US 2310965 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 16, 1943. A. LEAVY ET AL FLOCKED MATERIAL Filed 001;. 21, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet l U I N VEN TOR.
ABRAHAM LEA vy BY JOSEPH IPPOL/TO yam A TTORNEYS.
msgm ii Feb. 16, 1943.
A. LEAVY ET FLOCKED MATERIAL Filed Oct. 21, 1933 :5 Sheets-Shet 2 A. LEAVY ETAL Feb. 16, 1943.,
FLOCKED MATERIAL 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. 21, 1939 IN VEN TOR. ABRAHAM LEA W J05EPH lPPOL/TO. W M
Patented Feb. 16, 1943 FLOCKED MATERIAL Abraham Leavy, New York, N. Y., and Joseph Ippollto, Paterson, N. J.
Application October 21, 1939, Serial No. 300,678
This invention relates to flocking and flocked materials, and more particularly to a method of flocking and a flocked material which will have a pleasing design and conformation which will be flexible and readily bendable, and which will lend itself to many ornamental and utiltarian uses.
In the flocking of lint or short fibers of various kinds upon another material, it has been necessary usually to choose as the base material a relatively stiff member. The process in the past usually involved the coating of the base member with an adhesive and the sifting of the flocking material thereon. When the adhesive dried and the flocking material consisting of short fibers was thereby fastened to the base material, then a sheet was thereby produced having a composite surface laminated thereto, said surface consisting of a series of small fibers.
Ornamental effects were very diiiicult to obtain and if obtained at all, were usually created through embossing or pressing through of the design on either surface of the composite sheet either during the process of manufacture or after the manufacture thereof. In addition, even where ornamental designs were placed by the flocking of material onto a base sheet, the continuous nature of the adhesive beneath the flocked design or ornamentation and the-necessity in the prior art that the adhesive be smeared on in the proper pattern necessarily made the sheet brittle when the adhesive dried. That is, although the adhesive was effective in causing the flocking material to adhere to the base sheet, it nevertheless made a brittle product when dried.
Thus, upon any flexing, the adhesive layer cracked and released particles of the flock. In flocked wall paper, or where any flexible base material was used, this constituted a serious dis-- advantage. In cases where the flocked material wasused for box coverings, and the flocked sheet had to be pasted on a box, then owing to the sharp corners and complex turns required, it was almost impossible for the flock to remain on the sheet, the brittleness of the adhesive causing the flock to crack and fall off.
An object of this invention, therefore, is to provide a novel method and means whereby ornamental designs may be flocked on a base material without interfering in any way with the flexibility or bendability thereof.
A further object of this invention is to provide a method and means whereby omamental designs may be flocked on a base material in a series of separated dots or small areas arranged for turning, bending, folding or twisting of the sheet without injury to the flock.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a novel flocked material having a base layer and a design flocked thereon, said flocked design being arranged from a series of small dots or areas juxtaposed in the desired relation to obtain the predetermined pattern.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a flocked design for a base sheet the composite of design and sheet forming together a suitable greeting card or wall paper or any other ornamental or useful patterned material.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a method and means for cutting flocked paper into segments or smaller areas from a con- .tinuous web, preferably wound on a reel.
Still further objects and uses of this invention will in part be apparent and in part pointed out in the following description and drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a plan view of a sheet of ornamental material having a flocked design thereon.
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a view showing a developed blank for formation or folding into a greeting card.
Figure 4 is a plan view showing the greeting card of Figure 3 folded up and ready to be cut to proper shape.
Figure 5 is a top plan view illustrating the process of cutting apart various greeting cards from the roll.
Figure 6 is a cross-sectional view on line 6-6 of Figure 5.
Figure 7 is a schematic illustration of the process by which the flocking design is applied to sheet material.
Figure 8 is a cross-sectional view on line 8-8 of Figure 7.
Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view on line 9-9 of Figure 7.
Referring now to Figure 1, there is here shown an arrangement suitable for use in connection with wall paper wherein the main sheet or base layer It has thereon a series of flocked dots II, I l separated from each other by readily definable although minute spaces [2, ii. The series of dots may be arranged in a pattern so that individual dots may be in juxtaposition to produce in ,the case oi wall paper, the base layer it may be of an ivory color and the paper thereof may be grained in various ways to produce pleasing patterns within the sheet but not necessarily dependent upon variations in shade.
The flocked dots I I may be of a cream colored material contrasting only slightly with the base layer. In such a case, even the relatively solid portions of the pattern M will be given a brilliance and life which will produce an unexpected result: that is, at some slight distance from the paper itself, the solid portion of the pattern and the minute portions of the underlying layer appearing between the dots at the more solid portion of the pattern will apparently merge, pro-' ducing a lively effect and, as in the case of wall paper, giving the appearance of a woven damask.
