned.
The invention is susceptible of modification within the scope of the appended claims.
1. A toilet preparation for dermal application containing as an essential ingredient a polyoxyalkylene glycol of the 1,2 series containing not more than three carbon atoms in each oxyalkylene radical, said polyoxyalkylene glycol having an average molecular weight not less than about 400.
.2. An aqueous hair dressing composition containing as an essential ingredient a substantially water-soluble polyoxyalkylene glycol of the 1,2 series containing not more than three carbon atoms in each oxyalkylene radical, said polyoxyalkylene glycol having an average molecular weight not substantially below about 400.
3. An aqueous hair dressing composition containing as an essential ingredient for softening and conditioning the hair a polyoxyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight about 400 to 4000.
4. An aqueous hair dressing composition containing as an essential ingredient for softening and conditioning the hair a polyoxyethylene glycolmhaving an average molecular weight about 15 5. A cosmetic cream for softening and conditioning the skin which contains as an essential ingredient a substantially water-soluble polyoxyalkylene glycol of the 1,2 series containing not more than three carbon atoms in each oxyalkylene radical, said polyoxyalkylene glycol having an average molecular weight not less than about 400.
6. A cosmetic cream for softening and conditioning the skin which contains about 3 to 15 per cent by weight of a polyoxyethylene glycol of petrolatum-like or wax-like consistency, said polyoxyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight not less than about 1500.
'7. A skin lotion containing as an essential ingredient for conditioning the skin a substantially water-soluble polyoxyalkylene glycol of the 1,2 series containing not more than three carbon atoms in each oxyalkylene radical, said polyoxyalkylene glycol having an average molecular weight not less than about 400.
8. An aqueous skin lotion containing about 1 to 10 per cent by weight of a polyoxyethylene glycol of petrolatum-like or wax-like consistency,
40 said polyoxyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight not less than about 1500.
BENJAMIN G. WILKES HELEN E. WASSELL.