The base layer l in the case of wall paper may be an ordinary sheet of wall paper or other material ordinarily used in the formation of wall paper. The pattern applied or flocked thereon may consist of any material which is capable of reduction to extremely short fibers.
Thus, for instance, the material used for flocking may be cotton, wool or silk or any other type of-flber or may even be finely shredded paper, Cellophane, tinsel, powders, finely ground glass or any other shredded, granulated, powdered or fibrous material. Preferably in.the process of flocking. each of the individual fibers is caused to stand on end as far as possible so that each dot II will be a relatively compact mass approximately as thick as the length of each of the fibers and having a fuzzed surface.
This is better illustrated in the cross-sectional view of Figure 2 wherein it is seen that the aim in this process and in the article is to produce an ornamental design from a series of flocked dots which will nevertheless permit the paper and underlying sheet to retain all its initial flexibility even with the use of a relatively cheap adhesive.
reflecting power of its own over and above that of the ordinary plane sheet to which it is applied. The pattern when it is appliedin a' series of dots also has all of the composite brilliance, iridescence and light reflecting power of all of the individual dots which go to make up the pattern. Accordingly, the flocked article when finished will havea far more pleasing appearance than a similar design not arranged in dotted form or. thana plane flocked design which may have been pressed down or embossed upon a sheet.
The contrasting color, of course, need not necessarily be a contrasting shade of the same color but a base layer of red may be used, for instance, and a dotted pattern of blue or green, the contrast even in the solid portions producing a brilliant and pleasing eflect. Obviously,
also, this invention is not confined to wall Paper. but is limited only by the many uses to which a pleasingly designed flocked paper or other sheet material might be put.
We have found that with the dotted arrangement herein described, we have been able to form It should again be noted that while the flocked 'linear arrangement in order to produce an outline form. For this purpose, in the event that the line is to have some appearance of continuity, the dots should be as closely spaced as in the case of the apparently solid portion of the pattern, while on occasion it may be desirable merely to produce a dotted pattern in which case the dots may be suitably spaced from each other.
It should thus be noted that apparently solid or outline patterns may be created in a manner pleasing to the eye by the use of flocked material and nevertheless without making the sheet brittle. Obviously, also, the dotted efiect has its own advantages even apart from the fact that it permits a great deal of freedom in the working out of the design. Each of the individual flocked dots may, by the use of suitable material and by reason of the fact that it consists of a small segment of a sphere has a brilliance and light a greeting card by flocking a dotted design oi our invention upon the card producing whatever pictorial eflects and even whatever words are necessary by the flocking of fibrous material upon the base sheet.
Thus, for instance, in Figure 3 we have shown a developed blank 20 of a greeting card ready to be folded up into its final form. This blank consists of the sections 2|, 22, 23 and the back section 24. Suitable designs, ornaments or indicia may be applied by our flocking process to, for instance, areas 2| and 22 and a suitable message may be inscribed by our flocking process as, for instance, at the area 23. The card or sheet is thereafter preferably first folded along the dotted line 26 which is defined by the flocked dots 28 and 21 and is thereafter folded along the dotted line 28 which is defined by the flocked dots 29 and 3| so that the area 24 becomes the back of the little booklet formed by the greeting card blank, the area 2| being the cover and the areas 22 and 23 being the inside pages. Thereafter, any unevennesses of the edges as seen in Figure 4 may be trimmed away by cutting along the lines indicated by the dotted lines, 2| and 3|a.
For this purpose, the entire sheet may be made larger in size than that of the ultimate sheet, the'folded edges 2! and 28, Figure 4;, may be placed in a suitable corner guide of a cutting machine and suitable cutters at a predetermined spacing may be utilized to out along the lines 3| and Mo to even up the edges.
As will be noted, the guide dots 28 and 21 and 2| and 30 may be flocked on to the card in the process of manufacture thereof. They may be formed as small as is consistent with visibility thereof by the operator performing the folding operation. Since they are completely insignificant, they will not mar the appearance of the finished card while they provide an unerring guide to the proper folding of the card and are preferably placedupon the blank of the card by means of the same stencil or other arrangement Q as is used for the remainder of the design so that the design will always be in proper registration with the folding and guide dots. A180,) as is hereinafter pointed out, care is taken so that the design itself and the folding, cutting or guiding dots will always be as closely as possible in accurate registry with the edges of the sheet.
These dots as will be hereinafter pointed out perform a dual function in that in the original roll of paper from which the card of Figure 3 is cut, they provide a cutting indicator (as hereinafter described) while once the card is cut, they provide a folding indicator.
The use of the flocked dots of this type and in this manner in a greeting card is believed to be a novel application of the flocking process itself.
The dotting arrangement, in addition, with minute spaces in between makes it possible to create a greeting card which maybe sufficiently flexible to go through the mails and to be handled in theordinary and careless manner without breaking the design,the design itself no matter how solid it may be in appearance, actually being virtually as flexible as the sheet upon which it is placed.
While this invention has here been illustrated in connection with wall paper and in connection with a greeting card, it should be obvious that it may readily be applied to any sheet upon which a flocked design of this type may serve any useful or ornamental purpose.
Thus, it may be used for calendars, it may be used for wall pictures, it may be used for advertising purposes, it may be used for book covers, box covers, paper draperies, luncheon sets, lamp shades of, for instance, glassine paper, gift wrapplngs and other types of ornamental articles.
Suitable contrast of colors between the flocked dots and the background may be utilized to good advantage. Contrast of color, form or material may even be made among the flocked dots themselves.
In all of these cases, the formation of the dots and the light reflecting qualities thereof, the interposition of either a contrasting surface or color between the dots will all serve to lend a brilliance and life to a design which hitherto was unexpected and unlooked for in flocked materials.
In Figures 5 and 6, we have shown howth dots 29 and 30 and the dots 25 and 21 may be used not merely in guiding the fold of the finished greeting card but also in guiding the cutting of said card from the continuous roll of paper, a part of which it forms. By the process hereinafter described, the design for the card or for any other article is flocked onto a continuous sheet which may, when completed, be rolled up in finished form. Where the design is one (not like wall paper) which is to be cut apart into a series of separate cards or small sheets, guide markings 26 and 21 and 29 and 3|! are flocked onto the sheet preferably by the same stencil which applies the design itself. These guide markings are for the purpose of assisting the operator in registering the cutters 40 and H in proper relation with the sheet in order to cut substantially between the designs and so as not to cut across the designs. Each of the markings 26, 21, 29 and 30 consists preferably of four linearly arranged dots. When the finished sheet 50 is unwound from the roll 5|, and passes the longitudinal rotary cutter 40, the operator must make sure that the rotary cutter 40 always passes between the centermost of the four dots or indicia 26 and 21.
As long as two dots appear on each side of the knife 40, the operator is certain that the design is being cut apart properly in a longitudinal direction. As soon as three dots appear on one side of the knife, then the operator knows that the sheet has become slightly unbalanced on that side and can regulate either the cutter 40 or the sheet to compensate for this transverse movement so that the next set of dots 29 or 21 the cutter may be cut in such a manner that two dots appear on either side of the cutter. The designs are so spaced with respect to the guide dots that the slight variation from dot to dot will not affect the ultimate sheet while the use of four dots in this way assists the operator in determining when the sheet 50 and the knife 40 have begun to escape their proper alignment giving him time to readjust the alignment before it has become so inaccurate as to destroy the sheet.
Guide dots 29 and may be used in exactly the same manner. That is, after the sheet passes the cutter 40 which makes the longitudinal cut therein, it is necessary to cut the individual rectangles apart. For this purpose, an oscillatory knife 4| is employed which during the cutting stroke travels with the sheet 50 at the speed thereof and immediately after the cutting stroke is completed returns to the starting point to recommence the cutting stroke.
For this purpose, the knife may be oscillatory as shown or it may be a pair of knives mounted on opposed drums or it may be a single knife mounted on a drum and pressing against an opposed drum or it may have any other type of cutting mechanism which will cut the sheet transversely along a straight line preferably without interfering with the movement of the sheet.
Here again, the operator when he flnds that a transvers out has been made so that two dots of the indicia 29 and 30 appear on either side of the cut knows that his cutter 4| is exactly in registry' with the sheet and the speed thereof. In the event that he should flnd but one dot on either side of the cutter 4|, then he is able immediately to adjust the movement of the knife to compensate for this misalignment. Should he also find that but one of the dots of the 29-30 group A orr one side of the out while three dots of the 29-30 group B are on the same side of the out, then he knows that the cutting edge is not exactly at right angles to the direction of movement of the sheet and to the edges of the sheet, and is thus given an immediate indication of the type of adjustment necessary to obtain a correction.
In this way the dots 29 and 30 preferably flocked in place at the same time that the principal design is applied will serve to guide the cutting operator in the separation of individual cards or sheets from a principal sheet. As also was seen in connection with Figures 3 and 4, these same dots may be so placed as to thereafter serve as a guide for the folding operation should such a folding operation be necessary.
In this connection, while the dots 26 and 21, 29 and 30 are shown and described as flocked dots, and as having a particular utility in connection with the dot flocking principle of the present invention, this guide system may obviously be used in connection with other types of work. Thus, for instance, the dots 26, 21, 29 and 30 may be printed on or otherwise pencilled or marked onto a sheet which is later to be cut apart or out along said lines and will serve as an appropriate guide therefor.
While we have found in practice that four dots is the optimum number, any other number of dots may be utilized depending upon the accuracy of registry required for the particular purpose. Where four dots are used, then a slight inaccuracy resulting in the shifting of a single dot from one side to the other of a cut or split will immediately give an indication of the nature of the shift and the nature of the act required to correct it while at the same time leaving at least one dot on one side of the cut. The dots may be spaced closer together or further apart in accordance with the accuracy of alignment desired, and where several standards of accuracy may be utilized and where the out may vary from the center by a substantial degree without destroying the utility of the finished article, then a greater number than four dots may be used.
Likewise for further accuracy even a single dot may be used where the cut is required to intersect the dot or two dots may be used where the cut may be required to out between two or even three dots may be used. But-as herein pointed out, the use of four dots permits a determination of the fact that a deviation has occurred while at the same time leaving at least one dot on any ther operation (such as the folding operation) which may be required.
Obviously, any other guide dots or lines that are desired may be flocked on the paper, and the cutting dots need not necessarily be used as folding dots. I
In Figure 7 we have shown one process by which the flocked dots may be applied to the continual roll of paper sheet material. The paper I is led from the roll IOI past the guide and registering rolls I02, I00, I00. and I0! to the drum I06. Preferably the power is applied to the drum I00 and as seen, the paper I0! is guided by idlers I01, I00 and I00 in such-manner that it will be wrapped around a substantial portion of the surface of the drum I00. In order to obtain sufiicient traction, a rubber, felt, cotton, cloth or other fabric surface may be utilized on the drum I00. In the event that the mere friction between the felt surface of the drum I06 .the sheet IOI is not sufiicient to cause the sheet IOI to advance, then any suitable feed rollers may be applied in contact with the sheet and pressing it upon the drum I00, or suitable feed rollers or beltsmay be elsewhere provided.
' In order to obtain accurate registry of the sheet with the drum I00 and the stencil herein described so that the design and for instance the dots 20, 21, 20 and 00, (Figure may be applied in the proper manner, each of the rolls I02-I00 inclusive is a flanged roll as seen in Figure 9 having a cylindrical portion H0 and flanges III spaced from each other the exact width of the paper. The paper after having passed in zigzag f rmation as shown around the four cylinders is acc ately registered in alignment with the drum, especially since the cylinders and the flanges thereof are in the first instance 50 arranged that they are continuously in alignment with the drum.
'Each of the cylinders I02-I00 inclusive may be spring pressed into the position shown in Figure 7 in order to provide for accurate tension regulation upon the sheet and to insure that any laxity of tension in the sheet will not be the cause of disarrangement thereof.
For this purpose a drawback spring or clutch may be provided at the center of rotation N2 of the roll MI. 01 course the rolls I02 and I00 should be capable of movement in the up direc-,
tion and I03 and I05 capable of movement in the down direction to permit the threading through oi the paper I00. But after the paper has been particular side of the cut to provide for any furthreaded through these rolls, they should be preferably locked in such position that they exert a tension upon the paper I00. The sheeet I00 passes beneath the stencil roll III which is continuously fed with glue either manually or from a glue reservoir or glue source in a manner known in the art. The interior of the stencil roll has a stationary doctor III which insures that the glue therein will not rotate but will be forced out through the perforations in the stencil. The stencil wrapped around the roll III is perforated in the exact design which the paper I 00 is thereafter to carry. As the paper I00 passes beneath the stencil roll, the glue is forced out through the perforations onto the sheet so that immediately after the paper leaves the stencil roll, it carries thereon a dotted design consisting of adhesive dots, having the same size and being arranged in exactly the same manner as the ultimate design is .to take.
Thereafter, the paper I00 passes onto preferably a moving belt H0 which carries the sheet onwardly and without any reduction in speed. The belt IIO carries the paper beneath a hopper II! in which is contained the fibers IIO which are to form the flocked design. The fibers III are fed out from the bottom of the hopper I I0 through any openings therein as, for instance, a sieve onto the paper I00. The fibers may be caused to drop either by vibration of the hopper I I1 which will cause them to sift out or an auger may be used to drive the fibers out. But in any event the fibers which are to form the flocked design preferably are dropped or sifted down upon the whole of the paper which passes over the belt 0. e
In order to cause the fibers as far as possible to stand on end and to thereby become compact, a series of beaters I20 (operated, for instance, by the cam drive I20a or by a combination of springs and eccenters), is mounted beneath the belt causing the belt to vibrate and causing the fibers to rise or fluff up. The fibers obviously become attached to the sheet I00 only at those places where glue is applied and accordingly become attached .to the sheet in the exact pattern of perforations applied by the stencil. Obviously, of course, the belt may be shaken or vibrated 'in any suitable manner. Thus, although beaters I20 may be used, cams of various types may be used, and the rolls operating the belt may be shaken or vibrated in any suitable manner.
Thereafter, as the sheet continues to move along on its belt II6, it may pass a blower I2I or any other suitable means for removing the excess fibers or particles which have not become attached to the adhesive. In this way the dotted design may be fiocked onto the paper material. Thereafter the paper I00 as it comes oil. the belt in finished designed form may be i'estooned upon the rods 01' rollers I22 to dry and thereafter rolled up ready for use, for instance, as wall paper or ready for any additional processes which may be applied in connection with Figures ed upon the stationary shaft I26. The stencil roll preferably consists of two circular side members I30 and I3I which are connected together by the stencil sheet I32 having the predetermined design perforated therein. The disks I30 and I3I are separated from each other to be connected together only when the stencil is connected between them so that the disk I3I will rotate with the disk I30 only when the stencil connects the two. The stencil sheet I32 is fastened in place in any suitable manner as by soldering.
Since the disks I30 and I 3i are merely wheels mounted on spokes I40 which may be widely spaced, glue may be inserted into the roll through the spokes II as desired.
This of course illustrates merely one embodiment which the stencil roll may take. Its specific mounting is not as important as the relation thereof to the entire apparatus.
In order to obtain exactly synchronous rotation in connection with the speed of the paper IN, the stencil roll may be operated by a direct connection to the axis I35 of the power drum I". Thus, for instance, a pulley and belt connection I36, I31, I33 may be used and so proportioned that the circumferential speed of the stencil roll will be the same as that of the power drum I06. However, the traction of the paper against the stencil roll may also be relied upon to rotate it.
The apparatus and method herein described, as well as the product, obviously have many and varied uses. Its commercial importance cannot be underestimated. The flocking of paper from a continuous roll in such a manner that the paper may nevertheless be and remain flexible permits the avoidance of waste in the fabrication and preparation of a sheet which may later be cut to any desired dimensions. Because of the continuous nature of the flocking, the ultimate cost of the flocked material is so far reduced that as far as price is concerned, it may readily compete with medium priced ink printed fancy papers of various kinds.
The resemblance of the flocked design to petit point or embroidery increases its utility not only with respect to wall paper or greeting cards, but in the entire paper industry as a whole. It may be readily used for gift wrapping, box wraps and labels, display papers for windows, flocked paper window shades, flocked Cellophane for curtains or other purposes and flocked glassine paper for lamp shades or other purposes. This method, by its permitting of the printing of individual cards not in a separate manner as has heretofore been required, but in a continual sheet which may later be cut apart also increase the utility of this invention with respect to greeting cards and other types of cards or displays. The varied uses of this invention and the different ways in which it may be practised will now be obvious to those skilled in the art. Owing to the many forms, however, which this invention may take, we prefer to be limited not by the specific disclosures herein, but only by the appended claims.
1. A continuous sheet carrying an ornamental flocked sectional design, each section of said design being arranged within the boundaries of a segment to be cut from said sheet, a series of groups of flocked dots each linearly arranged, extending longitudinally of said sheet and defining a longitudinal boundary of a series of segments, a second series of groups of flocked dots extending along lines at an angle to said first series, each of said second groups being parallel to each other and defining a lateral boundary between adjacent segments, said dots being arranged to provide cutting guides for severing said sheet into predetermined individual segments.
2. A continuous sheet carrying an ornamental flocked sectional design, each section of said design being arranged within the boundaries of a segment to be out from said sheet, a series of groups of flocked dots each linearly arranged, extending longitudinally of said sheet and defining a longitudinal boundary of a series of segments, a second series of groups of flocked dots extending along lines at an angle to said first series, each of said second groups being parallel to each other and defining a lateral boundary between adjacent segments, said dots being arranged to provide cutting guides for severing said sheet into predetermined individual segments, the dots remaining on said segments when severed being also arranged to provide folding guides for said individual segments.
ABRAHAM LEAVY. JOSEPH IPPOLITO.